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Vayu Purana – Purva Kandha 49-56

– 50 –

The Nether worlds: Manifestation of the Luminaries

1Understand the magnitude of the earth below and above. The earth, wind, sky, water and the fifth (element) fire are proclaimed as infinite primary elements which are all-pervading.
2-3The earth is the mother of all beings. It is called Dhara as it sustains all animals and living beings. It is spread over with various countries and is teeming with many towns and abodes. It has many (big) rivers, rivulets and mountains. It is crowded with all classes of people. (Hence) this extremely extensive goddess earth is praised as infinite.
4-5Water is present in rivers, oceans, small receptacles such as ponds or puddles, mountains, firmament and the bowels of the earth. Hence water should be regarded as infinite. Similarly, the element of fire pervades all the worlds. It is said to be infinite, all-pervasive and born of everything.
6Similarly, the firmament is well-known as support less, charming, the support (accommodate) of various things and infinite. The wind is born of the Ether.
7Waters lie within the earth and the earth is established over waters. The sky is above, the earth is below (it) and again waters are underneath.
8In this way there is no end to the evolutes of the Bhutas. They are infinite. Know that this has been decisively mentioned by gods formerly.
9The sequence should be known thus. First the earth, then the water and the sky thereafter. This order prevails upto the seventh world—Rasatala.
10The nether world extends to ten thousand Yojanas at each rung. Each of these rungs has been explained in detail by the sages.
11The first rung is Atala, below that is Sutala. The widely extensive Vitala is below that.
12Thereafter come Gabhastala, Mahatala, Sri tala and Patala is known as the seventh.
13-14The ground surface of the first (nether-world) is black; of the second, pale white; of the third, red; of the fourth, yellow; of the fifth, sandy, gravel-covered; of the sixth, rocky; and of the seventh, golden.
15-19In the first nether world, there stands the palace of the lord of Asuras, Namuci, the enemy of Indra. The following abodes too are in the first nether-world, viz. the abode of Mahanada, the city of Sankukarna, the palace of Kabandha, Niskulada’s town fully inhabited by delighted (jolly) people, the abode of the demon Bhima, the mansion of Suladanta, the city of Lohitaksas and Kalingas, the town of Svapada, the city of Dhananjaya and of the noble-souled Nagendra (Lord of Serpents), the city of Kaliya, the serpent and that of Kalasa. Thus it should be known undoubtedly that there are thousands of cities (and abodes) of Serpents, Danavas and Rakshasas in the first nether-world with black-soil.
20-24In the second Nether-world (Su)Tala, O Brahmanas, there are the abodes of the following: the city of the first lord of the Daityas and Rakshasas (namely) of Mahajambha; the palaces of Hayagriva, Krshna and Nikumbha; the cities of the (demon) named Sankha and that of Gomukha, demon Nila, Megha, Krathana and Kurupada; the abode of Mahosnisa; the city of Kambala, the serpent and that of Asvatara and the city of Taksaka, the noble-souled son of Kadru. Thus, O Brahmanas, there are thousands of cities belonging to Serpents, Danavas and Rakshasas in the second Nether-world of pale-white coloured soil. There is no doubt about this.
25-30In the third Nether-world, there stands the famous city of the noble-souled Daitya king Prahrada and Anuhrada; the city of (the Daitya) named Taraka; the city of Trisiras; the demon Sisumara’s city full of commotion, due to the gay, well- nourished citizens; the palace of Gyavana, the Raksasa; of Kum- bhila and Khara; the city of the ruthless Viradha of fire-emitting mouth; the city of Hemaka, the Serpent and that of Pandu- raka and Manimantra; the palace of Kapila and that of Nanda, the Lord of Serpents and of Visala. Thus there are undoubtedly thousands of cities of serpents, Danavas and Rakshasas, O Brahmanas, in the third Netherworld with yellow soil.
31-33In the fourth Nether-world is the city of Kalanemi the lion among Daityas, that of the noble-souled Gajakarna, the city of Kunjar a, the vast and extensive city of Sumali the leading Raksasa, the abode of Munja, Lokanatha and VRika- vaktra and the city of Vainateya. The latter city extends to many thousands of Yojanas and that is crowded with many birds. All these are in the fourth Nether world.
34-37In the fifth Nether-world that is covered with sand and full of gravel extending to many Yojanas, there is the city of the intelligent Daitya chief Virocana, the lion among Dait- yas, the abodes of Vaidurya, Agnijihva and that of Hiranyaksa, the city of the intelligent Vidyujjihva, the lord of Rakshasas, the city of Mahamegha, that of Malin, the leading Raksasa, the city of the serpent Karmara and those of Svastika and Jaya.
Thus there are thousands of cities of the serpents, Danavas and the Rakshasas in the fifth Nether-world full of gravel. This should be known [as the situation] for ever.
38-40In the sixth Nether-world, there is the excellent city of Kesari, the lord of the Daityas, the cities of Suparvan, Sulo- man and Mahisa, and the city of the noble-souled Utkrosa, the leading Raksasa. It is there that Satasirsa the son of Surama, lives joyfully. The king of serpents named Vasuki, the son of. Kasyapa (stays there). Thus there are thousands of cities of the serpents, Danavas and the Rakshasas in the famous sixth Nether-world, Rasatala, with rocky ground.
41It should be known that the city of Bali is in the seventh and the last Nether-world, Patala. It is beyond every world. It is gay and full of men and women.
42It is full of Asuras, serpents and teeming with haughty enemies of the Devas. There itself is the great city of Mucukunda, the Daitya.
43It is teeming with innumerable great cities of Daityas, full of bustle and commotion and thousands of the rich and prosperous city of the serpents.
44It is crowded with great rising (flourishing) cities of Daityas and Danavas and the many flourishing abodes of Rakshasas.
45-53O leading Brahmanas, at the (lowest) extremity of Patala extending to many Yojanas, lives the excessively brilliant Sesa, king of all serpents. His eyes resemble a red lotus. He is noble-souled, free from death and old age. His complexion is white as the interior of a shining conch-shell. He wears blue garments. His arms are mighty. His body is large and expansive. He is brilliant and powerful. He wears garlands of various colours. He has a thousand faces (hoods) as bright and sparkling as the gold-peaked mountain. He shines with ear-rings. He appears like mount Kailasa encircled by ringlets of blazing flames due to his tongues emitting the lustre of blazing fire with leaping flames. With a splendid halo round him and two thousand spaRikling eyes as lustrous as the rising sun, he shines gloriously. He has the colour of the moon and the Kunda flower. His string of beads shines like a cluster of midday suns on the top of Sveta mountain. He is brilliant and terrible with his matted hair. While lying down or sitting, he appears like a mountain with a thousand peaks sprawling over the Earth. He is the excessively refulgent lord of Nagas and is attended by blessed Nagas of great strength and huge bodies. He is the Sakti of Vishnu in the form of a Serpent. That is the final established boundary (of Nether- worlds).
54Thus the seven Nether-worlds that could be discussed have been recounted. They are always inhabited by Devas, Asuras, great Serpents, and Rakshasas.
55Beyond this is total absence of light. It cannot be traversed by Siddhas and Sadhus (good people or sages). It is unknown even to Devas and is traffic (life)-less.
56O excellent Brahmanas, thus is the grandeur of earth, fire, water, wind and ether described by the sages. There is no doubt about this.
57I shall now describe the rotation of the sun and the moon. These are stationed in the ether along with their discs and shine with their lustre as long as they move.
58-59The extent of the earth is half of the extent of the seven oceans and continents (?). The sun and the moon illuminate the earth on its globular outer surface to the extent of the magnitude of its outer circumference. The magnitude of this outer circumference is equal to the extent of the firmament.
60Revolving all round, the Sun illuminates and protects the three worlds. Hence on account of illumination and protection, he is called ‘Ravi’. The root ‘av’ means ‘illumination’ (and protection)?
61Now I shall mention the magnitude of the moon and the sun. The word Mahi is derived from y/Mah ‘to celebrate’. The word denotes the celebrated Bharata Varsa.
62The extent of Bharata is equal to the extent of the vastly extensive disc of the sun. Now listen to the number of Yojanas it covers.
63The extent of the sun is nine thousand Yojanas. The girth or the extent of its disc is thrice its diameter. The lunar disc is twice the solar disc (in diameter as well as girth).
64-65Now I shall recount the extent of the earth in Yojanas. The extent and girth (circumference) of the earth consisting of seven continents has been reckoned in proper measure in the Puranas. I shall recount that after enumerating the current Abhimanins (Deities etc. who preside or have the sense of possession etc.).
66Those Abhimanins who have gone were on a par with the current ones. The Devas who have gone are on a par with the current ones in forms and names.
67Hence, I shall describe the surface of the earth through the current Devas. (I shall recount) the situation of the heavenly world entirely through the current (Devas).
68The entire earth is known as fifty crores (of Yojanas) in extent. From the middle of Meru on all four sides is half of it.
69-70Half the extent of the earth is stated in terms of Yojanas. The extent of the earth towards all the sides (quarters) from the middle of Meru is said to be eleven crores and eighty- nine lakhs (of Yojanas) and fifty thousand).
71-72Understand the entire extent of the earth in terms of Yojanas. The extent over the four quarters is calculated as three crores one hundred and seventy-nine thousand. This extent of the earth includes seven continents and oceans.
73-74The sphere at the extremity is thrice this in extent. On being calculated thus the spherical zone of the extremity of the earth has the overall area of eleven crores one hundred and thirty-seven thousand Yojanas. Thus the measurement up to the extremity of the earth has been specified.
75The outer surface of the globular sphere of the earth is co-extensive with the sphere of the stars in the firmament.
76In regard to the magnitude of the outer surface the firmament is equal to the earth. The same is the measure of all the seven worlds.
77-78The worlds are situated above one another spreading like an umbrella with their outer spheres. They are all populated. Thus the cauldron of the Cosmic Egg has been explained.
79It is within the Cosmic Egg that the earth with its seven continents and seven worlds, viz. Bhur, Bhuvah, Svah, Mahar, Jana, Tapas and Satya is stationed.
80-81These seven worlds shaped in the form of umbrellas are severally supported by their own subtle outer coverings, which are ten times bigger in order. They are created with specific attributes and they support the seven worlds.
82All round this Cosmic Egg there is a solid ocean. The entire sphere of the earth is supported by the solid water.
83-85Beyond the solid ocean is the solid fire by which the sphere of the world is supported. Beyond and outside the solid fire is the sphere of solid wind that covers the earth on all sides round and above. Beyond the solid wind is the firmament which is surrounded by Cosmic Ego entirely. That Ego is surrounded by Mahat (the Great Principle or Intellect) which again is surrounded by the infinite Unmanifest Prakriti of unchanging form.
86I shall enumerate in order the cities of the guardians of the worlds. The proof of the movements of the luminary bodies will also be mentioned.
87To the east of Meru and above Manasa is the holy city of Mahendra abounding in all essential riches and richly inlaid with gold.
88To the south of Meru and above Manasa lives Yama, son of Vivasvan, in his city Samyamana.
89To the west of Meru and above Manasa is the charming city of the intelligent Varuna. It is called Sukha.
90To the north of Meru and above Manasa is the city Vibhavari of Soma (the moon) which is comparable to the city of Mahendra.
91Above Manasa in all the four quarters the guardians of the worlds are stationed for the establishment of virtue (Dharma) and protection of the worlds.
92Understand the solar movement when the sun reaches south during the southern transit all round above the guardians of the worlds.
93In his transit to the south, the sun moves fast like a discharged arrow. It takes the group of luminary bodies with it and revolves always.
94When the sun is in the mid-horizon in Amaravati, it is called sunrise in the city of Samyamana of the son of Vivasvat.
95Then it is midnight in Sukha. When the sun is in mi horizon (in Samyamana) the sun is seen rising in Sukha, the city of Varuna.
96When it is midnight at Vibhavari, it is sunset in Amaravati, the city of Mahendra. To the people of the southeast (or south and the east) it is afternoon.
97What is (when it is) the forenoon of the people of the southern and western countries it is the late night to the people in the northern territories.
98It is early in the night for the territories that are in the north and east. Similarly (the following is the situation) when the sun shines in the abodes of the north, during the northern transit.
99When the sun is in midday in Sukha, the city of Varuna, it rises in Vibhavari, the city of Soma.
100-101It is midnight in Amaravati and the sun sets in the city of Yama. Then the sun is in midday in Vibha, the city of Soma. When the sun rises in Amaravati, it is midnight in Samyamana and the sun sets in the city of Varuna.
102Making the stars (and planets) whirl and revolving itself like a firebrand, the sun sets and then rises quickly.
103Thus the sun moves in the four continents ending with the southern one. It rises and sets again and again.
104The sun gives warmth to two abodes of Devas in the forenoon and two in the afternoon. With its rays alone it heats one of them during midday.
105After rising the sun blazes with its rays of increasing heat till midday. Thereafter with its rays of decreasing heat it sets.
106The eastern and western direction is determined by sunrise and sunset. While the sun blazes in front (its heat is felt) behind as well and on sides also.
107Where the sun appears rising, it is known as sunrise to the people thereof; (while) where the sun vanishes, it is called sunset in regard to the people there.
108Due to the far distant position of the sun and being covered up by the line (horizon) of the earth, its rays become invisible (being obstructed from sight). Hence it is not seen at night.
109The appearance of the planets, stars and the sun as well as their rising and setting should be known by the magnitude of their height.
110Fire and water have white lustre and the earth has black shadow. Since the sun is at a great distance at the time of rising, it appears to be without rays. Since it is without rays, it has the red lustre, and the absence of heat is due to its redness.
111Wherever the sun is seen to be stationed on the line (of horizon) it is seen a thousand Yojanas above.
112When the sunsets, the brilliance of the sun partially enters fires. Hence fire shines more brilliantly at night, even from a distance.
113When the sun rises again, the brilliance of fire enters the sun. This together with the brilliance left in the sun at the time of sunset, makes it all the more brilliant. So, the sun blazes during the day.
114The light and heat of the sun and fire getting mixed together nourish people during day and night.
115In the northern and southern halves of the earth, when the sun rises, night enters waters. Hence, during day waters are copper coloured as a result of the entry of night.
116When the sun sets, day enters waters. Hence during night, water appears white and bright as a result of the entry of day.
117In this manner, in the southern and northern halves of the earth, day and night enter waters at the time of sunset and sunrise.
118Day is the time when there is sunlight and night is the time when there is darkness. Hence, night is established (independently) due to this, while day is dependent on the sun.
119When the sun passes through the middle of the sky, it traverses one-thirtieth of the diameter of the earth in a Muhurta (forty-eight minutes).
120-121In regard to the distance traversed in Yojanas, know that it is three million one hundred and fifty thousand in full. This is the distance traversed by the sun in one Muhurta.
122-124Traversing thus the sun reaches the southernmost limit in the month of Magha and moves about there. The distance traversed by the sun during a day and a night is nine crores and forty-five hundred thousand Yojanas.
125-126When the sun returns from the south and traverses the equinox, it goes to the quarters north of the ocean of milk. Know the distance in Yojanas, of the zone traversed during the transit in the equinox. It is thirty million and eighty- one hundred thousand Yojanas.
127When the sun, while traversing in the north, is in the (constellation) Sravana, it traverses the northern regions of the sixth continent (called) Saka-dvipa.
128-129The extent of the zone in the northern quarter in Yojanas as calculated by the Brahmanas is one crore eight million and fifty-eight Yojanas.
130The northern orbit is called Nagavithi and the southern one is called Ajavithi. When the sun rises in the constellations Mula, Purvasadha and Uttarasadha it is called Ajavithi. When the sun rises during the rise of the three stars after Abhijit (i.e. Asvini, Bharani and Kpttika) it is called Nagavithi.
131-132I shall mention the distance in Yojanas between these two quarters. This distance is three million one hundred and three thousand three hundred and thirty-three Yojanas.
133Now I shall mention the distance between the southern cardinal points and meridians in Yojanas. Understand it.
134-135aThe external and internal distances between the two quarters and meridians are seven million and one hundred and seventy-five Yojanas.
135b-136aDuring Uttarayana (the northern transit of the sun) the sun goes round the internal zones. During Daksinayana (the southern transit) the sun goes round the external zones. This is the usual order.
136b-137In the north there are one hundred and eighty zones. In the south also the sun traverses that much. Know the distance of the Mandala (zone) in Yojanas.
138-139The magnitude of this zone is twenty-one thousand two hundred and twenty-one Yojanas. This is the measurement of the zone calculated in Yojanas.
140The diameter of the zone is laid obliquely. Every day the sun traverses those (zones) in due order.
141Just as the outer rim of the potter’s wheel comes back (revolves) quickly, so also the sun returns quickly during its southern transit.
142Within a short time, therefore, the sun traverses the extensive earth. Within twelve Muhurtas it traverses quickly from the south to the north.
143The sun passes through thirteen and a half constellations of stars during the day. During the night in eighteen Muhurtas it passes through as many (i.e. thirteen and a half) of stars.
144Just as the central region of the potters wheel moves slowly, so also in the course of the northern transit the sun moves slowly.
145The sun passes through thirteen and a half stars. Hence it covers less extent of the earth in longer time.
146In the later part of the northern transit, a day has the duration of eighteen Muhurtas. Then also the sun proceeds very slowly.
147The sun passes through thirteen and a half stars during half the time (i.e. the daytime). During night, it passes through as many stars in the course of eighteen Muhurtas.
148Just as a ball of clay placed on the middle of the wheel whirls slowly, so also does the Pole Star.
149They say that day and night together constitute thirty Muhurtas. The whirling Pole between the two quarters revolves in a circle.
150Just as the nave of the potter’s wheel remains there only, similarly it should be known that the Pole Star whirls there only (without changing its place).
151Thus the rotation of the sun in a circle between the two quarters is slow during day and fast during night.
152During the northern transit, the movement of the moon (?) is slow during day and fast during night.
153During the southern transit the sun’s movement is fast during day and slow during night.
154Dividing nights and days thus by its special diverse movements, the sun traverses the path by its even (regular) and uneven (irregular) movement.
155Agastya (the star Canopus) traverses quickly over the guardians of the worlds stationed in the four quarters over the mountain Lokaloka. He divides days and nights by diverse movements.
156He is the protector of the worlds to the south of Nagavithi and north of Lokaloka and outside the path of Vaisvanara.
157There is as much of sunlight at the sides, behind and all round Lokaloka as there is on its top in front.
158This mountain is above ten thousand Yojanas in height. It is partly bright and partly unilluminated. It is circular all round.
159The stars, the moon, the sun and planets shine within the internal part of mount Lokaloka.
160The world is only so far and no further. Beyond this there is darkness. The Lokaloka is single but Niralokas (the darker sides) are numerous.
161Since the sun in its circular movement unites the Lokaloka, the wise call the inter-space between Usa and Vyusti by the name Sandhya. Usa is night and Vyusti is day.
162A curse was cast on the wicked demons who were bent on devouring the sun at the time of twilight that they would have imperishability of bodies but they would be made to die (everyday).
163Three crores of demons who are well-known as Mandehas seek every day the rise of the sun. The wicked ones harass and desire to devour the blazing sun.
164-165Then there was a terrific fight between them and the sun. The excellent Brahmanas, Devas and Brahma who had been performing the worship of Sandhya sprinkled the holy water sanctified by Omkara and Gayatri. As the water became adamantine, the Daityas were burnt.
166Then the sun of great splendour, excessive lustre and valour rises up a hundred thousand Yojanas.
167Then goes forth the Lord (the Sun-god) with his brilliant rays. He is surrounded by Brahmanas and Valakhilya Sages who have achieved their object (of protecting the Sun).
168Fifteen Nimesas (winking time of the eye) make one Kastha, thirty Kasthas make one Kaia, thirty Kalas make a night and a day.
169There is increase and decrease in the length of day by a few parts. But whether (it) is increased or decreased, the duration of twilight remains constant one Muhurta.
170The three Muhurtas from the time when the sun rises from the horizon constitute the Pratastana (early morning) period which is one-fifth part of day.
171The period of three Muhurtas from the early morning is called Sahgava (forenoon). The period of three Muhurtas after forenoon is called Madhyahna (midday).
172-173The period of three Muhurtas from midday is called Aparahna (afternoon). The period of three Muhurtas from afternoon is called Sayahna. There are only three (sacred?) Muhurtas out (of a day) of fifteen Muhurtas.
174When the sun is in the equinox, day and the night each consists of fifteen Muhurtas.
175During the transit of the sun to the north and south the duration of day increases and decreases accordingly. Day swallowst night and night swallows day.
176The equinox occurs between autumn and spring. The moon attains his seven (?) Kalas during the day and the night.
177Fifteen days make one Paksa (half of a month). Two halves make one month and two months make a Rtu (season). Three Rtus (seasons) make one Ayana and two Ayanas make a year.
178The unit of time constituted by fifteen Nimesas is Kashtha. Thirty Kasthas make a Kala. It consists of one hundred and sixty Matras.
179The unit of time Cala? (Kalal) is thus defined. It consists of ninety-nine, thirty, thirty six, sixty two or twenty- three Matras (Defective Verse).
180Forty thousand and eight hundred and seventy Matras make the unit of time called Vidyuti.1 To be precise, it is ninety (instead of seventy).
181In Vaidhasamyuga (?) they say that there are only four hundred Matras in a Vidyuti. This is known as Caramsa. The cause is Nalika [Ghatika = 24 minutes].
182The five units of time, Samvatsara etc., have four alternative calculations. The fixation of Yuga is decisively done on this basis in all the units of time.
183The first year is Samvatsara; the second is Parivatsara, the third is Idvatsara; the fourth is Anuvatsara; the fifth is Vatsara. Thus the various units of time are termed.
184-185Twenty hundreds of Parvans (i.e. a thousand months) constitute a Yuga of the sun. These eighteen plus thirty (i.e. 48) Yugas make one Udaya of the sun. Thirty Rtus of the sun make ten Ayanas. Three thousand five hundred Ayanas make sixty months of the sun.
186Thirty days and nights make one month of the sun. Sixty-one days and nights make one Danu.
187One hundred and eighty-three days constitute the time of one transit of the sun over the world.
188The four types of calculation, viz. Saura (solar), Saumy a (lunar) Nakshatra (stellar) and Savana (sacrificial) should be clearly understood.
189There is a mountain Srngavan to the north of Sveta. Its three peaks appear to touch the sky.
190Due to these peaks the mountain is known as Sringavan. The single path (leading to it), its extent and girth have been already mentioned.
191Its eastern peak in the middle is golden. The southern peak consists of silver. He has crystalline lustre.
192The excellent peak in the north consists of precious stones and jewels. Thus with the three peaks the mountain is well known as Srngavan.
193Betwixt autumn and spring, the sun proceeds with medium velocity, neither fast nor slow. It reaches that peak of the mountain which is near the equinoctical line. The Dispeller of darkness, i.e. the sun, makes the night equal to the day.
194Divine green-coloured horses are yoked to his great chariot. They appear (shining) as though they are smeared with the (solar) rays red like lotus.
195During the Mesa and Tula zodiacal transit of the sun days and nights contain fifteen Muhurtas beginning with sunrise.
196When the sun is in the first quarter of the constellation Krttika (Pleiades), the moon is known to be in the fourth part of the constellation Visakha.
197When the sun traverses through the third part of Visakha, know that the moon has occupied the top of Krttika.
198The sages call that as equinox. Equinox shall be known through the (position of the) sun and the time through (that of) the moon.
199When days and nights are equal it is equinox. During equinoctical transit oblations to the Pitris and charitable gifts to the Brahmanas should be made. Brahmanas are the mouths of Devas.
200In view of the differences due to Kalas, Kasthas and Muhurtas, the night of short duration and intercalary month occur. The full moon is of two types: Raka and Anumati. The new moon too is of two types: Sinivali and Kuhu.
201The six months, viz. Magha, PhalGuna, Caitra, Vaisakha, Jyestha and Asadha are the months of Uttar ay ana (northern transit of the sun). The six months, viz. Sravana, Bhadrapada, Asvina, Karttika, Margasirsa and Pausa are the months of Daksinayana (southern transit of the sun).
202These months make a year. The five years are the sons of Brahma. Rtus are born of them. These are their parts.
203Hence the New Moon Day (Amavasya) is known as the leader of the Parvans. More than that the equinox should be known as favourable to Devas and Pitris.
204After knowing this, a man should not get deluded regarding rites concerning Devas and Pitris. Hence equinox is remembered as all-pervasive by the people.
205The worlds (Lokas)should be known (toexist) as far as light (the space illuminated by the sun) extends. The end of the world is also called Loka (of the Lokaloka mountain). The guardians of the worlds are stationed there in the middle of the Loklaoka mountain.
206They (the Lokapalas) are the four noble souls who stay till the final dissolution of the world. They are Vairajaof good (brilliant) splendour, Kardama of good and merciful disposition, Parjanya of golden hair, and Ketuman of fixed determination.
207The guardians of the worlds are stationed in the four quarters in Lokaloka, free from Dvandvas (mutually clashing opposites), devoid of arrogance, without an attendant, and absolutely uncontrolled by anyone else.
208The path that is to the north of Agastya, south of Ajavithi and outside the path of Vaisvanara is called Pitryana.
209Stationed there in the path of Pitryana are the sages blessed with progeny who perform Agnihotras and who perpetuate the lineage of the world.
210Desirous of the welfare of the worlds, they bless the activities of living beings and begin the activities of Rtviks. Theirs is the southern path.
211In every Yuga they re-establish Dharma that has gone astray (being rudely shocked and shaken) by their progeny, penance, adherence to the bound of decency and pursuit of learning.
212The earlier ones on their death are reborn in the houses of the later ones. This series of births and deaths makes them live upto the hour of final dissolution of the universe.
213-215There are eighty thousand householder-sages resorting to the path south of the sun. They stay there as long as the moon and the stars exist. In view of their worldly activities, the creation of living beings, natural desires and hatred, sexual intercourse and other sorts of enjoyments of pleasures as well as due to other causes, the Siddhas have resorted to cremation grounds. These sages, desirous of progeny, were born in the Dvapara age.
216The path north of Nagavithi and south of the Sapta Rsis (Great Bear) is Devayana, the northern path of the sun.
217The Siddhas residing there are unsullied and celibate. They hate sexual intercourse. They have conquered death.
218These Urdhvaretas sages (who have sublimated their sexual desire) are eighty thousand in number. They have resorted to the northern path of the sun and stay there till the final dissolution overtakes the universe.
219In view of these pious causes they have attained deathlessness that will last as far as the final dissolution of the Bhutas (elements). Deathlessness is predicated of those who survive till final dissolution.
220This is the period (of life) till the three worlds last, for sages who do not return to the path of Samsara. Others of sublimated sexual urge are sinners as well as meritorious ones on account of their (sins of) murdering a Brahmana or the performance of the Asvamedha (Horse sacrifice). The Urdhvaretas sages pass away at the end of the annihilation of all living beings.
221-222To the north and above the world of sages, where Dhruva is said to be present, is the divine shining region of Vishnu. On reaching that region none is affected by sorrow or pain. It is the greatest region of Vishnu where Dharma, Dhruva and other Sadhakas of the world stay.

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