Brahma Kandha 28-29
– 28 –
On Reva and Prayer by Vishnu
1Parvati, in her previous birth, was the daughter of Daksha. (known as San) she was married to Rudra (lord Siva). But she gave up her fife by throwing herself in the sacrifice of Daksha. She was born of Menaka and Himavat, the lord of the mountains.
2Parvati became the consort of Rudra. That Varuni, the wife of Sesha, became the wife of Balabhadra in her second birth as Revati.
3Her second form was pervaded by Sri Lakshmi as a cloud is pervaded by water.
4Then Varuni, the wife of Sesha, practised penance in order toplease Lakshmi. Lakshmi being pleased spoke to Varuni, the consort of Sesha.
5-6“When Rama (Balarama) constituted of a part of Vishnu will be born as the son of Rohini, pervaded by me you will be born as Sri to be united with Balabhadra. Do not be worded over this. So, saying Lakshmi went to the region of Vishnu. Being a part of Lakshmi, she obtained the name Lakshmi.
7When Sesha, the lord of serpents, lifts up the earth on his hoods, the lord Vishnu is pleased to have copulation with her.
8Revati, the daughter of Raivata became the wife of Balabhadra along with Varuni and Saupama. The three out of the six are twice inferior to the wives of Vishnu and ten times inferior to Rudra, Sesha and oters.
9Garuda said: -Varuni was born as the daughter of Revata who became the wife of Balabhadra, (the brother of lord Krishna) Varuni, the wife of Sesha has three forms.
10Parvati, the wife of Rudra has two forms: Nila and Jambavati are at par with Sesha, this is what I hear.
11Please tell me the reason thereof, O lord. You have also said that Rudra is superior to Uma in several qualities. Please let me know your conclusive opinion on this point.
12-13(I have also heard that) Revati is pervaded by Sri. She is Varuni the wife of Sesha. The three-Revati, Supana and Parvati are superior to Sesha, O slayer of Madhu, this too I have heard in some quarters. O lord of good vows tell me the reason thereof. I am your disciple.
14-15Sri Krishna said: O lord of birds, to express the mutual superiority, inferiority or equality of Jambavati and others, I have used the term · ‘hundred per cent superior, hundred per cent inferior.
16O lord of birds, as I tell you, you should know it accordingly. O the noblest son of Kasyapa, now I shall tell you the lineage of Indra.
17-18Among the fourteen Indras, the seventh was called Purandara. The body of Vritra and those of his associates were caged Pura. Because he cleft their bodies with Vajra, Indra was called Purandara. Among the fourteen Indras Mantradyumna is the sixth.
19Because he explained the eight Vedic mantras and shed light on their meaning he was caged Mantradyumna.
20-21Arjuna, the son of Komi was the incarnation of Mantradyumna (Indra), Vishnu and Ananta. Among the four, Vayu was prominent Arjuna.
22-23The monkey lord Ball is also called Purandara. King Gadhi of the lunar race was also the incarnation of Mantradyumna. I He was the father of Visvamitra.
24The Vedic mantras are called Gahi. Since he understood them by his sharp intellect, he was called Gadhi. lie incarnated on earth for preserving the Vedas.
25Vikusi, the son of Iksvaku was the incarnation of Indra. He incarnated on earth for propitiating Hari. Hari was known as Vikukshi, for he realized Had in his heart.
26-27Kusa, the son of Rama Dasarathi was also Indra. Since he was created by sage Valmiki by means of Kusa grass he was named Kusa the son of Sita.
28Indradyumna, Purandara, Gadhi, Bali, Arjuna, Vikukshi and Kusa, these seven are Indras.
29Pradyumna, the son of Krishna was the incarnation of Kama (the cupid). He was called Pradyumna because he possessed excellent brilliance.
30Bharata, the younger brother of Rama was also the incarnation of cupid. He was called rata because he travelled on the footprints of king Bharata.
31-33Kama, the presiding deity of the disc, was homes Sudarsana. He was the son of Krishna and Jambavati. Samba the son of lord Krishna was also the incarnation of Kama. Skanda, the son of Rudra was also Kama. Since he overcame the enemies he is called Skanda. Sanatkumara, the son of Brahma, O lord of birds is the incarnation of Kama.
34Sudarsana, Pradyumna, liberate, Samba, Sanatkuinira, and Skanda these six are the incarnations of Kama (cupid).
35Indra and Kama are inferior to Uma, etc., by ten per cent. Between the two Kama is inferior to lndra.
36Prana (vital airs) is called Ahankara; it is a part of Garutmat. It is inferior to Kama and Indra by ten per cent.
37I shall now tell you about thesuccesso.rs of Kama, O lord of birds, hear attentively; the knowledge thereof leads to liberation from sins and effects the final release.
38Aniruddha, the son of Pradyumna the Kama incarnate, was born to attend upon lord Krishna, the younger brother of Rama was called Satrughna. He was so-called because he smote his enemies.
39-40Aniruddha was born of Pradyumna the son of Sri Krishna. Aniruddha was pervaded by the two, out of the three forms of Sankarshana.
41Rati, the Wife of Kama consists of two forms. Rukrinavati, the daughter of Rukina was the wife of Kama.
42By virtue of excessive brilliance she was called Rukmavati. Lakshana, the daughter of Duryodhana was Rati incarnate.
43Kashtha, the wife of Samba, was called Lakshana, for though born of wicked parents she possessed good qualities. Rati, the wife of Kama had two forms: one as the wife of Kama and the other as the wife of Samba.
44Svayambhuva Manu, at par with Brihaspati the preceptor of Devas, was the first son of the creator. He was born to propitiate lord Vishnu. He formulated laws of the state.
45Brhaspati, the preceptor of gods had three forms, O lord of birds. When Rama incarnated on earth he was born as Bharata. As such he was pervaded by Brahma.
46He took monkeys, the incarnations of Devas, across the ocean of life and death. He narrated the mighty exploits of lord Rama. He was known as Nara who incarnated to become absorbed in Rama.
47When lord Krishna incarnated on earth, Brihaspati, the preceptor of gods, incarnated as Drona. He was pervaded by the creator. As Brihaspati was born of Drona he was called Drona.
48Brihaspati incarnated as Uddhava. He was. pervaded by wind god in order to help the lord to relieve the earth of its burden and mankind of their suffering.
49As lord Hari is excellent among all, he obtained the name Budha. He became the friend of lord Krishna. The wise one was worshipped by all people.
50From the right thumb of Brahma was born Daksha. To him was born Lakshmi who became the wife of lord Vishnu. Since he, the Patriarch, gave birth to sons he was called Daksha.
51Know that Sad is the wife of India. Listen to her incarnations. When Rama descended on earth she was born as Tara. She became the wife of Bali and was called Sad.
52-54When Rama killed Bali, she became the wife of Sugriva. Thus, she was a sinner. Hence, she could not go to heaven. She continued moving in the ether till when the lord incarnated as Krishna on earth. She was born as Tara and became the wife of Vijaya. She was known as Pisangada. She wedded Pandava Arjuna to whom she bore a son Babhruvahana when Arjuna left her company. Tara and Citrangada are the incarnations of Saci.
55Pulomaja was the wife of Mantradyumna. Kasika was the wife of Gadhiraja. Sumati was the wife of Vikukshi. Kantimati was the wife of Kusa. These seven are inferior to Saci.
56Saci, Rati, Aniruddha, Manu, Daksha, Brhaspati-these six are equal to each other. These are inferior to Ahamkara by ten per cent.
57Pravaha (wind) is the son of principal Vayu. He, the strong one, is the strongest among Vayus. He is the lord of all directions.
58-59aThis Vayu breathes through nostrils. It is material and uniform in nature. It is also called Ativaha as it is resorted to by those who desire liberation. It is inferior to Daksha and others by five per cent.
59bGaruda said: -O lord, please tell me how he obtained the epithet Pravaha. What is the significance of the name.
60Thus addressed by Garuda, lord Krishna, the son of Devaki-was highly pleased. He appreciated Garuda and spoke in reply.
61Krishna said: -O best of birds, as he ever takes the devotees of Hari across the ocean of existence, he is called Pravaha.
62-63Vishnu is the best of all gods. Brahma and the rest ate dependent on him. Whatever I state is the truth. I take hold of an infuriated serpent. If alt what I have stated proves to be untrue then let the lord of snakes sting me. So saying, he caught hold of an infuriated serpent but the serpent did not sting him.
64-65Because he held the serpent by hand, O lord of birds, the son of Vayu got the designation Pravaha. Those who do not worship the idol of Vishnu but worship the idols of inferior gods or goddesses Renuka, etc., of the form of Daityas, purposeless is their worship of Vishnu as well as of the manes. This is true very true, I say. If all what have said is proved to be false and untrue, then let the lord of serpents sting me mortally.
66He who performs Sraddhas to the manes without offering gifts to Vishnu, that sinner goes to bell. What I say is indeed true.
67Neither Lakshmi is sovereign nor Brahma nor Vayu nor Siva nor Parvati nor Saci the daughter of Puloman and the wife of Indra.
68The primeval being Vishnu alone is real. I declare this truth by my uplifted arms. If all this proves to be false, then let the lord of snakes sting me.
69-70The supreme soul is real, so is the personal soul. The difference between the two is real, so also between the animate and the inanimate, similarly between the inanimate and the lord. The difference between one soul and the other is also real. If all this is proved to be false, then let the lord of snakes sting me mortally.
71So saying, he caught hold of the infuriated snake, but the snake did not sting him at all. By catching hold of the infuriated snake this son of Vayu obtained the designation Pravaha.
72Accepting dual nature of the lord, you should accept the two as real. He who disregards this maxim, remains a sinner throughout life. Though he may be taking plunge in the holy rivers daily without fail he does not obtain release.
73By accepting duality as a matter of fact one feels quite happy If all this is proved to be false then let the lord of serpents sting me mortally.
74Garuda said: -O supreme god, please tell me what duality is, of what nature? What is the source of this concept? How shall a person forsake duality. What bliss is derivable from renunciation.
75Sri Krishna said: -In this body two organs are the strongest of all. They are two cars and two eyes. The two are interrelated. O lord of birds, I shall tell you the real nature of the two.
76Ears are prone to hearing gossips and enjoying them with pleasure. They are naturally averse to hearing the ambrosial tale of lord Vishnu. They have twofold nature dullness and control.
77Eyes are prone to gaze at men and women. Excessive doting takes away sleep. They are averse to seeing the devotees and their worship of the lord.
78Even the stupid person is aware of their dual nature. He rather accepts indulgence as a matter of course. In his stupidity he takes delight in entering his Penis in the vagina of my female.
79Neither men and women nor ascetics have any dread or shame in this respect. Men can copulate even with their sisters, that too at daytime, just as the priests do with the women at the soma sacrifice.
80-82This is the nature of the tongue that it eats what is not to be eaten, that it eats without offering it to the lord. This is the nature of the tongue to eat, lick or drink all that is not worthy to be eaten, licked or drunk, whether received as a gift or otherwise. The stupid person does not understand the true nature of the sense organs, accepts the one and forsakes the other. If he acts otherwise his bath at the sacred place of pilgrimage (Tirthas) becomes fruitless. O lord of birds be pleased to know what is the essence of my statement.
83-84A person who bathes at the holy places should note the differing nature of the two. If without understanding the true nature of the two mistresses, the ignorant fool accepts the one and abandons the other his ablution, etc. are rendered fruitless. He attains neither prosperity here nor liberation hereafter. If all what I have said is proved to be false, then let that lord of snake sting me.
85Sri Krishna said: -Intellect is the wife of Purusa. She has twofold nature O lord of birds. One is wicked; the other is pious. Of the two the younger one is wicked, the elder one is pious.
86Through the younger one, the soul succumbs to destruction Through the elder one he attains position. I shall now tell you about the nature of the younger. Listen and after listening try to abandon her.
87The younger one encourages the soul (her husband) to indulge in activities for the fulfilment of worldly desires. She disregards the sanctity of the Brahmanas, of lord Vishnu and his narratives, of sacrifices, cows, the holy fig tree, of bath and purity. She misdirects to worship their stupid husbands and goddess Renuka and waive fights to Mayadevi.
88-91She encourages the stupid and ignorant husband to worship Bhairava and others and to put on yellow marks of turmeric powder on the forehead, to worship goddess Jyeshtha on the eighth day of Jyeshtha, to put on sacred thread round the neck with devotion, to worship god Marigandhi on the Marigandhi ashtami, to raise a column of earthen lamps on the auspicious day before Mahalalakshmi (Supreme Nature) and Adya-Lakshmi (Primordial Nature) to put on Lakshmi thread on the neck with a temptation that thereby he will attain riches.
92-93On the day when they change old girdles for the new ones, she encourages them to give up girdles and put on chains. She encourages them to propitiate the women of fashion, to worship gods and goddesses with scents, flowers and incense and to waive fights from the vessels of brass, spread leaves of Neem on the ground, pay homage and seek forgiveness for their past misdeeds.
94She encourages men to worship goddess Mahadevi and forbids them feed the pious devotees of lord Vishnu. She warns her husband (the soul) against feeding the Vaishnavas and threatens him with the dire consequences of total destruction and addresses him thus.
95O husband, now put a vessel of bamboo wood on the left hand and an earthen lamp on the right and move about for begging food at the five neighboring houses, casting your sense of shame aside.
96-97At first, prepare food of six varieties, cat the same without letting the people know. Distribute the residue among your woman folk, asking them to put the hand on the sacred book and proclaim, ‘O save us.’ O husband worship a good sword together with the devotees.
98Make a barking sound together with them. Keep always in your possession the powder of orpiment. Worship Bhimasena with five ambrosial articles.
99Make a present of silver-girdle to lord Bhimadeva and make a row of earthen lamps in front of the idol of the lord, feed the best of his devotees with devotion and make a thundering sound Bhima, Bhima at the top of your voice.
100Propitiate the best of the devotees of Bhima with garments, wine and meat. Worship Mahadeva in a proper way with the mantras of Maharudra and Atirudra.
101Worship even those devotees of lord Siva who though expert in the knowledge of Saiva scriptures belong to the Sudra class.
102Prepare vegetable dishes of different variety and propitiate the goddess Sakambhari with devotion and interest. Decorate her idol and praise her traits. Fix up your mind on the creator Brahma and eyes full of devotion at his idol and offer worship.
103Worship the best of his devotees, pay homage at his feet, and bow your head to him. On the fifth day of each fortnight of the month, make an earthen idol of lord Sesha and worship him with milk, fried rice grains and such-like other articles used in worship.
104Wear a Naga-Pasa around your neck; eat whatever is left of the food that has been offered to the deity. Make an offering of foodstuff on each fourth day of the two fortnights of every month.
105By these instructions, 0 lord of birds, the wicked intellect vitiates her husband, the soul. As he associates with her, he the husband in the form of the soul, is stung by her.
106Therefore, do not associate with her. Resorting to sacrifice make your life a complete success. The second wife, the noble intellect, encourages the husband in the following way.
107O my lord, do not propitiate any god or goddess except lord Vishnu. Let not that (deceitful) Renuka attend on you. If lord Hari, of unmanifest form is unable to protect you who else can do the same.
108If you propitiate her who is deceitful and an a vedic deity, always inimical to you (though outwardly pleasing), you will by that very act contract diseases such as leprosy, fistula, etc., and you will go to hell. This, your bad wife, will not help you at all. Hence, 0 lord, do not follow upon the bad advice of that wretched lady.
109O lord, propitiate the Brahmanas, the devotees of Vishnu, who alone can help you to cross the ocean of suffering in this world. Therefore, give up the worship of gods or goddesses (other than Vishnu). Is there any gain in propitiating illusion.
110O my lord, if on the eight day of each fortnight of the month of Jyestha, you worship Alalakshmi taking her for Lakshmi and wear the sacred thread round your neck as an insignia of devotion you will suffer an immense lot of trouble.
111When the emissaries of Yama tie you up with nooses and whip you severely, then Alaksnu (whom you propitiated during your lifetime) will not be present there to help you. Hence, O lord, abandon your contact with Alakshmi and seek shelter at die feet of lord Hari.
112-113O ignorant lord, do always resort to Vayu and not to Skanda-Tattva. Fat fresh butter and not the one that has been left as refuge after god Skanda has partaken of his share. Wearing the thread of protection around your neck do not suffer any more in this world.
114When the emissaries of Yama tie you with their nooses and beat you with whips, lord Skanda will not be present there to help you. O lord give him up and seek the shelter of Lord Hari’s feet.
115-116O husband, you raised a pillar of earthen lamps for propitiating the lord and wore a holy thread around your neck for your protection. But when the emissaries of Yama tie you with their noose and whip you severely, the· pillar of light and the holy thread will not be there to render help. Take resort at the feet of Vishnu therefore.
117-119On the day of your marriage, you wore a fresh girdle, waived lights patio the vessel of brass. You made a peculiar sound to propitiate your family god Siva. Chewing betel in the mouth you danced before the lord. But when after death, the emissaries of Yama. tie you with their noose, your family god will not be there to help you. Where has he run away, tell me, O lord.
120-121You propitiated your family goddess, by gifting your ear ornaments or in the absence of ornaments with the hair of your body. But when the fierce emissaries of Yama beat you with iron pestles or mace, your family goddess will not be there to help you. Riding on a donkey she would have fled away long before.
122-123You held a vessel of bamboo wood by your left hand and an earthen lamp by your right and begged O stupid person from door to door when you had a facility of a settled life at home. When after death, the emissaries of Yama beat you severely and put you on the fire of thousands of ears them lamps that snub-nosed Renuka. will not be there to offer protection. Where would she have fled away, tell me, O lord.
124That lifeless object, the sword you worshipped with devotion as a devotee would worship the idol. You barked like a dog. You. discarded home when you had the facility of a settled life.
125When after death, the emissaries of Yama beat you up and you cried, then where did your family deity run away leaving you, the best of his devotees, all alone.
126You worshipped the idol of Bhimasena adorned with five jewels. You offered sweet dishes, loin cloth, etc., to the devotees. O silly one, you wandered when you had the facility of a settled life at home.
127When the emissaries of Yama beat you on the way to Yama’s region, where did the deity Bhima run away leaving you all alone? O ignorant one, take shelter at the feet of lord Vishnu, O ignorant one.
128You offered worship to lord Siva, repeating the name Hara which means the remover of all suffering. When you had the facility of a settled life at home, you wandered. When your house was on fire, where did your lord Hara fly away (tell me, O lord).
129At the festival of goddess Sakambhari, you worshipped Sakambhari. Where did Sakambhari fly away, when the emissaries of Yama beat you severely.
130With concentrated devotion you worshiped Brahma and wearing a piece of cloth received in gilt when you had tire facility of a settled life at home. When after death the emissaries of Yam beat you with axes of sharp edge where did that Kulaladeva of bright teeth and shining eyes fly away loving you, a true devotee, in wretched plight Kulaladeva cannot be traced by any.
131On the fifth day of each fortnight you worshipped the earthen idol of Sesha with devotion. You wandered when you had the’ facility of a settled life at home. When after death, the emissaries of Yaina tied you with a serpent noose, then where did Nagaraja run away leaving you, the best of his devotees, all alone. I Tell me, that.
132-133You worshipped Vinayaka with the tiny shoots of Durva grass or with the fivefold variety of dishes. But when after death you were’ beaten up with the heated rods of iron by the emissaries of Yams, where did lord Vina yak fly away leaving his single tusk behind Tell me, O lord.
134You worshipped Vishtadevi (the goddess of faeces) with devotion on the occasion of marriage. You wandered when you had the facility of a settled life at home. When after death the emissaries of Yama tied you with a noose and beat you on the way to Yama’s region where did the goddess of faeces fly away leaving you, a sincere devotee, all alone.
135At the wedding ceremony you went to a washer washerman’s house, begged for the auspicious thread which you put on the earthen jar and worshipped.
136When after death the emissaries of Yama put the holy” thread in your very mouth and beat you up, ‘then where did the goddess Stambhasutra run away. Tell me, O lord.
137At the wedding ceremony you worshipped Goddess Caula who fulfils the wishes of his devotees. You carried her in the winnowing basket to the bank of a river and propitiated her together with the devotees. You wandered when. you had the facility of a settled fife at home.
138When after death the emissaries of Yama tied you with the noose and beat you on the way to Yama, where did goddess Caula fly away. O stupid one, take shelter at the feet of lord Vishnu.
139When your son was suffering from fever you worshipped Brahmadeva at home with incense, earthen lamps, flowers and tasty dishes. You accepted Brahmadeva as your family deity.
140And when after death the emissaries of Yama tied you with a noose and beat you with the cane, where did Brahmadeva tun away. O silly one, take shelter at the feet of lord Vishnu.
141You worshipped Brihati for obtaining offspring and kept the fruit of Brihati hanging around your neck You wandered when you had the facility of a settled life at home.
142When after death, the emissaries of Yama tied you with the noose and pricked you with the thorns of Brihati, O ignorant one, then where did Brihati run away. Tell me that.
143O ignorant one, take shelter at the feet of supreme lord Narayana, one who takes you across all sufferings. Do not worship the minor deities and do not hear their wasteful tales.
144Put all minor deities together in a tiny basket and throw them off at a distant place. Put aside those customs of your family that are likely to occasion your fall into terrible hells.
145O ignorant one, purge your soul by reciting the eight mantras (of purification) at this holy sight Cast off all emblems of stupidity that have entered your heart and adorn yourself with the emblems of lord Vishnu.
146You are ignorant from the very beginning (and have remained as such to this very day). Listen to the tale of Vishnu. You have wasted your life being led by vicious ideas. You should now that the association with the pious devotees of lord Vishnu is difficult to achieve. Rarer is the knowledge of Reality-straight and simple.
147Think of Vishnu as your preceptor and the support of your existence. O ignorant one, throw off your wicked ideas. Resort to me, for I generate noble ideas in you.
148“Having obtained me as your noble preceptor, evolve feelings of detachment from your kith and kin. Know that knowledge of Reality leads to liberation. The grace of Vishnu and her consort Laksmi can alone take you across the ocean of life.”
149With this thought in mind I addressed the best of my devotees thus. Hence, I got the designation Pravaha, O lord of birds. Now hear what is relevant to the context.