lunedì, Ottobre 25, 2021
spot_imgspot_imgspot_imgspot_img
HomeAdi ParvaMahabharata - Adi Parva - Parva Sangraha Parva - 2

Mahabharata – Adi Parva – Parva Sangraha Parva – 2

Mahabharata – Adi Parva – Parva Sangraha Parva

– 2 –

Parva Sangraha Parva

Brief introduction to the story of Mahabharata

1The Rishis said: —We wish to hear, O son of Suta, all about the place you called Samantapanchaka.
2Souti said: —Hear, O Brahmanas, the sacred words I say. You are fit, O best of men, to hear them.
3At the end of Treta and in the beginning of Dwapara Yuga, the greatest of all that ever wielded arms, Parushnrama, being impatient of wrongs, repeatedly destroyed all the Kshatrya races of the world.
4That fiery Rama, after destroying the Kshatryas by his own prowess, made five lakes of blood at Samantapanchaka.
5We have heard, that being senseless with anger, he offered oblations to the manes of his ancestors, standing in the bloody water of these lakes.
6Thereupon Richika and other of his ancestors appeared and said, “Rama, O blessed Rama, O son of Vrigu, we are pleased
7With your filial piety and prowess. O mighty one, blessing be upon you. O illustrious one, ask the boon you desire to have.
8-9Rama said: —If, O fathers, you are pleased with me, the boon, I ask, is that I may be freed from the sin of annihilating the Kshatryas, and that the lakes, that I have made, may become celebrated shrines in the world.
10The ancestors then said, “It would be as you have wished. But be pacified.”
11The region, that lies near those five bloody lakes, has become famous from that day by the name of holy Samantapanchaka.
12The wise men have said that every place should be known by a name significant of something which may have made it famous.
13At the end of Dvapara and in the beginning of Kali, a great battle was fought between the Kurus and the Pandavas, here at this holy Samantapanchaka.
14In that holy place, where there was not the least ruggedness, were assembled eighteen Akshauhinis of soldiers, all eager for battle.
15O Brahmanas, they were all killed in that place. Thus, O Brahmanas, its name is explained.
16I have described to you that beautiful and holy place. I have told you, O best of Brahmanas, all about this place, —a place famous in the three worlds.
17The Rishis said: -We wish to know, O Son of Suta, all about Akshauhini which you have mentioned to us.
18Tell us the numbers of horse and foot, chariots and elephants, which make an Akshahuini, for you know everything.
19Sauti said: —One chariot, and one elephant, five foot soldiers and three horsemen, form a Patti.
20Three Pattis make a Senamukha, three Senanyikhas make a Gulma.
21Three Gulmas make a Gana, three Ganas a Bahini, three Bahinis taking together, form a Pritana.
22Three Pritanas make a Chamu, three Chamus an Anikini, and ten times one Anikini is called by the learned as one Akshauhini.
23-24O best of Brahmanas, mathematicians have calculated that there are twenty-one thousand eight hundred and seventy chariots in an Akshauhini. The number of elephants is also the same.
25-26Know’, the number of foot soldiers is one hundred nine-thousand three hundred and fifty; the number of horses is sixty-five thousand six-hundred and three.
27Those who are acquainted with the principle of numbers call the above, explained fully by me, the numbers of an Akshauhini.
28O best of Brahmanas, the eighteen Akshauhinis of the Kurus and the Pandava soldiers were composed according to this calculation.
29Time brought them all together in this place, and making the Kauravas the cause, destroyed them all.
30Bhisma, skilful in arms, fought for ten days. Drona defended the Kuru army for five days.
31-32The destroyer of enemy’s soldiers, Kama, fought for two days; Sailya for half a day, and for a half a day then lasted the club-fight of Duryodhana and Bhima. At the close of that day, Ashwathama, Kirtavarma and Kripa.
33Destroyed the army of Yudhisthira when his soldiers were unsuspectingly sleeping. O Saunaka, the best of narrations, the Bharata, which is narrated here at your sacrifice,
34Was formerly narrated at the sacrifice of Janamejaya by the learned pupil of Vyasa. In it has been fully described the fame and valour of the kings of the world.
35There are three Parvas in the begining (of this great work), namely Paushya, Paulama and Astika, which contain many wonderful dictions and descriptions and senses.
36As men desirous of final release.accept Vairagya, so it is accepted by the wise. As Self is among things to be known, as life among things that are dear f
37So is it the best among all histories and also among all Sastras. There is- not a story current in the world which does not depend on it.
38-39As the body depends on the food it partakes, as the servant who wishes for promotion serves a master of good birth, so all poets serve and cherish this Bharata.
40As the words, constituting the various branches of knowledge and the Vedas, display vowels and consonants only, so this excellent history displays the highest knowledge.
41Hear the outlines of the Parvas (chapters) of this Bharata history which is full of subtle meaning and logical connection, and which is rich with the meaning of the Vedas.
42The first is called Anukramanika, the second Parva Sangraha; then come Paulama, Paushya, Astika, Adivansavatarana.
43After this the wonderful and thoughtful Sambhava, then Yatugriha-daha, then Hairimba.
44Then Baha-badha, and then Chaitraratha, then Panchali-shaimvara Parva.
45Then after defeating the rivals in rightful battle Baibahika Parva, then Viduraagamana and Rajya-lava.
46Then Arjuna-vanabasha, Subhadraharana, Haranya-harika.
47Then Khandava-daha and Moya-darsana, then come Shava Parva, and Mantra Parva
48Then Jarasandha-badha, and Moyadarshana; after Digbijaya comes the Parva called Rajsuika.
49Then Arghyaviharana, Shisupalabadha, Dyuta, Anudyuta Parva;
50Then Aranyaka, Kirmira-badha, Aranavigamana;
51And then Kairati, in which the battle between Arjuna and Siva is described; Then Indralokavigamana.
52Then comes the pathetic, pious and religious story of Nala-upakhyana; Then Thirtha-jatra of the wise ting of the Kurus.
53Then Jatasura-badha, then Yaksha-juddha, then Nebatkabacha-juddha, and Ajagara;
54Then Markandeya-samashya, then the Parva of the meeting of Draupadi and Satyavarna;
55Then Ghoshajatra, Mrigaswapna, then Brihidrauniakhyama ana Aindradrumna;
56Then Draupadi-harana-Parva, then Jaidratha-bemochana, then the story of Savitri, illustrating love of husband and chastity;
57After this the story of Rama, then Kundala-harana Parva.
58That which comes next is Aranaya, and then Virata, where the Pandavas went (in disguise) and fulfilled their promise.
59Then the Kichaka-badha, then Gogrohana, then the marriage of Abhimanyu
with the daughter of the king of Virata.
60Then is the most wonderful Parva Udyoga. The next one is Sanjaya-yana.
61then comes Prajagara, the anxieties of Dritharashtra, then Sanatsujata, the mysteries of Philosophy.
62Then Yansanddhi, the arrival of Sri Krishna. Then the story of Malati and that of Galava;
63Then the stories of Savitri, Vamadeva and Vainya; then the stories of Yamadagni and Shodasharajika;
64Then the arrival of Krishna at the court, then Bidula-Putra-shashana, then the assemblage of troops and the story of Seta;
65Then comes the quarrel of the noble Kama, then the march of the Kuru and Pandava armies to the field of battle.
66Then Ratharathi-Sankhya Parva, then the arrival of wrath-inspiring messenger Uluka;
67Then the story of Amba, then the wonderful installation of Bhisma;
68Then (the account of) the creation of Jambu and Bhumi, then the account of islands.
69Then Bagavata-Gita Parva, then Bhisma-badha, then the instalation of Drona, and then the death of Sansaptakas;
70Then Abhimanyu-badha, then Praligma Parva, then Jaidhratha-badha and Ghatatkacha-badha;
71Then the hair-stirring Drona-badha, then the discharge of Narayana weapon;
72Then Kama Parva, and then next to it is Sallya Parva, Then Hrada Prabesha Parva, then Gada-yudha;
73Then Saraswata, and the description of Thirtha and Bangsa, and then Souptika, describing the disgraceful conduct of the Kurus.
74Then dreadful Aishika Parva, then Jala-pradana, then Stribilapa;
75Then Sradha Parva, describing the funeral rites for the killed Kurus; then Charvaka-badha who appeared as a Brahmana.
76Then the coronation of wise Yudhisthira, then Griha-prabivaga;
77Then Santi Parva, then Rajadharma-nushashana, then Apadharma ana Mukshya-dharma;
78Then come Sukaprasna-avigamanam, Brahma-prasna-anushashana, the origin of Durvasha, and colloquy with Maya.
79Next comes Anushashana, then the ascension of wise Bhisma to heaven.
80The next one is all sin-destroying Ashwamedha, and then Anu-Gita, containing spiritual philosophy.
81Next come Asramvasha, Putra-darsana, and the arrival of Narada;
82Then comes Mausala, full of cruel and terrible incidents; then Mahaprasbhana and the ascension to heaven.
83Then follows the Purana which is called Khila Haribansa, in it is Vishnu Parva, describing the early life of Vishnu and the destruction of Kansa.
84The last of all is Bavishya Parva which contains future prophecies. These are the one hundred Parvas, composed by the noble and great Vyasa.
85Having placed them in eighteen Parvas, the son of Lomharsana, the descendant of Suta, recited them in the forest of Naimisha;
86Of which the above is an abridgement. Adiparva contains Paushya, Paulama,
Astika, Adivansavatara.
87Shamvaba; the burning of the house of lac, the destruction of Hirimba and Baka, and Chaitraratha, the Shwamvara of Draupadi;
88Her marriage after a righteous battle with the rivals, the arrival of Vidura, the regaining of kingdom,
89Arjuna’s exile into jungle, the stealing of Subhadra, the gift and receipt of the marriage dower, the burning of Khandava forest.
90The meeting with Maya, —these are the contents of Adi Parva. The Poushya Parva contains the greatness of Utanga.
91In Paulama Parva the account of the Brigu and his descendants has been narrated. Astika contains the account of the birth of Garuda and all the Nagas.
92-94That of the churning of the ocean, the birth of Uchaisrava, and last of all, the Bharata dynasty as described at the snake-sacrifice of king Parikshit. Shamvaba Parva treats of the births of various kings, sages and heroes, and that of the sage, Krishna Dwaipayana, the partial incarnations of the celestials.
95The births of Daityas, Danavas, powerful Yakshas, of Nagas, of Gandharvas, of birds.
96-97And of all creatures, and lastly of the son of Sakuntala by Dushmanta at the hermitage of the sage Kanwa, Bharata, the name by which his descendants, are known,
98It describes the greatness of the Bhagirahti, and the births of the Vasus in the house of Santanu, and their again going to heaven.
99And the birth of fiery Bhisma, his renunciation of royalty, his adoption of Brahmacharya.
100His adherence to his vow, his rescue of Chitrangada, his protection of his younger brother after the death of Chitrangada.
101His placing Vichitravirya on the throne, the birth of Dharma on account of the curse of Animandavya.
102The births of Dhritarastra and Pandu, by the blessing of Krishna Dwaipayana, and also the birth of the Pandavas.
103The conspiracy of Duryodhana to send the Pandavas to Varanavata, and other plotting’s of the sons of Dhritarastra against the Pandavas.
104Advice given to Yudhisthira in the language of the Mlechhas by that well-wisher of the Pandavas, Vidura.
105-106Digging of an under-ground passage in consequence of the words of Vidura; the burning of Purochana and the sleeping hunter-woman with her five sons in the house of lac; the meeting of Pandavas with Hirimba in the forest.
107Then the destruction of Hirimba by powerful Bhima; then the birth of Ghatatkacha.
108The meeting of the Pandavas with Vyasa, their stay according to his advice in a Brahmana’s house at Ekchakra.
109In disguise; the destruction of Baka and the astonishment of the people.
110The wonderful births of Krishna and Dristadumna; hearing from a Brahmana the news of the Syamvara, and in obedience to the request of Vyasa.
111And also moved by the desire to win the hand of Draupadi, the departure of the Pandavas to Panchala;
112The victory of Aryuna over Angarapama on the banks of the Bhagirathi; making friendship with him, and to hear from him.
113The accounts of Tapati, Vasistha and Aurva; then the arrival of the Pandavas with all the brothers at Panchala;
114The hitting of the mark at the city, of Panchala by Aryuna, and the acquisition of Draupadi by him in the midst of all the kings of the world,
115The defeat of Sallya, Kama and all the angry kings by powerful Bhima and Arjuna in the battle that ensued;
116The ascertainment by Rama and Krishna from the great exploits of the brothers that they were Pandavas;
117Their arrival at the house of the potter where the brothers were living; the grief of Drupada, because Draupadi would be married to five husbands;
118The story of five Indras told in consequence; the wonderful and divinely arranged marriage of Draupadi.
119The sending of Vidura as an envoy to the Pandavas from the sons of Dhritarastra; his arrival; and his meeting with Krishna;
120Living of the Pandavas at Indraprasta and their rule over half of the kingdom; the fixing of hours for the five brothers to live with Draupadi as directed by Narada;
121-123The histories of Sanda and Upasanda are narrated; and then the departure of Aryuna to the forest according to the vow, and on account of his seeing Yudhisthira and Draupadi sitting together when he entered into the room to take arms to rescue the kine of a Brahmana; the meeting of Arjuna with Ulupa on his way.
124It then describes the birth of Vabruvahana; and the account of Arjuna’s visit to many holy pilgrimages; the deliverance by Arjuna of the five celestial maidens,
125Who had become alligators by the curse of an ascetic Brahmana; the meeting of Arjuna and Krishna at the holy pilgrimage-of Provasha;
126Arjuna’s taking of Subhadra by force with the permission of Krishna on the car which goes everywhere at the will of the rider;
127Taking the dower of Krishna, Aryuna’s departure to Indraprasta; the birth of that prodigy of prowess, Abhimanyu, in the womb of Subhadra;
128The birth of the children of Draupadi; the pleasure trip of Aryuna and Krishna to the banks of the Yamuna;
129The acquisition by them the celebrated bow Gandiva and the discus; the burning of the forest of Khandava; the saving of the life of Maya and the serpent;
130The giving birth to a son by Rishi Mandapala in the womb of a bird, called Sharangi. The Adiparva has been described with these various matters.
131Greatly powerful Vyasa has divided this Parva into two hundred and twenty seven chapters.
132These two hundred and twenty-seven chapters contain eight thousand eight hundred and eighty-four slokas.
133The second is Sabha Parva which is very extensive and full of matter. It describes the building of the assembly-hall by the Pandavas, and the review of their servants;
134The description of the courts of Lokapalas by Narada vho knows all the celestial regions; the preparations for the Rajsuya Yagma; the destruction of Jarasandha;
135The deliverance by Krishna of all the princes that were kept as prisoners (by Jarasandha) at (his capital city) Giribraia, Then it relates the conquest of the world by the Pandavas;
136The arrival of the chiefs and potentates with tribute at the Rajsuya Yagma; the destruction of Shishupala at the sacrifice, in connection with Arghya giving;
137The grief and envy of Duryodhana at the sight of the magnificence of the sacrifice; the joking of Bhima at the expense of Duryodhana in the great assembly.
138The preparation for the game of dice; the defeat of Yudhisthira at the play by cunning and crafty Sakuni;
139The deliverance, by the greatly wise Dhritarastra, of the sorrowful Draupadi who was sunk in the ocean of distress on account of the game;
140Seeing this, the attempt of Duryodhana to engage Yudhisthira again in game;
141The exile of Yudhisthira with his brothers by the victorious Duryodhana. These are the matters that have been dwelt in the Sabha Parva.
142-143This Parva is divided into seventy-eight chapters, and it contains, O best of Branmanas, two thousand five hundred, and seven slokas. Then comes the third Parva, called Aranya.
144It describes the departure of the Pandavas to the forest with the citizens following the wise Yudhisthira;
145-146In order to be gifted with the power of supplying food to the Brahmanas, Yudhisthira’s adoration of the Sun by the advice of Dhaumya; the creation of food by this means; the expulsion of Vidura who was always a well-wisher of his master;
147Vidura’s coming to the Pandavas; his return to Dhritarastra by bis request;
148The conspiracy of Duryodhana, being incited by Kama, to destroy the roving Pandavas;
149Having learnt this evil intention of Duryodhana, Vyasa’s arrival to him. His discussion with Duryodhana on the point of his going to the forest (after the Pandavas); the history of Surabi related;
150The arrival of Maitri and his instructions to Dhritarastra; his curse to Duryodhana;
151The slaying of Kirmira by Bhima, the arrival of the Panchalas and Vrisnis;
152Having heard that the Pandavas had been defeated at an unjust game of dice by Sakuni, the arrival of Krishna, and his I allaying of the anger of Aryuna;
153The lamentation of Draupadi before Krishna, and his cheering of her;
154The account of the fall of Souva was described by the great Rishi. Then it describes the departure of Krishna to Dwarika with Subhadra and her son;
155The taking of Draupadi s sons by Dhristadyumna to Panchala; the entrance of the Pandavas to the beautiful forest of Dwaita.
156It then relates the conversation of Bhima, Yudhisthira and Draupadi;
157The arrival of Vyasa to the Pandavas, the bestowal of power of Pratismriti to Yudhisthira by the great Rishi.
158It then describes the departure of Vyasa, the Pandavas’ removal to the forest of Kamyaka; the rovings of greatly powerful Arjuna in quest of weapons;
159His fight with Siva who was in the disguise of a hunter; his meeting with the Lokapalas, and his receipt of weapons from them;
160His journey to the celestial kingdom of Indra, and the anxiety of Dhritarastra in consequence.
161It then relates the lamentations of Yudhisthira in his meeting with the holy sage Brihadaswa.
162It then contains the holy and most pathetic story of Nala, illustrating the great patience of Damayanti and the character Nala.
163It then describes how Yudhisthira acquired the mysteries of dice from the great Rishi; then the arrival of great Rishi Lomasha from the celestial region where Aryuna was;
164The receipt from the Rishi by the high-souled dwellers of forest (the Pandavas) the news of the third brother (Aryuna) who was then staying in the celestial regions;
165The pilgrimages of the Pandavas to various holy places as asked by Aryuna; their attainment of merit and virtue in consequence;
166The arrival of great sage Narada at the holy shrine of Pulastha; the arrival of the high-souled Pandavas also at that holy pilgrimage.
167Then it relates the account of the deprivation of Kama of his “ear-rings” by Indra, and then the sacrificial greatness of Gya;
168The story of Agasta which relates how he ate up the Asura, Batapi; his connection with Lopamudra to have an offspring.
169It then tells the story of Rishwasringa who adopted the life of an ascetic from his boyhood. Then follows the story of greatly powerful Rama, the son of Jamadagni.
170In which is described the death of Kartavirja and Haihayas; then the meeting of the Pandavas and the Vrisnis at the holy pilgrimage of Provasha;
171The story Sukanya in which Brigu’s son, Chyavana, made the Aswinas drink Soma Juice at the sacrifice of king Saryati.
172And in which it has been shown how he himself (Chyavana) acquired perpetual youth. Then it relates the history of King Mandhata;
173Then it tells the story of prince anta, and how king Somaha, by offering up is only son Janta in sacrifice, got one hundred others.
174Then follows the beautiful story of the hawk and the region; then the trial of king Shivi by Indra, Agni and Dharma.
175-176The story of Astabakra in which is narrated the great debate between that Rishi and the first of logicians, named Vandi, the son of Varuna;
177The defeat of Vandi and the release of the father of the Rishi (Astabakra) from the ocean. Then follows the story of Yavakrita, then that of the great Raiva.
178Then the departure of the Pandavas for Gandhamadana, and their staying at a hermitage called Narayana; Bhima’s journey to Gandhamadana by the request of Draupadi;
179His meeting on his way with the Ravana’s son, greatly powerful, Hanumana, who was in a grove of bananas;
180His bath in the tank, and the destruction of its flowers in searching for the sweet-scented flower Nalyni fight with powerful Rakshasas.
181Yakshas, including Manimana; the destruction of the Asura Jata by him;
182The meeting (of the Pandavas) with the Royal sage Vrishayarva; their departure for the hermitage of Arshtishena, and then their stay there;
183The inciting of Bhima against the Kurus by Draupadi. Then is related the ascent of Kailasha by Bhima, where with the powerful Yakshas.
184Headed by Manimana, he fought a great battle; the meeting of the Pandavas with Kuvera. Then comes the meetin’g with Arjuna who had obtained many great weapons.
185Then it relates the battle between Arjuna and the great enemy of the celestials, Nebatkabacha, who dwelt in Hirnyaparva.
186Then comos the account of Aryuna’s fight with Poulamas and Kalkeyas; their death at his hand;
187The display of weapons by Arjuna before Yudhisthira and its prevention by the great Rishi Narada
188The descent of the Pandavas from the Gandhamadana; the seizure of Bhima by a monster mountain-snake;
189The release of Bhima from the snake on answering certain questions of his by Yudhisthira;
190-191The return of the Pandavas to the forest of Kamyaka; the arrival of Krishna to see the sons of Pandu; the arrival of Rishi Markandeya; and his various recitals;
192The story of Pritha, the son of Vena, was told by the Rishi; also the story of Saraswati and that of Rishi Tarkhya.
193Then follows the story of Matsa and other old stories recited by Markandeya.
194Then come the stories of Indradumna, and Dhundumara, then the story of the chaste wife, and the history of Angirasha.
195Then is told the meeting of Draupadi and Satwavama and their conversation; the return of the Pandavas to the forest of Dwaita;
196The procession of the calves, and the captivity of Duryodhana at the hands of Gandharvas. His rescue by Arjuna when the wretch was being carried away.
197Then follows the dream of the deer by Yudhisthira, then the return of the Pandavas. to the forest of Kamyaka.
198Here follows the long story of Brihadraunika. Here is related the story of Durvasa.
199-200Then is narrated the forcible abduction of Draupadi by Jayadratha from the hermitage; the pursuit of the wretch by Bhima, swift as the air; the shaving of Jayadhratha at the hand of Bhima. Then follows the long story of Ramayana.
201In which is shown how Ravana was killed by the prowess of Rama. Then is narrated the story of Savitri.
202Then Kama’s deprivation of earrings by Indra, and his presentation to him a weapon called Sakti;
203The story of Aranya in which pharma gave advice to his son, and in which is related how the Pandavas received a boon and went to the west.
204-206These matters are all described in the third Parva called Aranyaka. It contains two hundred and sixty-nine chapters. Its number of slokas is eleven thousand, six hundred and sixty four. Then comes the extensive Virata Parva.
207It describes how the Pandavas arrived at the city of Virata and saw a Sami tree in a burning place on which they kept hidden their weapons.
208-209Then have been related their entry into the city and their stay in disguise: then the slaying by Bhima of the wicked Kichaka who lustfully aspired for Draupadi; then the attempt at king Duryodhana to find out the Pandavas;
210His despatch of clever spies to al countries to trace out the Pandavas; their failure to discover the mighty sons of Pandu;
211The first seizure of Virata’s kine by the Trigartas, the fearful battle that followed;
212The capture of Virata by the enemy and his rescue by Bhima; the release of his kine also by the Pandava (Bhima);
213The seizure of Virata’s kine by the Kurus, the defeat of the Kuru warriors by single handed Arjuna,
214-215The release of the king’s kine by Arjuna’s valour; the bestowal by Virata of his daughter to Aruna for his acceptance of her for his son by Subhadra, Abhimanyu, the destroyer of foes. These are the contents of the extensive fourth Parva Virata.
216-117The great Rishi has composed it in sixty-seven chapters and it contains two thousand and fifty slokas.
218Hear now, the contents of the fifth Parva, named Udyoga. When the Pandavas were living at Upaplavya.
219Desirous of battle, both Arjuna and Duryodhana went to Krishna, and said: “You should help us in this war.”
220On these words being uttered, the high-souled Krishna replied, “O best of men, a counsellor (myself) who will not fight.
221And one Akshauhini of my soldiers, between these two which shall I give to you?” Blind to his own interest, the foolish Duryodhana asked for the soldiers.
222Arjuna asked to possess Krishna as a counsellor, although he will not fight. Then is related the coming of the king of Madra for the assistance of the Pandavas.
223Having deceived him on the way by presents, Duryodhana induced him to grant him a boon, and for that boon he asked his help in the war.
224Then it narrated how Sallya went to the Pandavas and how he consoled Yudhisthira by recounting the victory of Indra (over Vitra.)
225-226Then is told the despatch of the Purohita by the Pandavas to the Kurus. Greatly powerful Dhritarastra, having heard the story of Madra’s victory from the Purohita, decided to send his Purohita, but finally sent Sanjaya to the Pandavas to ask for peace.
227-228Dhritarastra heard all about the Pandavas, their friends, Krishna and others; and his great anxiety and sleeplessness in consequence. Vidura’s sound, wise and various counsels given to the wise king, Dhritarastra.
229It then contains the excellent truths of spiritual philosophy that were told by Sanatsujata.
230To the anxious and sorrowing king. Next morning in the Royal court, Sanjaya spoke
231Of the great friendship between Arjuna and Krishna. It was then that great Krishna, moved by pity and being desirous of bringing peace.
232Went himself to Hastinapur, the capital of the Kurus. (It then relates) the rejection of the peaceful offer of Krishna by prince Duryodhana.
233An offer which was for the benefit of both parties. Then is related the story of Damvodvava;
234Then the search for a bridegroom by Matali for his daughter; then follows the history of the great Rishi Galava.
235Then the story of the training of the son of Bidula; having heard of the evil counsel of Duryodhana and Kama and others.
236Krishna’s display of his Yoga powers; then his taking Kama on his chariot and giving him sound advice;
237Kama’s rejection of Krishna’s advice out of pride; then the chastiser of his enemies, Krishna returned to Upaplavya from Hastinapura.
238-239He told the Pandavas all that had happened. It was then the greatly powerful Pandavas, the chastisers of their toes, after consulting properly with one another, made all preparations for war.
240Then follows the march of infantry, cavalry, elephants and charioteers from Hastinapura; the review of troops by both parties; the sending of Uluka to the Pandavas by the prince (Duryodhana).
241As an envoy on the day before the great battle; then the number of charioteers of different classes was related. Then is told the story of Amba.
242These are the matters that have been dwelt on, the fifth Parva of the Bharata in full of incidents regarding both peace and war.
243-244O Great Rishis, the great Vyasa has composed this Parva in one hundred and eighty-six chapters. The number of slokas composed in it by the great Rishi is six thousand six hundred and ninety-eight.
245Then is told the wonderful Bhisma Parva. Sanjaya related in it the creation of Jambu country.
246Then is narrated the great depression of the army of ana the fierce battle that raged for ten successive days.
247The high souled Krishna dispelled in this Parva the great compunction which was felt by Aryuna towards his relatives, by citing reasons based on the philosophy of final emancipation.
248-249In it is also narrated how the magnanimous Krishna, seeing the loss inflictted on the Pandava army, jumped from the chariot and ran swiftly, with dauntless breast and his driving whip in hand, to kill Bhisma. In this Parva also, Krishna smote Arjuna.
250The bearer of the Gandiva and the greatest warrior in battle among all wielders of weapons. In it also is narrated how the bow-man Arjuna, placing Shikhandi before him
251Wounded Bhisma with his sharpest arrows and felled him from his chariot, and how Bhisma lay on his bed of arrows.
252-254This extensive Parva is thesixth in the Bharata, it is composed of one hundred and seventeen chapters. Its number of slokas is five thousand eight hundred and eighty-four as composed by Vyasa, well-learned in the Vedas. Then comes Drona Parva h full of wonderful incidents.
255-256It relates the [installation of greatly powerful instructor Drona as the commander of the army; the vow of making Yudhisthira prisoner was taken by the great warrior to please Duryodhana; the retreat of Arjuna before the Sansaptakas;
257The overthrow by Arjuna of the great king Vagadatta, as great a warrior as Indra himself, with his elephant Supratika;
258The death of the boy-hero, Abhimanyu in his teens, alone and unsupported at the hands of many great car-warriors including Jayadhrata.
259On the death of Abhimanyu, the destruction by Arjuna of seven Akhauhinis of soldiers with Jayadhrata in a great battle.
260Then in order to search Partha, greatly powerful Bhima and the great car- warrior Satyaki, by command of king Yudhisthira.
261Entered into the Kaurava ranks, impenetrable even by the celestials; the destruction of the rest of the Sansaptakas.
262-263I n this Drona Parva is narrated the deaths of Alambusa, Srutayus, Shomdatti, Birata, great car-warrior Drupada, Ghatatkacha and others. Being exceedingly angry on account of the death of Drona in battle, Ashwathama also.
264discharged his fearful weapon Narayana. Then is told the story of Rudra, in connection with the burning of the cities.
265The arrival of Vyasa, and the glories of Partha and Krishna are told by him.
266These are the matters elaborately narrated in the seventh Parva of the Bharata in which all the chiefs and potentates mentioned were killed.
267-268The number of chapters in this Parva is one hundred and seventy. The number of slokas composed in the Drona Parva by the great Rishi, the son of Parasara and the master of great knowledge, is eight thousand and nine hundred.
269Then comes the most wonderful Parva named Kama. In it is described the appointment of king of the Madra as the charioteer (of Kama).
270Then is told the old story of the death of Tripura; the interchange of strong words between Kama and Sallya on their setting out to battle.
271Then is narrated the story of the swan and the crow as an insulting allusion to Kama. Then is the death of Pandya at the hands of the high souled Ashwathama.
272-273Then the death of Dandasen and then that of Danda, then the iminent risk of Yudhisthira in single combat with Kama which took place before all the warriors; the anger of Yudhisthira and Arjuna towards each other;
274-275Krishna’s pacification of Arjuna; Bhima’s fulfilment of his vow by drinking the heart’s blood of Dushasana after ripping open his breast; the slaying of Kama by Arjuna in single combat.
276-277The readers of the Bharata calls this Parva the eighth Parva. The number of its chapters is sixty-nine, and that of the slokas is four thousand nine hundred and sixty-four.
278Then is told the wonderful Parva called Sallya. After the death of all great warriors, the king of Madra became the commander.
279Then is described one after the other the encounters of various charioteers; then the deaths of the chief warriors of the Kuru army.
280Then the death of Sallya at the hands of Yudhisthira, the death of Sakuni at the hands of Sahadeva.
281When only a small remnant of hi troops remained alive, Yuyudhana retired into a lake, and there creating room for himself, lay hidden.
282-283The receipt of this news by Bhima from a hunter. Then is related how Duryodhana, ever unable to bear affronts, came out of the water, being angered by the insulting words of Yudhisthira. Then is described the fight of Bhima and Duryodhana with clubs.
284The arrival of Balarama at the time of the fight is next described. Then is told the sacredness of the Saraswati.
285-286The continuation of the club fight; the breaking of Duryodhana’s thighs by Bhima by a fearful hurl of his club. All this has been described in the wonderful ninth Parva.
287-288The number of chapters in this Parva is fifty-nine, and the number of slokas composed by the great Vyasa, the spreader of the fame of the Kuru Dynasty, is three thousand two hundred and twenty.
289-290I shall now describe the contents of the fearful tenth Parva, named Sauptika. On the departure of the Pandavas, the great car-warriors, Kritavarma, Kripa and the son of Drona (Ashwathama) came to the field of battle in the evening.
291They saw King Duryodhana lying on the ground, his thighs broken, and his body covered with blood. The great car- warrior, fearfully angry son of Drona vowed.
292”I will not take off my armour without killing all the Panchalas with Dhristadyumna, and the Pandavas with their allies.
293Having said these words, the three warriors left Duryodhana and entered into the great forest just when the sun was setting.
294While they were resting under a large banian tree, they saw an owl killing innumerable crows one after the other.
295Seeing this, Ashwathama, his heart being full of rage, remembering the death of his father, determined to kill the sleeping Panchalas.
296Going to the gate of the camp, he saw a fearful Rakshasa, his head reaching to the very skies, guarding the door.
297Seeing also that the Rakshasa obstructed him in his discharge of weapons, he began to worship the three-eyed divinity, and it pacified him.
298-300Then accompanied by Kripa and Kritavarma, he entered the camp and killed all the sons of Draupadi and all the family of Panchalas, including Dhristadyumna, when they were all unsuspectingly sleeping on their beds. Only Satyaki and the five Pandavas escaped through the counsel of Krishna.
301The charioteer of Dhristadyumna brought to the Pandavas the news of the massacre of the slumbering Panchalas by the son of Drona. Draupadi, aggrieved by the death of her father, brother and sons.
302Sat before her husbands and resolved to die of fasting. Then Bhima of fearful deed, being moved by the words of Draupadi
303Determined to please her. He speedily took up his dub and ran in pursuit of the son of his preceptor.
304The son of Drona, out of fear of Bhima, and as fate would have it, discharged the celestial weapon, crying “Let it make the world free of all the Pandavas.”
305Krishna neutralised the words by saying, “This shall not be,” and Arjuna neutralised the weapon by one of his own.
306Seeing the wicked intention of Ashwathama, Dwaipayana cursed him, and he too cursed Dwaipayana.
307The Pandavas took the Jewel on the head of Ashwathama, and they with much pleasure presented it to the aggrieved and sorrowing Draupadi.
308-309These matters are dwelt on in this tenth Sauptika Parva. The great Vyasa composed it in eighteen chapters. The numbers of slokas composed in it by the great reciter of the sacred truths, is eight hundred and seventy.
310he great Rishi has put together two Parvas, namely Sauptika and Aishika in this Parva. Then the most pathetic Parva called Stree is next told.
311-313Then greatly wise Dhritarastra, being much afflicted by the death of his sons, moved with vengeance, crushed into pieces an iron statue, the substitute for Bhima, placed before him by Krishna. Then Vidura consoled the great king by removing his worldly affections with reasons pointing to final emancipation.
314Then is described the journey of Dhritarastra with the ladies of his house, to the field of battle.
315Then were the pathetic and heart rending lamentations of the wives of the heroes. The wrath of Gandhari and Dhritarastra, and their falling into a swoon.
316Then did the ladies see those heroes, their slain sons, brothers and fathers, lying on the field of battle.
317The pacification by Krishna of the wrath of Gandhari, who was greatly afflicted by the death of her sons and grandsons.
318The cremation of the chiefs and potentates by king Yudhisthira, the greatly wise and the foremost of all virtuous men, according to due rites.
319When the presentation of water to the deceased princes was commenced, Kunti acknowledged Kama as her son born in secret.
320All this has been described by the great Rishi Vyasa in the most pathetic eleventh Parva.
321-322Its perusal moves every heart and draws tears from every eye. It contains twenty-seven chapters, and its number of slokas is seven hundred and seventy-five.
323Then comes the Santi Parva, the twelfth in number, which increases the understanding. It relates the despondency of Yudhisthira.
324-325On his having slain his father, brothers, sons, maternal uncles and relations by marriage. There is related how Bhisma, on his bed of arrows, told various systems, of laws and duties, worth the study of kings who desire to possess knowledge.
326If a person understands them, he attains to consummate knowledge. The mysteries of final emancipation is also elaborately discussed.
327This twelfth Parva , the favourite of the wise, contains three hundred and thirty nine chapters.
328-329O Rishis, the wise son of Parasara has described this Parva in fourteen thousand seven hundred and thirty-two slokas. Next.comes the excellent Anushasliana Parva.
330The king of the Kurus, Yudhisthira was consoled by hearing the expositions of duties by the son of the Bhagirathi, Bhisma.
331It then treats of the rules of Dharma and Artha in detail, then the various rules of charity and its different merits;
332The different merits of charity according to the subjects of charity; the rules of living, the ceremonials of individual duty, and the matchless merit of truth.
333It describes the great merit of Brahmanas, and kine, and it reveals the duties in relation to time and place.
334All these excellent matters have been treated in this Anushashana Parva containing variety of incidents. It also describes ascension of Bhisma to heaven.
335It contains one hundred and forty six chapters.
336The number of slokas in it is eight thousand. Then comes the, fourteenth Parva, called Ashwamedhika.
337It relates the beautiful story of Samvasta and Marutta; the discovery of treasures (by the Pandavas). Then is described the birth of Parikshit.
338Who was burnt by the weapon (of Asnwathama and therefore almost dead), but he was revived by Krishna; Arjuna’s journey with the sacrificial horse let loose.
339And his fight with various chiefs and potentates who seized it in wrath, the encounter of Arjuna with the son of Chitrangada.
340And his great risk in the fight with Vabruvahana. Then follows the story of the mongoose in the horse-sacrifice.
341Thus is described the wonderful Parva, called Ashwamedhika. Its number of chapters is one hundred and three.
342The number of slokas, composed by the greatly wise Rishi, is three thousand three hundred and twenty.
343-345Then comes the fifteenthParva, named Asramvasika, in which, abdicating the kingdom and accompanied by Gandhari and Vidura, the King Dhritarastra went to the forest. Seeing this, virtuous Pritha (Kunti), ever engaged In serving her superiors, left the kingdom of her sons and followed the old couple.
346His wonderful seeing of the spirits of the slain heroes through the favour of Vyasa.
347On this the old monarch abandoned his sorrow, and acquired with his wife the highest fruits of his virtuous deeds. Vidura also attained to the highest state, having leaned on virtue all his life.
348The learned son of Gavalgana, the wise and learned Sanjaya also attained to the highest state. Then it relates the meeting of the just king Yudhisthira with Narada.
349Yudhisthira heard from him the destruction of the Vrisni race. Thus is described this wonderful Parva, called Asramvasika.
350-351The number of chapters in it is forty-two and the number of slokas, composed by the great Rishi, learned m truth, is one thousand five hundred and six. Then is told the terrible Mausala Parva.
352-353It relates how on account of the Bramhana’s curse, when they were all deprived of their senses with drink, those tigers of men (belonging to the Vrisni race), with many scars of battle on their bodies, slew one another on the shores of the salt-sea with Eraka grass which became deadly thunders in their hands.
354It then relates that Rama and Krishna, after destroying their race, did not rise superior to the sway of all-destroying time.
355Then is described the arrival of Arjuna, the foremost of men, at Dwarka, and his sorrow and affliction on seeing the city destitute of the Vrisnis.
356Performing the funeral ceremony of his maternal uncle Vasudeva, the fore¬ most man of the Yadu dynasty, he saw the Yadu heroes lying dead where they had been drinking.
357He then performed the cremation ceremonies of the illustrious Krishna and Balarama, and of the other chief men of the Yadu race.
358Then is described the journey of Arjuna from Dwarka with the women, and children, the old and the decrepit, and the great calamity he met with on the way. He also saw the overthrow of his Gandiva.
559He also saw propitiousness of his celestial weapons. Seeing that it was impossible to protect the Yadu women,
360And seeing all this, he went to Yudhisthira by the advice of Vyasa, and asked permission to adopt the life of an ascetic.
361-362Thus is described the sixteenth Parva, called Mausala Parva. Its number of chapters is eight and the number of slokas, composed by Vyasa, learned in truth, is three hundred ana twenty. The next is Mahaprasthanika, the seventeenth Parva,
363It relates that the best of men, the Pandavas, abdicating their kingdom went with Draupadi in their great journey (Mahaprasthana).
364They met with Agni when they arrived at the sea of red waters. Asked by Agni, the high-sould Partha.
365-366After worshipping him duly, returned to him the great celestial bow Gandiva. Yudhisthira went on his journey and did not look back when one after the other his brothers, including Draupadi, dropped down dead. Thus is told the seventeenth Parva, called Mahaprasthanika.
367There are three chapters in it, and the number of slokas, composed by all truth-knowing Vyasa, is three hundred and twenty.
368Know, the Parva that comes next is called Sarga, full of heavenly matters; in which is related how the celestial car came to take Yudhisthira.
369-370He, however, declined to ascend it without the doe that accompanied him. Seeing the steady adherence of the illustrious Yudhisthira to virtue Dharma giving up the form of the dog, showed himself to the king. Then Yudhisthira, attaining to the celestial regions, felt much pain.
371The celestial messenger showed him hell by deception, where the virtuous minded king heard the heart-rending lamentations of his brothers,
372Suffering in that region by the laws of Yama. This was shown to Yudhisthira by Indra and Dharma.
373Then Yudhisthira, after bathing in the celestial Ganga, gave up his human body and gained that state which his acts merited.
374He lived in happiness, honoured by Indra and the celestials. This is the eighteenth Parva narrated by the illustrious Vyasa.
375-376The number of chapters in it is five, and its number of slokas, O Rishis, composed by the great Vyasa, is two hundred and nine. These are the contents of the eighteen Parvas.
377-378There are Harivansa and Vavisya in its appendix. The number of slokas, composed by the great Rishi in the Harivansa, is twelve thousand. These are the contents of the chapters called Parva Sangraha in the Bharata.
379Souti said: Eighteen Akshauhinis of soldiers assembled to fight and the battle raised for eighteen days.
380He who is learned in the four Vedas with all the Angas and Upanishadas, but does not know this history, cannot be considered to be wise.
381The greatly intelligent Vyasa has spoken it as a treatise on Dharma, Artha and Kama.
382Those w r ho have heard it can never listen to other histories, as those who have heard the sweet voice of the male Kakila (bird) can never listen to the harsh cawing of the crows.
383As the three worlds have enveloped from the five elements, so inspiration of all poets proceed from this excellent work.
384O Brahmanas, as the four kinds of creatures depend on space for their existence, so all the Puranas depend on this history.
385As all the senses are dependent on the wonderful workings of the mind, so all the acts and moral qualities depend on this treatise.
386As the body depends on the food it takes, so all the stories current in the world depend on this work.
387As servants, willing to have preferment, always depend on their noble masters, so do all poets depend on this Bharata.
388As the blessed domestic Asrama cannot be surpassed by the other Asramas, so can no poet surpass this poem.
389O Rishis, be up and doing. Let your hearts be fixed in virtue, for virtue is the only friend in the other world. Even the most intelligent men can never make their wealth and wives their own by carefully cherishing them. They are not things lasting.
390The Bharata, uttered from the lips of Dwaipayana is matchless, it is sacred, it is virtue itself. It destroys sins and produces good. What is the necessity for him, who ears it when it is being recited, to bathe in the sacred Pushkara!
391Whatever sin is committed in the day by a Brahmana through his senses arc all purged off, if he reads the Bharata in the evening.
392Whatever sins also he may commit in the night by deeds, words or mind are ail purged of, if he reads the Bharata in the first twilight of the morning.
393He who gives to a Brahmana, learned in the Vedas and other sciences, one hundred cows with their horns plated with gold, and he who listens daily to the sacred histories of the Bharata, gam equal merit.
394As the wide ocean can be easily crossed by men having boats, so this extensive history of great excellence and deep meaning can be understood by the help of this chapter which is called Parva-Sangraha.

ARTICOLI CORRELATI
- Link esterno -spot_img

Popolari

Commenti recenti