Purva Kandha 9-16
– 9 –
Creation of Devas and Others
1Suta said: Even as he was meditating, mental progeny were born of him along with those causes and effects arising out of his body. There emerged from the limbs of that intelligent Being Kshetrajnas (individual souls).
2Then, desirous of procreating the group of four living entities, Devas, Asuras, Pitris, and mankind, he applied himself in the water.
3Then as the self-born god Brahma engaged himself in meditation on creation, exertion appeared on the part of the creator.
4Then, from his loins, the Asuras were born at the outset. O Brahmanas, the word Asu means “the Vital Breath”. Born of that, they were called Asuras.
5He abandoned that body from which Asuras were created; the body so abandoned by him became night immediately as it (the abandoned body) was dominated by Tamas.
6As it (the abandoned body) was dominated by Tamas, the night consisting of three watches was full of darkness. Hence the progeny of the self-born lord were enveloped by darkness at night.
7After creating the Asuras, the lord took up another body of unmanifest nature abounding in Sattva. The lord united himself with it. While engaged with it, they say, he felt pleasure.
8Then Devas were born from his shining face. They were so called because they were born of his refulgent face.
9The root Div means “to play”. Devas were so called because they were born of his playful (shining) body.
10After creating Devas, the lord took up another body having only the Sattvic attribute.
11The lord meditated upon those sons considering them like father and created the father-like Manes from his two sides, between the juncture of day and night. Hence Pitris are Devas and their fatherhood2 is due to that.
12He abandoned the body after creating the Pitris. As soon as he abandoned the body, it became evening.
13Hence day is for Devas; night is meant for the Asuras; the body (meant for) Pitris, evening which is between the two, is held to be important.
14Hence Devas, Asuras, all the sages and Manus, engaged in Yogic communion, worship the middle body (i.e. the twilight time) of Brahma.
15Then Brahma took up another body again. The Lord created beings with his mind, in that body consisting of Rajas.
16Then he created mentally sons from his mind which was dominated by Rajas Guna. Hence the subjects were born of his mind.
17Having seen the subjects, he again cast off his body. The body so abandoned by him immediately became the moonlight.
18-19Hence the people are delighted when the moonlight comes out (and spreads). Thus, these bodies abandoned by the lord instantly became night and day, the twilight and the moonlight. The three, viz. the moonlight, twilight as well as the day consist solely of the Sattva Guna. The night comprises the nature of Tamas only; hence it has three watches.
20Hence Devas created from the mouth are possessed of shining traits of the day and full of delight. Since they were born during the day, they are very powerful by day.
21Since the lord created the Asuras at night from the loins of his body, through vital breath, the night born Asuras wield unbearable prowess during the night.
22These alone function as the causes for the creation of Devas, Asuras, Pitris and human beings in the past and future Manvantaras.
23The moonlight, the night, the day and the twilight, these four shines when illuminated. The word ‘bhd’ means ‘to spread’ and ‘to shine’.1 So say the wise scholars. The root y/bha is used in the sense of spreading and shining.
24After seeing (creating?) waters, the Lord created Devas, Danavas, human beings, Pitris and his other divinities.
25After casting off that body entirely, he created another form mostly constituted of Rajas and Tamas and united himself with it.
26Feeling hunger and thirst in darkness, he created another body. The hungry creature created by him attempted to take (possess) the waters.
27-28Some among them declared, “We shall protect these waters”. They are known as Rakshasas in the world. They are wrathful souls and nightwalkers. Those among them who delightedly said to one another, “We shall destroy the waters” became, due to that activity, Yaksas and Guhyakas. They were cruel in their actions.
29The root raksa is considered to have the sense of protection. The root ksi is used in the sense of destroying.
30-31On seeing them with displeasure, the hairs of that intelligent one withered. But due to heat and cold, they climbed up the Lord. As the Vyalas (Valas—hairs) which were dropped down from my head crawled up, they became known as Vyalas and as they dropped down (hinatvat), they (the serpents) are called Ahis.
32As they move footlessly (without foot), they are pannagas and they are sarpas as they crawl. Their abode is below in the earth under the sun and the moon.
33The excessively terrible fiery foetus, born of his anger, entered those beings of poisonous nature—serpents who were born along with them.
34On seeing the serpents, he became angry and out of anger he created beings of furious nature. They were very fierce goblins whose diet is flesh and who were reddish-brown in colour.
35They were remembered as Bhutas as they came into existence. They were called Pisacas because they ate flesh. Even as he was singing words, the Gandharvas were born.
36The root dhay means “to drink”. Since they were born from drinking the (musical) words, they are known as Gandharvas.
37When these eight classes of divine beings were created, the lord from his bodily energy created birds out of his own free will.
38Covering up those chandas (wilful acts) and the birds by his age (?) and seeing them void, he created groups of winged creatures.
39He created goats from his mouth, birds from his chest, kine from his belly and sides.
40From his feet he created horses, elephants, Sarabhas, Gavayas, deer, camels, mules and other animals of various kinds.
41-42Plants or trees, fruits, and roots were born of his hair. After creating the cattle and plants thus, the lord applied himself to sacrifice. It was in the beginning of the Kalpa, in the Treta age. Cow, goat, man, sheep, horse, mule and donkey—they call these rural domestic animals. Now know about the wild animals.
43Beasts of prey, cloven-hoofed animals, elephants, monkeys, birds constituting the fifth and the animals, mice—these were created. The seventh (in the series) were reptiles.
44From his front mouth he created the metre Gayatri, Varuna, Trivrit, Soma, Rathantara, and the Agnistoma among the sacrifices.
45From his southern mouth he created the sacred hymns of (Yajurveda?), Tristubh metre, the fifteenth stoma, the Brihatsaman, and the Uktha verses.
46From his western mouth he created the Saman hymns, Jagati metre, the fifteen hymns of praise, Vairupya Saman and Atiratra rite.
47From his northern mouth he created twenty-first (stoma hymn), the Atharvan, the Aptoryaman,7 Anusthubhi and Viraj metres.
48In the beginning of the Kalpa, the lord created lightnings, thunderbolts, clouds, red-coloured rainbows and birds.
49As the patriarch Brahma created the progeny, living beings high and low were born of his limbs.
50After creating the four classes of beings—Devas, Asuras, Pitris, and mankind, he next created the mobile and immobile beings.
51He created Yaksas, Pisacas, Gandharvas, groups or families of Apsaras-s, human beings, Kinnaras, Rakshasas, birds, cattle, wild animals and snakes.
52Whether changing or unchanging, stationary of mobile, these beings created and re-created, adopted those activities which they had in the previous creation.
53Violent or non-violent, soft or cruel, virtuous or evil, true or false—all these things are adopted by them as they appeal to them.
54It is the creator who ordained diversity of forms in the great elements and their allotment to different physical bodies and the objects of different senses.
55Some say that it is human effort and others say it is the karma, while still others, fatalist Brahmanas, call it the destiny that decides the nature of beings.
56Human activity and divine dispensation are decided by the nature of fruit. In fact, either of the two alone does not suffice. They are inseparable from each other. Neither one is superior to the other. Neither one alone nor the two separately or collectively.
57Persons of even vision abiding by Sattva say that the attainment of objects is due to their activities.
58He assigns names to the sages, the visions belonging to Devas and to other things that were brought forth at the end of the night.
59Just as the indications and forms foreboding the advent of seasons recur at their appropriate times, so also in the Yugas the same creation appears again and again.
60The beings of such types created by resorting to his mental power (manasi siddhi) by god Brahma born of the unmanifest, are seen manifestly at the end of (god Brahma’s) night.
61-63Thus, the living beings, the mobile and immobile came into being. But the progeny created by him did not multiply. He created some other mind-born sons equal to himself. These are known as Bhrigu, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Angiras, Marici, Daksha, Atri and Vasistha. They are known in the Puranas as nine Brahmas. These are propounders of the Vedas and are identical with Brahma himself.
64Then Brahma, the ancestor of ancients, created Rudra out of his anger, from his own self. (He created) Samkalpa and Dharma (also).
65-66At the beginning, Brahma created mental sons who were equal to himself, viz. Sanandana, Sanaka, the learned Sanatana and the eminent Sanatkumara. They are eternal, independent, unattached to worldly life and hence they do not procreate.
67-68They have the knowledge of the future. They are devoid of passions and rivalry. When they remained indifferent to the continuity of the world, the supreme lord Brahma contemplated (angrily). Out of his anger, a person as resplendent as the sun was born. Half of his body was a man and half a woman. He was comparable to the fire in splendour.
69“Everything has become full of lustre and equal to the sun in splendour. Divide yourself”—saying so he vanished there itself.
70Thus addressed, the man and the woman became separate; the man divided himself into eleven parts (out of the male half).
71-72All the (eleven) great souls were addressed by the noble being: “Try energetically and vigilantly for the totality (continuity) of the world desiring the multiplication (increase in the population) of the world, (try) for the establishment, benefit and interest of the entire world.”
73Thus addressed, they cried and ran about helter-skelter. Since they cried and ran about, they are known as Rudras.
74The three worlds including the mobile and immobile are pervaded by them. Their followers live in all the worlds.
75-77They are the valorous lords of Ganas with the strength of ten thousand elephants. The highly fortunate one (the female), forming half the body of Siva, who has been mentioned to you just before, was the woman born of Brahma’s mouth. The right side of her body was fair (white) and the left black. She had been asked by Brahma to divide herself. O Brahmanas, thus requested, she bifurcated herself into black and white parts. I shall mention her names. Please listen very carefully:
78-79Svaha, Svadha, Mahavidya, Medha, Lakshmi, Sarasvati, Aparna, Ekaparna, Patala, Uma, Haimavati, Sasthi, Kalyani, Khyati, Prajna, Mahabhaga, and Gauri.
80Know also in brief the universal forms assumed by the noble Lady (forms she assumed in the universe) through the formation of separate bodies:
81Prakpti, Niyata, Raudri, Durga, Bhadra, Pramathini, Kalaratri, Mahamaya, Revati, and Bhutanayika.
82Listen to her names at the end of Dvapara age: Gautami, Kausiki, Arya, Candi, Katyayani, Sati.
83Kumari, Yadavi, Devi, Varada, Krshnapingala, Barhi- rdhvaja, Suladhara, Paramabrahmacarini.
84Mahendri, Indrabhagini, Vrsakanya, Ekavasasi, Aparajita, Bahubhuja, Pragalbha, Simhavahini.
85Ekanasa, Daityahani, Maya, Mahisamardini, Amogha, Vindhyanilaya, Vikranta, Gananayika.
86-88These are the names of her forms that have been mentioned to you in serial order. Those persons who recite accurately the epithets of goddess Bhadrakali as enumerated by me, will never have a failure or discomfiture. Whether in the forest, or in the outskirts, whether in the house or in the city; whether in water or on dry land, these names afford protection from tigers, robbers and thieves. One should repeat these names during mental agony and particularly in a place infested by goblins.
89An amulet with these names should be used for children afflicted by evil planets, goblins or by evil witches, such as Putana and others.
90The great goddess is glorified as Prajna (intellect) and as Sri (glory). Thousands of goddesses have emerged out of these two and pervaded the universe.
91She created Vyavasaya (industry) and Dharma (duty) bestowing happiness and thought in the beginning of the Kalpa. They were born of unmanifested womb.
92Ruci was the mental son of Brahma. He created Daksha from his vital breath and Marici from his eyes.
93-94Bhrigu was born of his chest. He created Angiras from his head and Atri from his ears. From the vital breath Udana, he created Pulastya; from Vyana, Pulaha; from Samana, Vasistha and from Apana, Kratu.
95He created Bhadra, Nilalohita in the form of conceit. These are the twelve sons of Brahma born of his vital breath.
96These are the mental sons of Brahma. Bhrigu and others who were created were not the expounders of the Veda.
97They were the ancient householders. Dharma was established (and propagated) by them. These twelve create progeny along with Rudra.
98Both Ribhu and Sanatkumara sublimated sexual virility. As they were born very early before (the twelve sons), they were the eldest of all.
99When the first ancient Kalpa was over, both of them withdrew their splendour and occupied the Vairaja region achieving (the good of) the world.
100Both of them, practising Yogic virtue and concentrating their self in the Atman maintained the dharma and aspiration (kama) of the people by their great splendour.
101Sanat continues to have the same form and features as at the time of his birth. So, he is called Kumara. Hence his name is mentioned Sanatkumara.
102Their twelve races are divine and endowed with divine attributes. Performing holy rites and multiplying the race, they are embellished by great sages.
103Thus ends (the description of) the activity of the self-born lord in creating the worlds. The creation was born of his various organs. The creation beginning with Mahat and ending with Visesas belongs to Prakriti itself.
104-105The light of the sun and the moon illuminates the world which is further embellished with planets and stars. It is surrounded by rivers, oceans, mountains, and cities of various shapes and sizes, and happy countryside. In that unmanifest Brahmavana, Brahma spends the night.
106-108This eternal tree of Brahma is born of the seed of Avyakta. It grows up through his blessings. Intellect constitutes its branches and the sense-organs its sprout and Dharma and Adharma its flowers, happiness and sorrow its fruits. It is the source of livelihood for living beings and its root is Brahman.
109The unmanifest which is the cause of creation is eternal and of the nature of Sat and Asat. This is the Anugraha Sarga, the primary creation of Brahma.
110The six creations Mukhya etc. are secondary. They exist in all the three times in Brahma who identifies with them.
111It is known by the learned that the creations function as causes of one another. There are two divine trees growing together, having fine leaves and sprouts and branches. Only one knows the tree of the Atman and not the other.
112That incomprehensible Atman is the cause of creation of all living beings—he whose head the Brahmanas eulogise as heaven; the sky as the umbilicus; the sun and the moon as the eyes; the quarters as the ears; and the earth as his feet.
113From his mouth the Brahmanas were born; from his arms the Kshatriyas; from his thigh the Vaishyas and from his feet the Sudras.
114The great lord is beyond the unmanifest. The cosmic Egg is born of the unmanifest. From the cosmic Egg is born Brahma who created the universe.