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The Origin of Creation (Continued)
1-3Suta said, Water originated from fire. When the earth was destroyed in the fire and everything merged within (the water), when, therefore, the mobile and immobile beings were also destroyed, nothing could be known (seen) in that vast ocean of water. Then Brahma, called Narayana, lord Brahma of thousand eyes, thousand legs and thousand heads, the Purusa who is golden in complexion beyond the ken of sense organs, slept in that water.
4Due to the preponderance of Sattva, he woke up and he beheld that the world was a void. About Narayana they cite this verse.
5We have heard the epithet of waters, that waters are called Nara, and that they are minute or subtle bodies. Since he lies in waters, he is therefore called Narayana.
6Having spent the whole period of night equal to a thousand yugas, at the close of the night, he assumed Brahma hood for the purpose of creation.
7Brahma assumed the form of Vayu3 and moved about in the water like a glow-worm at night during the rainy season.
8-9Then having come to know definitely that the earth lies submerged in those waters and being convinced about it by reasoning (inference), he assumed another body as in the previous Kalpas for the lifting up of the earth. The noble soul then conceived mentally of a divine form.
10Observing that the earth was overflowed with waters on all sides, (he thought to himself), “Oh, what great form should I assume and uplift the earth?”
11He thought of the form of a Boar charmingly comfortable in sporting about in waters. It was unassailable by living beings. It was of the nature of speech and was designated as Dharma.
12It had a girth of ten and a height of a hundred Yojanas. It resembled a dark blue cloud in complexion. It grunted like the rumbling of thunderclouds.
13It had a huge body like a mountain. Its curved fangs were white and sharp and terrible. The eyes were brilliant like lightning and fire. Its lustre was like that of the sun.
14Its shoulders were round, plump and large. It had the lion’s valiant gait. Its buttocks were stout and lifted up (well developed). It had auspicious characteristics. It was charming.
15Assuming this large immeasurable form of a boar, Vishnu entered the nether regions in order to lift up the earth.
16He was the guide for the propounders of the Vedas. He had sacrifice for his chest and the fire altar (citi) for his face. The Fire was his tongue; the Darbha-grass was his hair and Brahma was his head. He was of great penance.
17The day and the night constituted his eyes. The ancillaries of the Vedas were his ear ornaments. The Ajya (ghee offering in sacrifice) was his nose; the sacrificial ladle was his snout. The sound of the Saman hymns was his roaring grunt.
18Endowed with glory as he was, he was an embodiment of truth and dharma and was established in virtuous valour. He was engaged in expiation. He was terrible. He had the huge form with the knees of an animal.
19His body was straightened up. The offerings of ghrita constituted his Linga (symbol). The (sacrificial) spot was his seed. He was the great medicinal herb (incarnate for curing distress). The altar was his inner soul. Mantras were his hips. The Soma mixed with clarified butter was his blood.
20The Vedas were his shoulders. He had the fragrance of sacrificial offering. The Havya (oblations for the Devas) and Kavya (oblations for the Pitris) constituted his velocity. Pragvamsa (the room accommodating the sacrifices) was his body. He was lustrous and had undergone different initiations.
21The sacrificial fees constituted his heart. He was an all-pervading Yogin in the form of a great Sattva. He was charming with the sacrificial rites of Upakarman. Pravargya (a rite in which hot milk is poured in a vessel, thus giving rise to fumes) constituted the whorls of hair on his chest.
22His gait and paths were the different Chandas. The secret Upanisads constituted his seat. He was accompanied by his consort Chaya. He was lofty like a jewelled peak. Having thus assumed the form of a sacrificial Boar, the lord entered the waters.
23-24He, the lord of the subjects, got at the Earth covered with the waters. He approached and lifted it quickly. He diverted the waters of the oceans in the oceans and of the rivers in the rivers. The lord, for the welfare of the worlds, lifted with his curved fangs, the Earth that had gone deep into the nether world.
25Holding the Earth in his hands he brought it to its place. The supporter of the Earth at first mentally supported the earth and then released it.
26Over the flood of waters, the Earth floated like an immense boat. Due to the activities of the lord, it did not sink.
27With a desire to set up the universe, the lord lifted up the Earth. Then, he, the lotus-eyed lord, decided to divide the Earth. He levelled the Earth and created the mountains on it.
28Formerly when the creation was burnt by the Samvartaka fire, all the mountains, being consumed by that fire, lay shattered and scattered all over the earth.
29In that Ekarnava (the ocean of cosmic waters) the waters (solidified by cold) and collected by wind and were placed in a scattered manner here and there (wherever they were thus deposited); they became condensed into mountains.
30Since they became motionless after being (thus) sprinkled, they were known as Acalas. Since they are endowed with knots and joints, they were called Parvatas. Since they had been swallowed and hidden (formerly), they were called Giris, since they had been collected, they were called Siloccayas.
31Thus after the worlds, oceans and mountains are destroyed at the end of a Kalpa, the Maker (Creator) of the universe creates them again and again, in the beginnings of the Kalpas.
32He again created this earth along with the ocean, seven continents and mountains, as well as the four worlds, viz. Bhur and others. After creating the worlds, he began the creation of the subjects.
33Desirous of creating different species of subjects, the self-born lord Brahma recreated the beings in the same form as they had in the previous Kalpas.
34When he was contemplating over the creation intellectually, the dark and gloomy creation manifested itself simultaneously with Pradhana.
35Nescience (Avidya) with five joints, viz. darkness, delusion, super-delusion, murikiness and super-murikiness, became manifested out of the Supreme Soul.
36While he meditated; the creation became established in five ways. Just as a lamp is covered up with a pot, the creation was enveloped by darkness. Like a lamp lighted in a pitcher illuminated within and (dark) without, it was pure but devoid of feeling.
37Its intellect and sense organs were concealed; it consisted of vegetation and since vegetation is declared to be primary it was called primary creation.
38On seeing that the creation did not multiply, Brahma was dissatisfied and he went into contemplation.
39-40When he contemplated thus the Tiryaksrotas (the animal world) came into being. Since this creation proceeded obliquely, it was called Tiryaksrotas. Predominated by Tamas, they were mainly ignorant. They took to wrong direction. They were self-swayed and devoted to self.
41-42The lord saw this second creation of Tiryaksrotas, proud of themselves, conceited and divided into twenty-eight— eleven based on the sense organs, nine of Udaya and the eight of Taraka and other Saktis.
43They were all illuminated within but covered externally. Since their activity was oblique, they were called Tiryaksrotas.
44Having seen the second universe, the Tiryaksrotas, and having observed everything of it of that designation (nature), the Lord conceived of the (following) idea: Even as he was thinking uninterruptedly (nityam), the Sattvika creation appeared (of itself, automatically).
45This third creation was called Urdhvasrotas, consisting of beings in which the stream of life passed upwards. Since life proceeded upwards it was called Urdhvasrotas.
46The Urdhvasrotas beings have abundance of comfort and pleasure. They are circumscribed outwardly and inwardly and are brilliant externally and internally.
47These created beings are air etc. They are well settled after creating themselves. The Urdhvasrotas being the third (in the series of creations), that creation is known after them.
48When gods with upward stream (the divine creation of Urdhvasrotas} were created god Brahma was satisfied. As he was the competent Over-Lord, he thought of and created beings that would be Sadhakas (aspirants after spiritual power).
49While he began contemplating, and since he was of truthful (effective) conception, the Arvaksrotas that could accomplish the task of creation, manifested themselves out of the unmanifest (Avyakta). Since the stream of life proceeded downwards, they are called Arvaksrotas.
50They are characterized by the abundance of brilliance and were dominated by the attributes Tamas, Sattva and Rajas. Hence they have excess of misery and are continuously engaged in activities.
51They are human beings who are enlightened externally and internally and accomplish the task of creation. Through the characteristics of Taraka etc. they are of eight types.
52These human beings are of accomplished souls. They are of the same nature as Gandharvas. Thus, the creation of Arvaksrotas of Tejas (Light) has been narrated.
53The fifth creation called Anugraha is of four types, through Viparyaya (Contrariety), Sakti (Power), Tusti (Satisfaction) and Siddhi (achievement). The created beings know factually the past and the present objects.
54The sixth creation is said to be that of beings such as Bhutadi. Bhutadi is characterized by contrariety and disability.
55The first creation is of Mahat, it is known as Mahatsarga. The second is the creation of Tanmatras and is called the creation of the Bhutas.
56The third creation is that of Vikaras (the products of Prakpti) and is perceptible by the senses. Thus, the PraKrita creation took place with conscious foreknowledge.
57The “Mukhyd” creation is the fourth in order. The Mukhyas are the immobile beings. The creation of Tiryaksrotas is the fifth consisting of animals.
58The sixth creation of Urdhvasrotas consists of divine beings. The seventh creation of the Arvaksrotas is that of mankind.
59The eighth creation is Anugraha. It is characterised by Sattva and Tamas. These (latter) five are the Vaikyta creation and the (first) three are Prakrita.
60-61The ninth creation Kaumara is both PraKrita and Vaikyta. The three Prakrita creations were brought about without planning or pre-meditation. The six creations of Brahma function intelligently. Now understand the Anugraha Sarga in detail.
62-63It is of four types found in all living beings through contrariety, power, satisfaction and achievement. In the immobile beings there is Viparyasa (contrariety or loss of consciousness). In the animals, there is Sakti (power). Human beings are Siddhatmans (with souls capable of achieving spiritual progress). In Devas there is Tusti (satisfaction).
64There are thus the nine creations including Prakritas and Vaikritas. By their mutual combination, the types are many.
65-66At the beginning, Brahma created three mental sons equal to himself, viz. Sanandana, Sanaka and the intelligent Sanatana who possessed great power and enlightenment Those (sons) of great splendour and strength renounced (the world) due to their special knowledge of Vivarta (the unreal appearance of the world in place of Brahman). Due to multiplicity, they were spiritually awakened. They were abandoned (by their father). Without creating any subjects they retired.
67When they had left, Brahma created other mental sons who could accomplish the object. They identified themselves with their position and abided till the final dissolution of the world. (Now) know them by their names:
68-70They are water, fire, earth, air, ether, quarters, heaven, firmament, oceans, rivers, mountains, plants, the “souls” of medicinal herbs, trees and creepers, units of time, Lavas, Kasthas, Kalas, Muhurtas, Sandhis (junctions of day and night like dusk, dawn etc.), night, day, fortnights, months, Ayanas, years and Yugas. These are the positions with which they identify themselves.
71The classes of society are born of his limbs: Brahmanas (were created) out of his mouth; Kshatriyas out of his arms; Vaishyas out of his thighs; and Sudras out of his feet.
72The lord is beyond Avyakta (unmanifest Prakriti). The Cosmic Egg is born of the unmanifest. Brahma is born of the Cosmic Egg. The worlds are created by him.
73Thus this first section has been narrated to you all very briefly and not in details. The whole of this Purana is briefly narrated in this first Pada (quarter).