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Pancha Siddhantika

Pancha Siddhantika

– 1 –

Introduction of the work

1AIM OF THE WORK – By which in preeminent devotion having bowed down to father, guru, and those manifold great sages preceded by Vasishtha and the Sun, in that (preeminent devotion) our textual apprehension was undertaken.
2Whichever is the most excellent from those considered by the previous teachers, welcomed here I will declare briefly and clearly the various sources of the unadulterated secrets.
3THE FIVE SCHOOLS OF ASTRONOMY – Paulisha, Romaka, Vasishtha, Saura, and Paitamaha are the five astronomical treatises. From the five, the first two were commented on by Latadeva.
4That tithi from the Paulisha is accurate, but of that (tithi) declared from the Romaka is approximate. The solar (Surya Siddhanta) is very accurate. The two remaining (Vasishtha and Paitamaha) are distant and outdated.
5CONTENTS OF THE WORK – Where any understanding of the authors of the doctrines errs in that great mystery, I having abandoned jealousy in this, will explain the eclipse of the sun.
6From knowing the time, measure, diameter of the eclipse from the position and direction of the eclipses and non-eclipses and the conjunction of the starry planets and obtaining the longitude in this (text).
7Those which are to be indivisible calibrated from the prime vertical circle and the moonrise in the shadows related to the gnomon from the irregularity of the perpendicular of the earth’s latitude by instruments, etc.
8DAYS FROM EPOCH ACCORDING TO ROMAKA – Having subtracted 427 (years) [from the number of years since] the epoch of Shaka, [the number of years is arrived at since the astronomical epoch] that began on the bright fortnight ( shukla-pratipad ) of Caitra when the sun was at mid-sunset beginning on a Monday at Yavanapura,…
9…the difference is multiplied by 12. The product is added to the months (attained to from the month of Caitra). The sum is put into two places. [The sum of the first place] is multiplied by seven and then divided by 228. With those [the sum of the second place] are added to those intercalary (lunar) months [the final quotient arrived at in the first place]. [The final sum that equates to the total synodic months gone in the current astronomical epoch] is multiplied by 30 and added to the number of tithis [from shukla-pratipad to the current tithi]. [This sum is again] put into two places. Māsī
10[The sum in the first place] is multiplied by 11, added to 514, divided by 703. The quotient, [which are the elided days from the beginning of the current astronomical epoch] is subtracted [from the sum in the second place]. This is the number of days [from the beginning of the current astronomical epoch] in the Romaka Siddanta. This is the same in the Paulisha [if the duration into the epoch] is not very long.
11DAYS FROM EPOCH ACCORDING TO PAULISA – The solar days are multiplied by 10, plus 698, and divided by 9761 to arrive at the intercalary months and the aggregate of the other elided solar days being 444 in the doctrine of the Paulisha.
12One should add 1/10th of the solar days in the matter of the intercalary (lunar) months for every 107 years. And the matter of intercalary months are with the portions of time for the solar days of those reached of the two made of five (55) days.
13For every 245 years, 1/11 tithi is added to the tithi gone. For every 203,279 (11ths), 1/11 tithi is to be omitted.
14YUGA OF THE SUN AND THE MOON (ROMAKA AND SAURA) – In the Saura Siddhanta they should be 180,000 [solar years], 66,389 intercalary months, and 1,045,095 elided days.
15The Romaka Siddhanta yuga is 2,850 of the other years of the sun and moon, 1,050 intercalary months,
and 16,547 elided days.
16The quantity of the yuga , year, and month are a measure of the sun with the intercalary month related to the moon (synodic month), the elided days from the intercalary months are the 30 solar/civil days, but a lunar month possessed of a (solar) year is sidereal.
17LORD OF THE YEAR – The days added to 2,227 divided by 2,520, and the remainder divided by 360 are the years obtained.
18Those (years) are added to 1, multiplied by 3, subtracted by two, one should divide by 7. Thus, the remainder is the Lord of the Year in that order.
19LORD OF THE MONTH – The months when divided by 30, added to 1, multiplied by two, deducted by 1, and the remainder is from that quantity divided by 7. Thus indeed is the Lord of the Month from the sun.
20LORD OF THE HORA – [The days are added to 2,227 and divided by 2,520] and divided by 7 is the Lord of the Day. [This quotient] is multiplied by 3, plus 1 when joined with those hours [since the previous sunset including the current hour calculated]. [This sum] is multiplied by 5 and divided by 7 to be known as the Lord of the Hour.
21That which is the other Lord of the Year is fourth from that, that which is the other Lord of the Month [is third] from that, that which is the other Lord of the Hour is sixth from that, and that which is the other Lord of the Day is next in the sequence.
22If in the year and month of this result and having contemplated that taught by the sages, with those various doctrines studied, I will explain in the method following the Hora Tantra.
23The days are added to 1, divided by 365, and divided by 30 then they should be the months [gone]. The remainder is of the lords of the degrees of a 30 day solar/ savana month.
24In that order is Creation of Desire, Lord of Creatures, Heaven, Weapon, Tree, Food, Dwelling, Time, Fire, Cloud, Sun, Moon, Indra, Cattle, and Fate.
25Destroyer, Birth, Guha, Ancestors, Varuna, Baladeva, Air, and indeed Yama, Speech, Goddess of Wealth, God of Wealth, Hell, Earth, Vedas, and the Supreme Being.
Thus ends Chapter One, entitled ‘Introduction of the Work’, in the Pancasiddhantika composed by Varahamihira.

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