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Brihat Jataka 1-9

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Nature of the planets and their properties

1The Sun is the soul of Kalapurusha; the Moon, his mind; Mars, his strength; Mercury, his speech; Jupiter, his knowledge and happiness; Venus his sexual love; and Saturn, his misery. The Sun and Moon are kings; Mars is the commander in chief Mercury is the heir-apparent; Jupiter and Venus are the ministers and Saturn is the servant.
2The Sun is known as Heli; Chandramas and Sitarasmi are the names of the Moon; Hemnan, Vit, Gna, Bodhana and Induputra (son of the Moon) are the names of Mercury; Ara, Vakra, Kruradrik and Avaneya (born of the Earth) are the names of Mars; Saturn is called by the names Kona, Manda, Suryaputra (son of the Sun) and Asita.
3Jeeva, Angiras, Suraguru, Vachasampati and Ljya mean Jupiter. Sukra, Bhrigu, Bhrigusuta, Sita and Asphujit are the names of Venus. Tamas, Agu and Asura are the names of Rahu. Ketu is known as Sikhin. There are also other synonyms found in other works.
4The Sun possesses a dark-red form. The Moon is white. Mars does not possess a very tall stature and is of a pale-red colour. Mercury has the dark-green hue of Durva or bent grass. Jupiter has a body of yellowish hue. Venus is neither very white nor very black. Saturn is dark in form.
5Red, white, reddish, green, yellowish, variegated and black are the colours of the planets from the Sun onwards. Fire, water, Kumara, Vishnu, lndra, Indrani and Brahman are the presiding deities of the planets from the Sun in their order. The Sun Venus, Mars, Rahu, Saturn, the Moon, Mercury and Jupiter are respectively the lords of the quarters East, South-East, South, South-West, West, North-West, North and North-East. The waning Moon, the Sun, Mars and Saturn are known as malefic planets. Mercury in conjunction with any of them is malignant also.
6Mercury and Saturn are eunuchs. Venus and the Moon are females. The rest viz, the Sun, Mars. and Jupiter are males. Fire, Earth, Ether, Water and Air are respectively under the control of the five planets Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn.
7Venus and Jupiter are Brahmins. Mars and the Sun are Kshatriyas. The Moon is a Vaisya. Mercury is the lord of the Sudra community. Saturn is the leader of the outcastes. The Moon, the Sun and Jupiter are planets typifying Satva (purity, goodness). Mercury and Venus are essentially the planets of passion. Mars and Saturn own Tamas or darkness as their distinguishing characteristic.
8The Sun has eyes of a reddish-brown colour and a square-built body. He is of a bilious, temperament and has a limited quantity of hair. The Moon has a thin and round body, has wind and phlegm in his corn position, is discriminating, is soft in speech and has fine eyes.
9Mars has fierce eyes a youthful appearance and a generous disposition. He has bile in his composition; he is exceedingly fickle. He has a slender waist. Mercury is stammering in his speech, is always fond of fun, and is of a bilious, phlegmatic and windy temperament.
10Jupiter possesses a big body. His eyes and hair are brown. He is exceedingly intelligent. He is of a phlegmatic temperament. Venus is ever fond of ease, possesses a beautiful body and has soft eyes. He has much wind and phlegm in his composition and has black curled hair.
11Saturn is disposed to inactivity. He has eyes of a reddish-brown colour, a tall body, large teeth, stiff hair and limbs. His composition has phlegm and wind in it. Saturn, the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter and Mars are respectively the lords of the following constituent elements of the body, viz., muscle, bone, blood, skin, semen, fat and marrow.
12A shrine, a watery place, a fireplace, a pleasure ground, a treasury, a bed chamber and a heap of rubbish are to be assigned as the places of the planets from the Sun onwards. The articles of apparel appropriate for the Sun and other planets are a thick cloth, a new fine robe, one signed by fire, a cloth washed in water, an ordinary garment, a durable mantle, and a rag respectively. The substances ascribed to the planets from the Sun onwards are copper, gems, gold, alloy of metals, silver. pearls and iron. The lords of the six seasons reckoning from Sisira are Saturn, Venus, Mars, the Moon, Mercury and Jupiter according to the Drekknas or third portions of a sign presided over by them.
13All the planets cast a quarter glance at the 3rd and 10th houses; half a glance at the 5th and 9th; three quarters of a glance at the 4th and 8th; and a full eye at the 7th. Saturn is exceedingly powerful when he casts his glance at the 3rd and 10th. Jupiter is auspicious in his glances at the 5th and 9th. Mars is potent with his glance at the 4th and 8th.
14The planets from the Sun onwards sway over periods of half a year, a Muhurta (2 Ghatikas or 48 minutes), a day, two months, a month, half a month and a year respectively. Pungent, saline, bitter, mixed, sweet, acid and astringent are the flavours of the several planets from the Sun onwards.
15According to some, Jupiter is the friend of the Sun. Jupiter and Mercury are the friends of the Moon. The friends of the Mars are Venus and Mercury. The Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn are the friends of Mercury. The friends of Jupiter are the Sun, the Moon, Mercury, Venus and Saturn. Mars, Mercury, Jupiter and Saturn are the friends of Venus. Saturn’s friends are Mercury, Jupiter and Venus. According to Satya’s view, a plaesant’s friends are those who own the 2nd, 12th, 5th, 9th, 8th, and the 4th houses reckoned from his Moola: Trikona sign as also that owning his exaltation sign, provided they do not conflict with the lordship of remaining houses.
16-17The Sun’s enemies are Venus and Saturn. Mercury is his neutral and the rest are his friends. The Moon’s friends are the Sun and Mercury. The rest are all neutrals to him. Mars’ friends are the Sun, the Moon and Jupiter. Mercury is his enemy. Venus and Saturn are neutrals to him The Sun and Venus are the friends of Mercury; the Moon is his enemy. The rest are his neutrals. Venus and Mercury are the enemies of Jupiter; Saturn is neutral to him. The rest are his friends. Saturn and Mercury are the friends of Venus. Mars and Jupiter are his neutrals. The rest are his enemies. Saturn’s friends are Venus and Mercury. Jupiter is neutral towards him. The rest are inimical to him. The planets that were declared (by Satyacharya) as friends of a particular planet due to their owning certain houses reckoned from the planet’s Moolatrikona sign have been restated by me in the above.
18Planets are mutually friendly for the time being when they occupy the 2nd and the 12th, the 3rd and the 11th, or the 4th and the 10th places from one another. Some include the exaltation place also in this list. They are inimical if they occupy other positions. Ascertain which are the planets that own two houses out of the seven already mentioned and thus determine what planets are naturally friendly, what are naturally neutral and what are inimical and also find out which are for the time being friendly. If there is friendliness both naturally and temporarily on the part of a planet, he is a great friend. Those that are enemies both ways are deadly foes invariably. That planet is but a friend which has the character of being friendly and neutral from the two points of view, while the one which has the character of being neutral and inimical is an enemy. A planet that is inimical in the one case and friendly in the other is to be taken as neutral.
19A planet has positional strength when it occupies its exaltation sign, a friendly house, its Moolatrikona house, its own Navamsa Rasi and its Swakshetra sign. As regards the directions, Mercury and Jupiter are strong in the East or rising sign. The Sun and Mars are powerful in the South or 10th house, Saturn is strong in the West or 7th house. Venus and the Moon are strong in the North or 4th house.
20The Sun and the Moon in the Uttarayana or northern course possess exceeding motional strength. The other five planets possess Cheshtabala when in their retrograde motion or when in their conjunction with the Moon. Their rays become brilliant when they are placed in the north in planetary war and must be considered to possess Chestabala.
21The Moon, Mars and Saturn have Kalabala or temporal strength at night; Mercury possesses it both day and night; the rest during the day only. The malefic and benefic planets have strength Pakshabala in the dark and bright halves of the month respectively. Each planet possesses Kalabala in his hour, day, month and year, Saturn, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, the Moon and the Sun rise respectively in natural strength (Naisargika Bala).

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