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Vayu Purana – Purva Kandha 1-8

Vayu Purana

Purva Kandha 1-8

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Summary of Contents

Obeisance to Sri Ganesha. One should read or recite any Purana or Itihasa text after having paid obeisance to Narayana and Nara, the most excellent of men, as well as to goddess Sarasvati. Victory to Vyasa, the son of Parasara and the gladdener of the heart of Satyavati – Vyasa from whose lotus-like mouth flowed forth the nectar of words, which the whole universe imbibes.

1I seek refuge in Lord Isana (Siva), the eternal, steady, immutable, great god of noble soul, the lord of the entire universe.
2-6Desirous of knowing (more about) Puranas, legends, (etc.) I seek refuge in Lord Brahma, the creator of the worlds, (who is) omniscient, unvanquished, the noble lord of (everything) past, present and future; God Brahma, the lord of the universe in whom are inherent the four divine excellences, viz. unparalleled knowledge, detachment, supremacy and virtue (dharma), (Lord Brahma) who for ever visualizes all beings (irrespective of their being) manifest or unmanifest, which re-enter the Lord (Brahma) for cessation of activities (at the time of the dissolution of the universe); (God Brahma) the creator of the world, the knower of the reality of the world, the knower of the principles, who, resorting to Yoga, created all living beings mobile and immobile; the unborn lord, the creator of everything, the lord in the form of consciousness and the cosmic witness of the world.
7-9After bowing with devoted and pious mind to Brahma, Vayu and Indra, to the noble-souled Vasistha, the most excellent of the sages, and to his (Vasistha’s) great-grandson, Vyasa, Krishna Dvaipayana, who had attained pre-eminent fame as a sage of great purity, and to sage Jatukarna, I shall (now) narrate this Purana related by Brahma, which is on a par with the Vedas and which is embellished by sacred treatises consisting of sections on Dharma (virtue), Artha (wealth) and Nyaya (justice or right conduct).
10-12While AsimaKrshna, the valiant king of unequalled splendour and the most excellent among sovereigns was ruling over the Earth righteously, the sages of well-disciplined souls performed a sacrifice of long duration in the holy land of Kurukshetra on the sacred bank of the river Drsadvati. The sages were devoted to truth and holy rites. They were straightforward. Their sins had been quelled. They were quiescent, had full mental control and had conquered the sense-organs. They were within the precincts of the Naimisa forest and had been initiated in accordance with the sacred scriptures.
13-16The highly intelligent Suta who was the most excellent among the reciters of Puranas came there to see the sages. He became well-known to the world as Lomaharsana (the Thriller who made hair stand on their ends) as he thrilled the members of his audience with delight by his excellent (absorbing) narration. He was the most intelligent disciple of the sage Vedavyasa, the storehouse of penance, Vedic learning and good conduct. He was well-known in the three worlds. The entire Puranic lore was well established in him. His scholarship had become extensive through his study of the Mahabharata. Stories conducive to (four Purus orthos, viz.) Dharma (virtue), Artha (wealth), Kama (desire) and Moksa (liberation) were firmly rooted in him. Wise sayings and sage discourses came forth from him as medicinal herbs from the (mother) earth.
17He (the Suta) who was an adept in decorum, approached the highly intelligent and prominent sages as per proper procedure. After coming near, he paid them obeisance with folded palms. That brilliant scholar pleased those sages by prostrating himself before them (to show respect).
18The lustrous sages who were performing sessional sacrifices were delighted; so also, were the members of the sacrificial assembly. They duly greeted him with gentle words and honoured him.
19On seeing that highly reliable scholar Lomaharsana, there arose in them the desire to hear the Purana.
20The chief householder (the sponsor) of that sacrificial session who was an expert in all (sacred) lores, understood their desire from their gestures. Consequently, he urged the Suta (as follows):
21“O Suta! For learning Itihasa and Puranas, the venerable and highly intelligent sage Vyasa, the greatest among the knowers of Brahman (or Vedas), has been properly served and propitiated by you. And you have (as if) milked from his intellectual store, legends based on ancient tradition.
22The prominent sages are anxious to hear the Purana. Therefore, it behoves you to narrate those legends to them.
23All the noble persons, the knowers of Brahman (or Veda) who have assembled here, belong to different clans (gotras), May they hear about their respective clan-genealogies through the Puranas.
24Please expound (the Purana) to these sages, who, along with their sons, have assembled here for this sacrifice of a long duration. Indeed, you have been (strongly) remembered by us while we were being consecrated for this sacrifice.”
25Urged thus for (narrating) the Purana by the sages who were interested in (had some knowledge of) the Puranas and were devoted to truth and holy rites, the Suta agreed to the proposal (and said).
26-27Suta said: It is the incumbent duty of the Suta, ordained by saintly men of yore to preserve the genealogies of gods, sages and the most glorious kings and the traditions of great men as recorded in (earlier) Itihasas and Puranas by those well- versed in the Vedic lore (or expounders of Brahman).
28-29But nowhere is the eligibility of the Suta for the Vedic lore (such as recitation of the Veda etc.) seen (prescribed). While the sacrifice of the noble-souled (king) Prithu, the son of Vena, was being performed, Suta appeared for the first time extracting Soma (on the prescribed Sutya day) for offering unto the fire, but he became of a mixed caste as the oblation intended for Brihaspati was got mixed up with the one intended for Indra and was offered to god Indra. Therefrom was born the Suta due to this grievous mistake and expiatory rites had to be performed (in that sacrifice) as atonement for the error.
30As he was born (as a pratiloma child) from a Ksatriya (male), a lower caste man, of a Brahmana woman, on account of his similarities of the inherent qualities of the former (i.e. Ksatriya), he is proclaimed as having similar duties (like those of a Ksatriya).
31Thus the Suta who was born of a Brahmana receptacle from a Ksatriya source, has (some) qualities with the former (caste) and so has some identity of duties with them.
32His middling duty (way of maintenance) is the pursuit depending on Ksatriya profession such as maintaining chariots, elephants and horses. Practice of medicine was his inferior duty.
33Since I have been commanded by expounders of Brahman like you, to follow my duty, how can I decline to narrate to you in details the Purana so highly worshipped by sages.
34Vasavi was born as the mental daughter of the Pitris (manes). Being cursed by her father, she was born in the species (womb) of a fish.
35Vyasa, the great yogin and the foremost among the knowers of the Vedas, was born of her, just as fire is born of the arani stick.
36I make obeisance to Vyasa, the venerable sage, protagonist of Bhrigu’s lore, the ancient Purusa, the great lord Vishnu in the guise of a human being.
37Even as he was born, the entire Vedic lore in all its compendiums appeared before him, but he formally attained it from Jatukarna, as it was his duty to study it from a preceptor.
38He churned the ocean of the Vedas with the churning rod of his intellect and produced the Moon in the form of the Mahabharata.
39Just as a tree proliferates into many branches after reaching fertile soil and in congenial season, the tree in the form of the Veda spread out in different branches after reaching him (Vyasa).
40I have listened to this Purana from that omniscient expounder of Brahman, who is conversant with the Vedas, who is honoured by all and is of blazing brilliance.
41I shall now relate in detail the Purana narrated by Vayu formerly, when he was urged by the noble sages of Naimisha.
42The ultimate cause is the four-armed, four-faced, supreme Mahesvara, the unmanifest, the inconceivable, the inscrutable and the self-born god.
43It is certain that he created the unmanifest cause and whatever is permanent, in the form of existent and non-existent, beginning with Mahat (the great principle, the cosmic intellect) and ending with Visesa.
44-45The incomparable golden cosmic egg was born from it. The cosmic egg was enveloped by the waters; the waters by the fire; the fire by the wind; the wind by the ether; the ether by the cosmic Ego; that Ego by the cosmic intellect (Mahat) and that intellect by the Unmanifest (avyakta).
46-47Hence in this Purana, the origins of all the gods and sages are narrated. The origin of rivers and mountains is explained; all the Manvantaras and Kalpas are described; legends about Brahmanas and Kshatriyas and the birth of Brahmanas are retold.
48Then the creatorship of Brahma and the creation of the subjects (beings) are explained as also the various states of Brahma, born of the Unmanifest.
49The number of years of the Kalpas, the establishment of the worlds, the slumber of Vishnu and the uplift of the Earth (are described).
50The mode of planning cities etc. in accordance with castes and stages of life; the cutting of trees planted in dwelling places and those naturally grown (in the forest) (are discussed).
51A detailed description of the paths and their measurements and the allocation of places in the heaven to the mortals of this world (is given).
52Description of (different species of) trees, medicinal trees, plants and creepers (is given). How mortals attain the status of trees, Hellish beings, and insects is also explained.
53The two paths of the deities and the sages are mentioned. The creation and destruction of food etc., and of bodies is also mentioned.
54In the beginning, out of sacred literature, the Purana was remembered by Brahma. Then the Vedas came forth out of his mouths.
55The ancillaries of the Vedas, the Dharmasastras (codes of the law like Smrtis), holy rites, religious observances and restraints, origin of animals and human beings are explained.
56Similarly are explained the total components of Kalpas; the nine types of unintentional creation by Brahma are described.
57Then the three creations without the cosmic intellect; how the worlds came into being and Dharma (virtue) etc. originated from the limbs of Brahma’s body.
58The twelve species of beings that are born again and again in a Kalpa; the duration of Kalpas and the period of transition from one Kalpa to another.
59The origin of Adharma from Brahma on being enveloped by Tamas; the birth of Satarupa,2 thereafter (is described).
60The birth of Priyavrata, Uttanapada, Prasuti and Akuti the sinless ones in whom the subjects are established.
61The birth of twins to Akuti by Ruci, the Prajapati, and the birth of daughters of Daksha through Prasuti.
62The procreation by great-souled Dharma from Daksha’s daughters like Sraddha, of a race characterised by SattvaGuna giving rise to happiness.
63As well as the race of Adharma (unrighteousness) from Himsa (violence) characterised by TamoGuna and inauspiciousness. Then is glorified the progeny of Mahesvara from Sati.
64The receptacle of Yoga recounted again to the twice – born ones (who were) desirous of liberation that type of Yoga (which was) mentioned to blemish less (god) Brahma.
65The incarnation and the supreme glory of Rudra, the legends relating to the three Vedas and the great dialogue are then mentioned.
66Eulogies of Lord Siva by Brahma and Narayana at which that God was pleased, has been described.
67The manifestation of Lord Rudra from Brahma’s body and the origin of the name Rudra because he, the Lord, had cried, (has been glorified).
68How that God obtained the eight names such as Rudra and others from Brahma and how the three worlds constituting the mobile and immobile beings are pervaded by them.
69The creation of progeny by Bhrigu and other sages as well as the glorification of the lineage of Vasistha, the Brahmana sage, (is described) here.
70The progeny of Agni through Svaha and that of the Pitris of two classes through Svadha, thereafter (are mentioned).
71-72In the context of the line of Pitris, the cursing of Daksha, and intelligent (sages like) Bhrigu and others for the sake of Sati and the counter-curse of Rudra by Daksha of wonderful activities and the ultimate termination of the enmity between them has been narrated in details here.
73Their individual appointments in different continents and lands and the description of creation by Svayambhuva Manu.
74The creation of Nabhi and the noble-souled Rajas; the enumeration of continents, oceans and mountains.
75The description of different Varsas (sub-continents), rivers and their tributaries and the numerous divisions of the seven main continents.
76The extent of the zones of the continent of Jambu Dvipa and the ocean; their extent in Yojanas along with their mountains (are mentioned).
77The mountains in the sub-continents, mountain (ranges) dividing (this) sub-continent, viz. Himavan, Hemakuta, Nishadha, Meru, Nila, Sveta and Syngavan.
78Their internal dimensions, heights, lengths and extents (measured) in Yojanas, and the residents are described.
79The sub-continents such as Bharata; the rivers and mountains therein, as inhabited by the stable and moving beings.
80The continents Jambu etc. encircled by the seven oceans, the watery land (?) and the Lokaloka are described.
81These worlds and the earth with its seven continents as enveloped by the cosmic egg; the worlds Bhu etc., and their natural surroundings are described.
82Everything is described in brief along with its diameter and circumference even to the smallest fraction of the whole measure.
83The magnitudes of the sun, the moon and the earth in Yojanas with their present presiding deities. So also, the holy assemblies of Mahendra and others on the northern peak of Manasa.
84Thereafter, the movement of heaven like the circular movement of the firebrand, is mentioned. The characteristics of Nagavithi and Ajavithi are also described.
85Then is stated the Yojanas of the two extremities, the two borders and the zones of Lokaloka. The extent of twilight, day and the equinoxes is mentioned.
86-87Then the guardians of the world who are stationed in the four quarters are described. The southern and the northern paths of the manes and the deities, the paths of householders and the ascetics as based on the qualities of Rajas and Sattva are described. The region of Vishnu where Dharma etc. are established is glorified.
88The course of movements of the sun, moon, planets and luminaries due to the (controlling) power of Dhruva, the pole- star, and the auspicious and inauspicious effects (of their movement) on the people.
89The chariot of the sun prepared by Brahma himself for some special purpose is mentioned. Seated on this chariot, the Sun-god moves in the firmament.
90That chariot is occupied by the gods, the different suns, sages, divine musicians, celestial damsels, Yaksas, serpents and Rakshasas.
91So also the chariot of the moon which is constituted of the essence of waters is described. The increase and decrease of the moon, caused by the sun, are also mentioned.
92The movement of the chariots of the sun and others (starting) from the polestar is described in details, as also the tortoise-shaped arrangement of the heavenly bodies with the pole-star stationed at the tail (end) (is narrated).
93The stars in the form of constellations are mentioned along with the planets wherein are situated the residences of the gods who have performed meritorious acts.
94-106The exudation of rain, chilliness and heat from the thousand rays of the sun and the division of rays by their names, functions and purpose; the magnitude of the planets and their courses depending on the sun; the manner how the throat of Siva became blue on account of poison; how the trident-bearing lord swallowed poison when implored by Brahma; the eulogy of the supreme lord Siva by Vishnu who is eulogised by the gods; the holy sin-dispelling narrative of the origin of the Linga. Wonderful transformation of Pradhana through the cosmic form; the narrative of the greatness of Pururavas, son of Ila; the propitiation of the two classes of manes by means of nectar; the Parvans (auspicious occasions based on the position of the moon) as also their junctures; the propitiation by means of Sraddha of the two classes of manes, viz. those who have gone to the heaven and those who have fallen down to the nether regions; the duration and the number of Yugas. The introduction of agriculture and such occupations as means of livelihood in Treta Yuga due to their decrease in comparison with Krita Yuga; the enumeration of the castes and stages of life and the narration of their activities. The establishment of the castes and stages of life by virtuous means; the introduction of the institution of sacrifice; the dialogue between the sages with Vasu and Vasu’s descent (to the nether worlds); the inexpressibility of (answers to) questions except by Svayambhuva Manu. The merits of penance, the periods of Yugas in their entirety, the brief narration of the events in Dvapara and Kali Yugas; the magnitudes of the girth, height and longevity of gods, animals and human beings in the different Yugas according to the efficacy and power of the Yugas; the characteristics of the good and their advent; the narration of the Vedic and non-Vedic Mantras; the extent of the branches (of the Vedas); the appellation of Vedavyasa and others; the dissolution of Manvantaras and their re-creation after dissolution—all these are mentioned in detail.
107Since the account of (creation etc.) of the deities, sages, Manus and the Pitris cannot be given in detail, hence they are mentioned briefly.
108The number of years of the present Manvantara is mentioned in terms of human years. The same applies to all Manvantaras.
109-110The description of the past and future Manvantaras is given on the basis of the present Manvantara. So also, the characteristics and the time duration of the transition from period of the past and future Manvantaras are given with reference to the Svayambhuva Manvantara. The scheme of three Manvantaras and the knowledge of time are also recounted.
111-112The account of Devas and Prajapatis in the Manvantaras, Daksha’s grandsons, the sons of his favourite daughters and those that were procreated by Brahma and others as well as by the intelligent Daksha. The Manus, viz. Savarni and others, residing on the Meru; the description of the lineage of Dhruva, the son of Uttanapada.
113The milking of the Earth (as started) by Prithu, son of Vena; the specification of vessels and their content of milk; the description of races as well as how formerly this earth was milked by Brahma and others.
114The birth of Daksha, the intelligent Prajapati in Marisa from the ten Pracetas through a part of the moon.
115The sovereignty of Mahendras over the beings of the past, present and future, the creation of Manus and others and the various anecdotes of their lives.
116The creative activity of Vaivasvata Manu is recounted in details. So also, is narrated the birth of Bhrigu and others from the semen of god Brahma at the time of the great sacrifice when the Lord assumed Varuna’s form.
117After the narration of the auspicious creation (Pro- creative activity) of Caksusa Manu that of Daksha by means of meditation is narrated.
118Narada, son of Brahma, destroyed the mighty sons of Daksha after speaking pleasing words to them. He thus invited (Daksha’s) curse.
119Then Daksha procreated in Virini his renowned daughters. The procreation (procreative)activity sanctioned by religion (law) of the intelligent Kasyapa is then narrated.
120Thereafter, the unity, diversity and specialities of Brahma, Vishnu and Siva are narrated.
121How gods were cursed from being all-powerful by the self-born Brahma (is narrated). The attainment of Marut-hood by the Maruts born of Diti from divine elements is then narrated.
122The classification of Maruts into seven groups of seven each, their attainment of godhood, the order of the Pitris and fixation of their abodes in Vayu are narrated.
123The creation of Daityas, Danavas, Gandharvas, serpents, Rakshasas, goblins, ghosts, animals, birds, creepers and the celestial damsels is then narrated in great detail.
124The birth of the elephant Airavata from the ocean, the birth of Garuda and his coronation (are also narrated).
125-126Detailed narration (is then made) of the descendants of Bhrigu, Angiras, Kasyapa, Pulastya, the noble Atri and the sage Parasara. The progeny of Devas and the sages is described thereafter.
127The three Virgins in whom all the worlds are founded are then glorified. Then the grandsons of the Pitris are mentioned and the birth of Devas is described.
128A detailed description of the Lord and that of the five souls and the progeny of Ila and then that of Aditya (the Sun-god) is given.
129The legend of Vikuksi, the slaying of Dhundhu, and the line of rulers from Iksvaku to Brhadbala are briefly related.
130The progeny from Nimi to Jahnugana and even that of king Yayati is described.
131The description of the dynasties of Yadu, Haihaya and later that of Kroshtri is given.
132The glory of Jyamagha, the creation of subjects of the noble souls Devavrdha, ARika and Vristi are described.
133The divine accusation of Vishnu, the attainment of a precious jewel from the Sun-god (are described).
134The creation of the progeny of noble-souled Yudhajit as well as that of the glorious royal sage Devamidhusa are narrated.
135-136Again the birth and doings of the great-souled (Vishnu), the wickedness of Kamsa, the birth in seclusion of Vishnu the Prajapati as the son of Vasudeva and Devaki and later the procreation by Vishnu (Krishna).
137In the feud between Devas and Asuras, when, while protecting Indra, a woman (Bhrigu’s wife, Sukra’s mother) was slain by Vishnu, He incurred the curse of Bhrigu. Bhrigu however brought back to life the divine lady, Sukra’s mother.
138There were wars between Devas and Asuras for twelve myriads of years entailing great loss of life. (The exploits of) Narasimha and others are extolled.
139Propitiation of god Siva was achieved through performance of penance by wise Sukra. Being intensely desirous of getting a boon, he eulogised Siva. Thereafter are described the activities of gods and demons.
140While the noble-souled Sukra was engaged with Jay anti, the intelligent Brihaspati, assuming the form of Sukra deluded the Asuras. So, the mighty brilliant Sukra cursed them (all).
141Next, the birth and glory of Lord Vishnu are described. Turvasu was the grandson of Sukra, born of his daughter Devayam, from Yadu. Kings Anu, Druhyu and Puru were the sons of Yayati.
142Noble and excellent kings of this family endowed with brilliance and wealth and possessing eternal fame are described.
143-144aThe close adherence to Dharma by the Brahmana sage Kausika is narrated, and also how Surabhi (the divine cow) dispelled the curse of Brihaspati.
144bThe praise of the family of Jahnu as also the prowess of Santanu are also narrated.
145A brief description of the seven Manus of the future and a description of the destruction (of the universe) at the end of Kaliyuga of the last (Bhauma) Manvantara (are given).
146The significance of the terms Para and Parardha (is explined) and the ascertainment of the extent of the universe in terms of Yojanas (is done).
147Three types of dissolutions of all living beings, viz. Naimittika (periodical), Prakritika (of prakriti—primordial nature) and Atyantika (ultimate) are then described.
148-149Then, there is the description of the drought caused by the sun, of the terrible fire Sarhvartaka, of the cloud, of the single vast ocean, of the wind, of the noble soul’s (Brahma’s) night and of the calculation of periods, especially the period of Brahma. Then the description of the seven worlds beginning with the earth (Bhu) and of hells beginning with Raurava is given.
150The excellent abode of Siva lies above the region of Brahma where all living beings attain merger at the time of annihilation (of the universe).
151-152Then the end of all living beings, the total annihilation after the death (lit. destruction) of Brahma, the eight kinds and the eight forms of the vital breath, the upward and downward course (of the deceased) due to their resorting to virtuous and evil deeds in life.
153Repeated destruction of the Mahabhutas (the primary elements), the non-eternality of (even) god Brahma after enumeration of miseries (are described).
154-155The evil nature of pleasures and the ascertainment of their result, difficulties of attaining liberation, perception of defects through detachment, establishment of the being in Brahman after casting away the manifest and the unmanifest and its realisation through the knowledge of diversity are all described in details.
156The supreme bliss of Brahman is stated to be free from threefold distress, formless and unsullied. He who has realized it, has no fear from anywhere.
157A further creation by another Brahma is then narrated as before and so also the race of sages and the destruction of all sins.
158Thus have been described the contents of this Purana. Therein are also described the changes, and dissolutions of the universe, as also the tendencies of the living beings and the fruits of abstention from worldly acts.
159The birth of Vasistha and his son Sakti, the slaying of Sakti by (Kalmasapada), son of Sudas at the instigation of the sage Visvamitra (are described).
160The birth of Parasara (from Adrisyanti) and how the sage Vyasa was born of the daughter of Pitris from that holy sage.
161The birth of Suka; how the intelligent Parasara and his son (Vyasa) incurred the wrath of Visvamitra.
162And how the sacrificial fire was kindled by Vasishta, how that sacrifice was shrewdly spoiled by divine means by lord Skanda, seeking the welfare of the sage Visvamitra, and for the sake of progeny.
163How the holy sage Vyasa, by the power of his intelligence, divided the single Veda into four ones and how, further, these were redacted into several branches by his disciples and grand disciples.
164How (Brahma) was asked by the sages of the six illustrious families about the practical application of the Vedas in sacrifices; how the sages desirous of religious rites were answered by Brahma on being thus asked; how the sages desired for a holy region and how Brahma, being desirous of achieving their welfare, (gave them a wheel and told them:).
165“This wheel has a fine nave, its form and name are divine; it has truth for its spokes; its revolution is auspicious, and it is incomparable. You follow it alertly but with self-restraint as it proceeds ahead. You will then attain what is wholesome for you.
166The place where the rim of this wheel of law, during its motion ahead is shattered, must be regarded as holy.” After saying thus to the sages Brahma vanished from sight.
167(It is mentioned) how Ganga conceived the golden foetus and how the place acquired the name Naimisa. And how the sages performed the long sacrifices there and how Saradvat was restored to life.
168How with great faith, the sages of Naimisa widened the earth and set up a king whom they honoured with hospitality in accordance with the injunctions of the sacred scriptures.
169The king who was thus pleased with their hospitality was abducted by the cruel Asura Svarbhanu1 who disappeared with him.
170They followed the abducted king Aila (Pururavas) and as before they saw him in the village Kalapa2 in the company of Gandharvas.
171(It is mentioned) how he joined the great sages and (how) he saw the golden vessels in their sacrifice.
172How in the twelve year-long sacrifice (King) Aila engaged in disputation and scuffle and was slain by the sages of Naimisa.
173How they created Ayus, son or Aila, from within the Arani, concluded the sacrifice and served Ayus.
174O excellent Brahmanas, all this has been described as it happened. The knowledge of worldly affairs of the sages is indeed great.
175This Purana, (which is) conducive to excellent knowledge, had formerly been narrated by Brahma. The incarnation of Rudra for the welfare of the Brahmanas (has been mentioned).
176So also the (Pasupata) Yoga of Siva and the regions sacred to him have been glorified. How lord Siva became blue- throated and how he manifested in the linga-form has also been described.
177All this was mentioned to the Brahmanas by Vayu who propounded Brahman. The recital of this Purana, listening to this Purana and committing it to memory in particular, is conducive to wealth, fame and longevity. It is holy and it dispels sins.
178Now it is going to be narrated in the above order. Even lengthy narrations, if stated in a brief form, are grasped with ease. And hence the above summary. What has been indicated above in brief will be narrated in detail by me below.
179Even he who, with the composure of mind, studies this first section would have understood the whole of this Purana. There is no doubt in this.
180-181A Brahmana, who may know the four Vedas with the Angas and Upanishads, cannot really be regarded as having attained proficiency, if he has not thoroughly known the Puranas also. He should re-inforce the Veda with the Itihasa and Purana. The Veda is afraid of him who is deficient in tradition, thinking “he will hurt me.”
182Reciting [frequently this chapter which has been told by Brahma himself, one will be liberated even if he be involved in mishaps and will attain the goal of his desire.
183This is called Purana because it breathes (exists) from earliest times. Even he who understands the etymological interpretation of this would be liberated from all sins.
184Narayana (Lord Vishnu) pervades the entire universe and its functions. Lord Siva is the creator of the creator of that universe.
185Hence listen to this gist. Lord Siva is the supreme deity of this Purana. At the time of evolution, he creates the universe. At the time of dissolution, he withdraws it into himself.

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