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Satapatha Brahmana – Second Kandha – Sixth Adhyaya

Satapatha Brahmana

Second Kanda, Sixth Adhyaya

First Brahmana

1Verily, by means of the Great Oblation the gods slew Vritra, and gained that supreme authority which they now wield. And by means of the sacrifice to the fathers they then recalled to life those of them that had been slain in this battle; and they, indeed, were the fathers: hence the name Pitriyagña[1] (sacrifice to the Manes).
2Now the spring, the summer, and the rainy season, they are those who vanquished (Vritra); and the autumn, the winter, and the dewy season, they are those whom they (the gods) recalled to life[2].
3Now when he performs that sacrifice, he does so, hoping that thus they (the Asuras) will not slay any of his, or because the gods did so (perform it). Moreover he thereby offers to those (fathers) the share which the gods assigned to them; and thus he gratifies those whom the gods recalled to life, and leads his own fathers up to a better world; and whatever injury or loss he suffers through his own unrighteous conduct (or wrong sacrificial performance)[3] that is thereby made good to him: that is why he performs this sacrifice (to the fathers).
4He offers a cake on six potsherds to the Pitarah Somavantah, or to Soma Pitrimat[4]. Six doubtless are the seasons, and the fathers are the seasons: hence it is one of six potsherds.
5Thereupon they parch barley-grain on the Anvâhâryapakana (or Dakshinâgni) for the Pitaro Barhishadah[5]. They then grind one half of it; and (the other) half remains thus unground, this is the parched grain for the Barhis-seated fathers.
6Then a porridge is (prepared) for the Pitaro ‘gnishvâttâh[6] (by the ground half of the parched grain) being mixed with the milk of a cow suckling an adopted calf, by stirring it once with a single splinter. It is indeed once for all that the fathers have departed, and hence is stirred but once. These are the oblations.
7Now those (fathers) who have sacrificed with Soma are the Pitarah Somavantah; and those who gain the world (of the gods) by means of cooked (sacrificial food) offered by them are the Pitaro Barhishadah; and they who (have offered) neither the one nor the other, and whom Agni consumes by burning, they are the Pitaro ‘gnishvâttâh. These, then, are the fathers[7].
8He takes out [the rice for] that cake of six potsherds, while seated behind the Gârhapatya, and looking southwards, with the sacrificial cord over his right shoulder. From thence he rises and threshes (the rice), while standing north of the Dakshina-fire, with his face towards the south. He cleans it but once[8]; since it is once for all that the fathers have departed.
9He places the two mill-stones on (the black antelope skin, so as to be inclined) towards the south[9]; and puts the six potsherds on the south part of the Gârhapatya hearth. The reason why they keep the southern direction is because that is the region of the fathers: this is why they keep the southern direction.
10Thereupon he raises a square altar south of the Dakshinâgni[10]. He makes the corners point towards the intermediate quarters. There are doubtless four intermediate quarters, and the fathers are the intermediate quarters: this is why he makes the corners point towards the intermediate quarters.
11In the centre of this (altar) he lays down the fire. From the east, indeed, the gods came westwards to the men: hence one offers to them while standing with his face towards the east. On all sides are the fathers, for the fathers are the intermediate regions, and the intermediate regions are indeed on all sides: this is why he lays down the fire in the centre.
12From thence he throws the grass-bush (stambayagus) eastwards[11]. Having thrown away the grass-bush, he first encloses (the altar) thus (viz. on the west side), then thus (viz. on the north side), then thus (on the east side). Having enclosed it with the first line of enclosure, he (the Adhvaryu) draws (three) lines (across the altar)[12] and [the Âgnîdhra] removes (from them the dust) which has to be removed. In the same way he encloses it with the second line of enclosure; and having enclosed it with the second line of enclosure, and smoothed it down, he says, ‘Place the sprinkling water on (the altar)!’ They accordingly place the sprinkling water on (the altar); and the firewood and barhis they lay down beside it[13]. He (the Âgnîdhra) wipes the spoons. He then walks up (to the altar) with the butter (and puts it down thereon[14], north of the sprinkling water). He (the Adhvaryu) takes butter, while ‘sacrificially-invested[15].’
13Here now they say, ‘Let him take butter in the upabhrit (by) twice (ladling with the dipping spoon); since there are two after-offerings[16] at this (sacrifice).’ Let him, nevertheless, ladle eight times into the upabhrit: let him do so, lest he should depart from the manner of the sacrifice. After ladling out butter, and shifting his cord back to the right shoulder,
14The Adhvaryu takes the lustral water, and sprinkles first the firewood, and then the altar[17]. Thereupon they hand the sacrificial grass[18] to him, and he puts it down (on the altar) with the knot to the east. Having thereupon sprinkled it and poured out (the lustral water on the lower ends of the grass-stalks), and untied the knot, he (at once) seizes the knot, not the prastara[19]; it is once for all that the fathers have departed: hence he does not take the prastara.
15After undoing the band, he moves thrice[20] round from right to left, spreading the sacrificial grass all over (the altar); while spreading it all over from right to left in three layers, he reserves as much as may serve for the prastara-bunch. He then moves again thrice round (the altar) from left to right. The reason why he again moves thrice round from left to right, is that, while the first time he went away from here after those three ancestors of his, he now cones back again from them to this, his own world: that is why he again moves thrice round from left to right.
16He lays the enclosing-sticks along (the fire, with their tops) towards the south[21]; and the prastara also he spreads (with the grass-tops) towards the south; nor does he lay down the two vidhritis between (the barhis and the prastara). Once for all the fathers have departed from hence: therefore he lays no vidhritis between.
17Thereon he lays the guhû, and east of it (on the barhis) the upabhrit. Having then put down the dhruvâ, the cake, the parched grain, and the porridge (each east of the preceding one), he touches the oblations.
18All of them having now become ‘sacrificially-invested,’ the Sacrificer and Brahman (being) thus (invested) walk round (from the east, along the south) to the west side; and the Âgnîdhra (from the west) to the east side (of the fire)[22].
19They perform this (sacrifice) in a low voice. Secret, indeed, are the fathers, and secret also is (what is spoken) in a low voice: hence they perform (the offering) in a low voice.
20They perform it in an enclosed place. Secret, indeed, are the fathers, and secret also is that which is enclosed: hence they perform in an enclosed place.
21While putting firewood (on the fire), he then says (to the Hotri), ‘Recite to the fire, as it is being kindled!’ Only (this) one kindling-verse the Hotri recites[23], (and that) thrice; the fathers have departed once for all: hence the Hotri recites thrice only one kindling-verse.
22He recites, ‘Loving we deposit thee (O Agni), loving we enkindle thee: O loving one, bring hither the loving fathers to eat their oblation!’ Thereupon he says, ‘Bring Agni hither[24]! bring Soma hither! bring hither the fathers, accompanied by Soma! bring hither the fathers, seated on the barhis! bring hither the fathers, consumed by Agni! bring hither the butter-drinking gods! bring hither Agni for the Hotriship! bring hither (thine) own greatness[25]!’ Having thus called on (Agni) to bring hither (the fathers and gods), he sits down.
23Having then called[26] for the (Âgnîdhra’s) ‘Sraushat,’ he does not elect the Hotri; for this being a sacrifice to the Manes, he does not elect the Hotri[27], lest he should consign the Hotri to the Manes. He says, ‘Hotri, seat thyself!’ and takes his seat. The Hotri, having sat down on the Hotri’s seat, urges (the Adhvaryu) to proceed; and thus urged, the Adhvaryu takes the two spoons and steps across to the west (of the fire); and having stepped across and called for the ‘Sraushat,’ he says, ‘Pronounce the offering-prayer to the kindling-sticks!’ He performs four fore-offerings[28], omitting the one to the Barhis; for the barhis means offspring, and he therefore performs the four fore-offerings without the one to the barhis, lest he should consign his offspring to the fathers. Thereupon they proceed with the two butter-portions; and having offered the two butter-portions,
24They all shift their sacrificial cord over to the right shoulder, being now about to proceed with those (chief) oblations. The Sacrificer and Brahman, (being) thus (invested), step across (from the west) to the east side, and the Âgnîdhra (from the east) to the west side (of the fire). And furthermore, the (Adhvaryu’s) call for the ‘Sraushat’ is ‘Õm svadhâ!’ and the (Âgnîdhra’s) response is ‘Astu svadhâ[29]!’ and the Vashat-call is ‘Svadhâ namah!’
25As to this, Âsuri said, ‘Let them call for the Sraushat (by “Õ Srâvaya”), and let them respond with the “(Astu) Sraushat,” and let them pronounce the “Vashat,” lest we should depart from the manner of the sacrifice.’
26[The Adhvaryu] then says, ‘Pronounce the invitatory prayer to the fathers, accompanied by Soma!’ or ‘ to Soma, accompanied by the fathers’! Two invitatory prayers he (the Hotri) pronounces (at the offerings), because it is with one that one moves the gods, and with two the fathers, since the fathers have departed once (for all)[30]: hence he pronounces two invitatory prayers.
27[The Adhvaryu] makes an ‘under-layer’ of butter (in the guhû or offering-spoon). He then cuts a piece from the cake, and together therewith some of the parched grain and the porridge[31]. This he puts down at the same time (in the guhû); makes two sprinklings of butter thereon; and re-anoints (replenishes with butter, the parts of the sacrificial dishes from which he has made) the cuttings. He does not walk over (to the south side of the fire); but having risen and stepped up (to the fire) on the same side (where he was seated), and called (on the Âgnîdhra) for the ‘Sraushat,’ he says (to the Hotri), ‘Pronounce the offering-prayer to the fathers, accompanied by Soma!’ and pours the oblation (into the fire) as soon as the Vashat[32] has been uttered.
28Thereupon he says, ‘Pronounce the invitatory prayer to the fathers, seated on the barhis!’ He then makes an under-layer of butter, takes a ‘cutting’ from (the north part of) the parched grain, and together therewith some of the porridge and the cake; puts down all this at the same time (in the guhû); makes two sprinklings of butter thereon, and re-anoints (the places of) the cuttings. He does not walk across; but having stepped up (to the fire) on the same side and called for the ‘Sraushat,’ he says, ‘Pronounce the offering-prayer to the fathers, seated on the barhis!’ and pours out the oblation as soon as the Vashat has been uttered.
29Thereupon he says, ‘Pronounce the invitatory prayer to the fathers, consumed by the fire!’ He then makes an under-layer of butter, takes a cutting from (the south part of) the porridge, and therewith some of the cake and the parched grains; puts down all this at the same time (in the guhû); makes two sprinklings of butter thereon, and re-anoints (the places of) the cuttings. He does not walk across; but having stepped up (to the fire) on the same side, and called for the ‘Sraushat,’ he says, ‘Pronounce the offering-prayer to the fathers, consumed by the fire!’ and pours out the oblation as soon as the Vashat has been uttered.
30Thereupon he says, ‘Pronounce the invitatory prayer to Agni Kavyavâhana!’ that being for (Agni as) the Svishtakrit (‘maker of good offering’). For to the gods indeed he is havyavâhana (‘bearer of oblations’), and to the fathers he is kavyavâhana (‘the bearer of what is meet for the wise’): hence he says, ‘Pronounce the invitatory prayer to Agni Kavyavâhana!’
31He makes an under-layer of butter (in the offering-spoon); then cuts a piece from (the front part of) the cake, and therewith some of the parched grain and the porridge; puts down all this at the same time; and makes two sprinklings of butter thereon. The (places from which he has made the) cuttings he does not replenish with butter, nor does he walk across; but having stepped up (to the fire) on the same side (where he was seated), and called for the ‘Sraushat,’ he says, ‘Pronounce the offering-prayer to Agni Kavyavâhana!’ and pours out the oblation, as soon as the Vashat has been uttered.
32Now the reason why he does not walk across (to the ordinary place of offering), but pours out the oblation after stepping up (to the fire) on the sane side, is that the fathers have departed once for all; and the reason also, why he cuts but once from each of the sacrificial dishes, is that the fathers have departed once for all. And the reason why in making the cuttings, he keeps them together, is that the fathers are the seasons; he thus keeps the seasons together, joins them to one another: that is why in making the cuttings, he keeps them together.
33Here now some hand over that entire (remaining) porridge to the Hotri; and the Hotri, having invoked it[33], smells it and hands it to the Brahman. The Brahman smells it and hands it to the Âgnîdhra; and the Âgnîdhra also smells it. And so indeed they do this. But, as from any other oblation they cut off the Ida and the fore-portion, so let them cut from this also; and having invoked it (the Idâ) they smell it, but do not eat it. ‘But,’ said Âsuri, ‘we think that some should be eaten, of whatever is offered up in the fire.’
34Now he who is about to present (the obsequial cakes to the fathers), either the Adhvaryu or the Sacrificer, takes the vessel of water and walks thrice round (the altar) from right to left sprinkling all about (the altar). He then, with the text, ‘N.N., wash thyself[34]!’ pours out water (in the north-west corner of the altar) for the Sacrificer’s father[35] to wash himself; and (in the southwest corner), with ‘N.N., wash thyself!’ for the grandfather; and (in the south-east corner), with ‘N.N., wash thyself!’ for the great-grandfather. As one would pour out water for (a guest) who is to take food with him, so in this case.
35Thereupon he takes one ‘cutting’ from the cake and puts it in his left hand; from the parched grain also he takes one cutting and puts it in his left hand; and from the porridge also he takes one cutting and puts it in his left hand.
36And in the corner (of the altar) opposite this intermediate quarter (viz. the north-west), he then presents (an obsequial cake[36]) to the Sacrificer’s father, with the formula, ‘N.N., this for thee!’ And in the corner opposite this intermediate quarter (the south-west), he presents one to the Sacrificer’s grandfather, with ‘N.N., this for thee!’ And in the corner opposite this intermediate quarter (the southeast), he presents one to the Sacrificer’s great-grandfather, with ‘N.N., this for thee!’ And in the corner opposite this intermediate quarter (the northeast), he cleanses (his hands), with the text (Vâg. S. II, 31), ‘Here, O Fathers, regale yourselves! Like bulls come hither, each to his own share!’ whereby he means to say, ‘Eat ye each his share!’ And the reason why he thus presents (food) to the Fathers is that in this way he does not exclude his own fathers from this sacrifice.
37Thereupon they all, being sacrificially invested, walk out (of the shed) on the north side, (pass along the east side of, and) stand by the (north) side of, the Âhavanîya fire. For he who has established his fires, and performs the New and Full-moon sacrifices, approaches the gods; but they have just been performing the sacrifice to the Manes, and therefore they now propitiate the gods.
38They stand by the Âhavanîya fire (worshipping) with two (verses) addressed to Indra [viz. Rig-veda I, 82, 2-3; Vâg. S. III, 51-52], since the Âhavanîya is Indra. ‘The friends have eaten, and regaled themselves, and have shaken off (the enemies)[37]; the self-shining bards have extolled (thee) with their newest hymn: yoke, then, thy pair of bay steeds, O Indra! To thee, the splendid, we will sing praises, O bountiful one! Thus praised, do thou now issue forth, with well-filled car, agreeably to our desire! yoke, then, thy pair of bay steeds, O Indra!’
39Thereupon they return to the Gârhapatya and stand by it worshipping with the verses (Rig-veda X, 57,3-5; Vâg. S. III, 53-55), ‘We invoke the Mind with man-lauding strain[38], and with the hymns of the fathers. May the Mind come back to us for (us to obtain) wisdom, vigour, and life, and that we may long see the sun! May the divine race restore to us the Mind, O Fathers, that we may abide with the living kind!’ They have indeed been performing the sacrifice to the Manes; but now they return to the (land of the) living: hence he says, ‘That we may abide with the living kind!’
40Thereupon he who has presented (the obsequial cakes) again shifts his sacrificial cord to the right shoulder and betakes. himself (to the fire in the shed), and mutters (Vâg. S. II, 31), ‘The Fathers have regaled themselves: like bulls they came each to his share:’ whereby he means to say, ‘they have eaten each his own share.’
41He now takes the vessel of water and again, while sprinkling, walks thrice round (the altar) from left to right (sunwise). With ‘N.N., wash thyself!’ he pours out water (in the respective corner) for the Sacrificer’s father to wash himself; with ‘N.N., wash thyself!’ for the grandfather; with ‘N.N., wash thyself!’ for the great-grandfather. As one would pour out water for (a guest) who has taken food with him, so in this case. And as to his again walking thrice round from left to right, while sprinkling, they think, ‘This holy work of ours shall be accomplished sunwise[39],’ and hence he walks thrice round from left to right, while sprinkling.
42He then pulls down the tuck (of the nether garment)[40] and makes obeisance (to the Fathers). The tuck, doubtless, is sacred to the Fathers: hence he makes obeisance to them after pulling down the tuck; and obeisance means worship: hence he thereby recognises them as entitled to worship. Six times he makes obeisance to them, since there are six seasons, and the Fathers are the seasons: hence he thereby establishes his sacrifice in the seasons, that is why he makes obeisance six times[41]. ‘Give houses unto us; O Fathers!’ he (further) says, because the Fathers are the guardians of houses; and this is the prayer for blessing at this sacred performance.
43Being now about to proceed with the after-offerings, they all invest themselves sacrificially (by shifting the cord over to the left shoulder); and thus (invested) the Sacrificer and Brahman walk round to the west, and the Âgnîdhra to the east, side; and the Hotri sits down on the Hotri’s seat.
44He (the Adhvaryu) then says, ‘Brahman, I shall step forward.’ Thereupon he puts the stick (reserved at the time of kindling) on (the fire), and says, ‘Agnîdh, trim the fire!’ He then takes the two spoons and crosses over to the west side. After crossing over and calling for the ‘Sraushat,’ he says (to the Hotri), ‘Pronounce the offering-prayer to the gods!’ He performs two after-offerings, omitting the one to the Barhis; for the Barhis means offspring: hence he performs two after-offerings, omitting the one to the Barhis, lest he should consign his offspring to the Fathers.
45He then separates the two spoons[42], after laying them down (in their respective places on the altar); and having separated them, and anointed the enclosing-sticks, he takes one enclosing-stick, calls for the ‘Sraushat,’ and says, ‘The divine Hotris are summoned for the proclamation of success, the human is called upon for the song of praise!’ The Hotri intones the ‘song of praise (sûktavâka).’ The Adhvaryu, on the other hand, does not seize the prastara-bunch, but watches while the Hotri recites the song of praise.
46Thereupon the Âgnîdhra says, ‘Throw it after[43]!’ He (the Adhvaryu) throws nothing after, but silently touches himself.
47He (the Âgnîdhra) then says, ‘Discourse together!’ [The Adhvaryu asks], ‘Has he gone (to the gods), Agnîdh?’ ‘He has gone!’ ‘Bid (the gods) hear!’ ‘May one (or, they) hear!’ ‘Goodspeed to the divine Hotris! Success to the human! Pronounce the All-hail and blessing!’ Thus saying, he merely touches the enclosing-sticks, but does not (now) throw them (into the fire). The Barhis and enclosing-sticks he throws in afterwards[44].
48And here some throw also the remaining sacrificial food into the fire; but let him not do so; for that (remaining havis) is the residue of an offering; and lest he should offer the residue of an offering, let them (the priests) rather throw it into the water or eat it.

NOTE:

[1] This is generally called the Mahâpitriyagña, as distinguished from the ordinary monthly Pitriyagña of the new-moon sacrifice; for which see II, 4, 2, I seq.
[2] See II, 1, 3, 1 seq.
[3] Instead of ‘ákaranena,’ the Kânva MS. has ‘karanéna (!).’ Cf. Sâyana’s interpretation ‘anukaranena anugamanena ka.’
[4] That is, either to ‘the fathers, accompanied by Soma (or possessed of Soma),’ or to ‘Soma, accompanied by the fathers.’ The Black Yagus assigns the oblation to Soma Pitrimat.
[5] That is, ‘the fathers seated on the barhis.’
[6] That is, ‘the fathers consumed by the fire.’
[7] ‘These, then, are the three kinds of fathers,’ Kânva recension.
[8] Not thrice, as at an ordinary ishti; see I, 1, 4, 23.
[9] Not towards the east, as at the Darsapûrnamâsa; cf. p. 38, note 3. At offerings to the Manes the south, as a rule, takes the place of the east, the west that of the south, &c.
[10] At the conclusion of the Âptya ceremony (cf. I, 2, 2, 18-3, 5) he erects south of the (ordinary) Dakshina-fire a (quadrangular) shed (see further on, paragraph 20) with a door on the north side. Inside it he prepares a quadrangular altar (of the same size as at the Darsapûrnamâsa; cf. I, 2, 5, 14) with the corners towards the intermediate quarters, in the centre of which he makes the (new) Dakshinâgni hearth. [According to Taitt. Br. I, 6, 8, 5-6 no digging takes place in preparing the altar (which is to be square) at the Pitriyagña.] When the Dakshina-fire is transferred to the new fire-place, the Pranîtâ-water (see p. 9, note) is carried after it, followed by the Brahman and Sacrificer, and placed east (not north) of the hearth. The laying down of the fire is preceded by the usual fivefold lustration of the hearth (see p. 2).
[11] Instead of northwards, as is done at the normal ishti; see I, 2, 4, 12 seq.
[12] After tracing the first line of enclosure, the Adhvaryu draws three lines across the altar, either from west to east or from south to north; and says to the Âgnîdhra, ‘Take thrice!’ The latter then takes the dust from the lines and throws it on the utkara (the heap of rubbish, formed north of the altar in preparing the latter), and thereupon again obliterates them. According to Kâty. II, 6, 29, the same ceremony may be performed at the Darsapûrnamâsa; but there no mention is made of it by our author (see I, 2, 5, 12).
[13] Viz. the Âgnîdhra lays them down between the altar and the pranîtâh (see p. 422, note 3); the firewood behind (west of) the sacrificial grass (barhis), and both with the tops towards the south. The wooden sword also has been previously put down by the Adhvaryu close behind the pranîtâh.
[14] The lady of the house not being present at the sacrifice to the Manes, neither the ceremony of girding (I, 3, 1, 12 seq.), nor that of her looking at the butter while it is taken from the Gârhapatya fire, along the east side of the Âhavanîya to the altar takes place on this occasion. According to the commentators on Katy. V, 8, 25 (Paddh. p. 519), however, the Adhvaryu has to look down on the butter, with the same text (Vâg. S. I, 30) which was used by the sacrificer’s wife. For some details to be supplied here, see I, 3, 1, 22-28.
[15] He has hitherto worn his sacrificial cord on the right shoulder and under the left arm (‘eastward-invested’), and now shifts it so as to be on the left shoulder and under the right arm (‘sacrificially-invested’). As to the taking or ladling of butter into the offering-spoons, see I, 3, 2, 1 seq.
[16] See I, 3, 2, 9.
[17] See I, 3, 3, 1 seq.
[18] The barhis, on this occasion, must have been cut close to the root (upamûlam, II, 4, 2, 17; ûpamûle ditam, Kânva rec.). According to Taitt. Br. I, 6, 8, 6-7, on the other hand, it has apparently to be torn up with the roots (yat parushi dinam tad devânâm, yad antarâ tan manushyânâm, yat samûlam tat pitrînâm).
[19] As he did on the former occasion, I, 3, 3, 5.
[20] According to Taitt. Br. I, 6, 8, 7, because the fathers abide in the third world from here (tritîye vâ ito loke pitarah).
[21] Viz. he is to lay down the enclosing-sticks along the north, west, and east sides, the last two with their tops towards the south. The third text (cf. I, 3, 4, 4) has, of course, to be changed to ‘May Mitra-Varuna lay thee around in the east,’ &c.; as has also the one he mutters after putting the two sticks on the fire, to ‘May the sun guard thee from the south against any imprecation!’ (I, 3, 4, 8.) According to Taitt. Br. I, 6, 8, 8-9, on the other hand, he is to lay down only two enclosing-sticks (viz. the middle or western, and the northern one, cf. Sâyana on Taitt. S. II, p. 72).
[22] Here he remains standing, while the Sacrificer and Brahman sit down facing the east.
[23] Instead of the ordinary eleven verses, the first and last of which are recited thrice; see I, 3, 5, 6. According to Taitt. Br. I, 6, 9, I, the Adhvaryu summons the Hotri with ‘Recite to the fire, as it is being kindled for the gods (and) fathers!’ The bunch of firewood, with the exception of one stick, which is reserved for the after-offerings, is divided into three parts, one of which is thrown on the fire at the same time when the syllable ‘om’ is pronounced by the Hotri at the end of the kindling-verse.
[24] The Kânva MS. reads, ‘Bring Agni hither, O Agni!’ Before this, Âsval. II, 19, 7 inserts, ‘Bring hither the gods (and) fathers for the sacrificer!’ See I, 4, 2, 16.
[25] According to the Kânva text he adds here the same formula as at ordinary ishtis (I, 4, 2, 17), ‘Bring (them) hither, O Gâtavedas, and offer up a good offering!’ For the formulas ‘Bring hither Agni for the Hotriship! bring hither thine own greatness!’ Âsval. II, 19, 8 apparently substitutes ‘Bring hither Agni Kavyavâhana!’ cf. further on, par. 30.
[26] ‘The Adhvaryu, having offered the two libations of butter, and called for the Sraushat,’ Kânva recension.
[27] On the pravara, or election of the (divine and human) Hotri; see I, 4, 2, 1 seq., 5, I, 1 seq. The call ‘Hotri, seat thyself!’ here takes the place of the formulas given I, 5, 1, 5 seq.
[28] See I, 5, 3, 1 seq.
[29] At the sacrifice to the Manes, the Âgnîdhra, when uttering his response, stands south of the Adhvaryu. See p. 132, note. The first syllable of ‘svadhâ’ is protracted. According to the comm. on Kâty. V, 9, 12, the offering formulas also begin with ‘Yẽ svadhâmahe,’ instead of ‘Yẽ yagâmahe’ (see I, 5, 2, 16 and note).
[30] I do not quite see the pertinency of the reason here alleged, unless it be that the author means to say that once (by the first p. 429 act) the fathers have departed, and by a second act they return hither. According to Âsval. II, 19, 22, the two invitatory prayers to the Pitarah Somavantah are Rig-v. X, 15, 1; IX, 96, 11; to Soma Pitrimat, Rig-v. I, 91, 1; 20; to the Pitaro Barhishadah, Rig-v. X, 15, 4; 3; to the Pitaro ‘gnishvâttâh, Rig-v. X, 15, 11; 13; [to Yama X, 14, 4; 5.] The offering-prayers being respectively, Rig-v. X, 15, 5; VIII, 48, 13; X, 15, 2; X, 15, 14; [X, 14, 1.]. Somewhat different the Black Yagus; viz. Soma Pitrimat, anuvâkyâs Rig-v. I, 91, I; IX, 96, II; yâgyâ VIII, 48, 13; Pitaro Barhishadah, anuvâkyâs X, 15, 4; 3; yâgyâ X, 15, 5; Pitaro ‘gnishvâttâh, anuvâkyâs X, 15, II; 14 (ye ‘gnishvâttâh, &c.!); yâgyâ ‘vânyâyai dugdhe,’ &c. [Then either upahoma with the formulas X, 15, 1; 2; IV, 2, 16; or] an oblation to Agni Kavyavâhana (anuvâkyâs, 1. ‘yad agne kavyavâhana,’ 2. X, 15, 12; yâgyâ X, 14, 3) [and another to Yama Aṅgirasvat Pitrimat (anuv. X, 14, 4; 5; yâgyâ X, 14, 6).] Taitt. S. I, 8, 5; II, 6, 12; Taitt. Br. I, 6, 9.
[31] From the centre of each sacrificial dish he makes one ‘cutting’ with the sritâvadâna, shaped like a cow’s ear. Kâty. V, 9, 2, and Schol.
[32] Or rather the ‘Svadhâ namah,’ cf. par. 24. The Adhvaryu makes the oblation with his left hand, while looking towards the south. Paddh. on Katy. V, 9.
[33] According to the comm. on Kâty. V, 9, 13, ‘manthah’ is, in that case, substituted for idâ’ in the invocation, see I, 8, 1, 19 seq. The Kânva MS. has as follows: Thereupon, by way of idâ, they place that same porridge into the hand of the Hotri. The Hotri, having invoked it, smells it. They hand it to the Âgnîdhra. The Âgnîdhra smells it. They hand it to the Brahman. The Brahman smells it. As to this Âsuri said, ‘As from any other oblation they cut off the “idâ” and the fore-portion, so let them cut off and smell, p. 432 but not eat: some indeed must be eaten of that of which offering is made in the fire.’
[34] See II, 4, 2, 16 seq. According to the comm. on Kâty. V, q, 27, some sprinkle three times round the altar for each of the three ancestors. But according to the Paddhati, he sprinkles once round the altar, beginning from the north-west corner; then he sits down and pours out water in that corner for the father. Thereupon, after walking round in the opposite direction (from left to right) to the south-west corner, he again sprinkles all round, and in the same way pours out water in that corner for the grandfather; and after retracing his steps as far as the south-east corner, he performs the same circumambulation, and pours out water in that corner for the great-grandfather; whereupon he again retraces his steps up to the west of the altar.
[35] In the case of a sacrificer whose father is still alive, these ceremonies are performed in honour of the father’s father, grandfather, and great-grandfather.
[36] He mixes the three pieces (about as much as a thumb’s joint each) cut from the sacrificial dishes, and forms them into three pindas or round cakes.
[37] ‘The friends have shaken off (their intoxication),’ Ludwig; ‘ they showered down upon us delightful gifts,’ Grassmann; ‘they shook their dear (bodies),’ Sâyana; ‘have trembled through their precious (bodies),’ Wilson.
[38] The Rig-veda has ‘somena’ instead of ‘stomena.’
[39] The Kânva text has, ‘The reason why he moves thrice round, sprinkling from left to right, is that, after going after those three ancestors of his, he thereby leaves them, and returns to this, his own, world.’ See II, 6, I, 15.
[40] On the nîvi, or unwoven end of the waist-cloth (Hindi dhotî, Mahr. dhotar), which had to be passed under and tucked up behind, at the beginning of the present ceremony, see p. 368, note 2. Cf. Âpast. Dharmas. I, 2, 6, 19.
[41] For the six formulas used for this purpose, see p. 368, note 2.
[42] See I, 8, 3, 1 seq.
[43] See I, 8, 3, 19 seq.
[44] Viz. after the strewing of the Veda, see I, 9, 2, 24, the formulas being pronounced by the Hotri on this occasion, at the time when the Samishtayagus, which is here omitted, would have to be performed in an ordinary ishti.

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