domenica, Giugno 13, 2021
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India in Greece

THE HELLENES

The land of Hellas, a name so dear to civilization and the arts” was so called from the magnificent range of lieiglits situated in Beloochistan, styled the “Hela” mountains. “Their lofty range” observes Thornton “stretches from north to south generally, between the meridians 67° 68°. They are connected with the elevated region of Afghanistan by the Toba mountains, of which they may be considered a prolongation, and which rise in the two summits of Tukatoo, in lat. 30° 18”, long. 67°, to a height estimated at between 11,000 and 12,000 feet. If we consider this mountain as the northern limit of the Hela range, it will be found to extend from north to south, a distance of about four hundred miles, and to terminate at Cape Monze, projecting into the Arabian Sea, in lat. 24° 48′. About lat. 29° 30′, a large offset extends east-ward, forming the mountains held by the Muree tribe of Kalum, and joining the Suliman range about Hurrund and Dagel. Southward of this the Hela range becomes rapidly depressed towards the east, descending with considerable steepness in that direction to the low-level tract Cutch Gundava; viewed from which, these mountains present the appearance of a triple range, each rising in succession as they recede westward/” Such, on the excellent authority above quoted, are the Hela mountains, which sent forth the first progenitors of Greece.
The chiefs of this country were called “Helaines[1],” or the “Chiefs of the Hela.” I have not the slightest doubt, however, that both the name of this mountain, and that of the chiefs of the country, was of a secondary form, viz., “Heli,” “the sun,” demonstrating that they were of the genuine race of Rajpoots, who were all worshippers of that luminary. In this case the formation of the term Helenes in Sanscrit, would be identical with the Greek. Of this fact there can be no reasonable doubt, from the following considerations. Hel-en (the Sun King[2])” is said to have left his kingdom to Aiolus, his eldest son, while he sent forth Dorus and Zuthus to make conquests in foreign lands[3].” Haya is the title of a renowned tribe of Rajpoot warriors, the most extensive of the north-western worshippers of Bal, or the sun. They were also called “Asii,” or “Aswa,” and their chiefs were denominated “Aswa-pas,” or the ““ Aswa Chiefs,” and, to use the words of Conon, as quoted by Bishop Thirlwall[4],” “The patrimony of Aiolus (the HAIYULAS) is described as bounded by the river Asopus (Aswapas[5]) and the Enipeus.” Such then was the Asopus, the settlement of the Haya tribe, the Aswa chiefs, the sun worshippers, the children of the “Sun King,” or Helen[6],” whose land was called in Grreek, Hella-dos, in Sanscrit, Hela-des (Hela, Hela; des, land). Of Acliilles, sprung from a splendid Kajpoot stock, I shall briefly speak when developing the parent geography of the Dolopes; but as that magnificent race, and the Abantes, who were likewise worshippers of the sun, play such a distinguished part in the history — not mythology of Hellas, I cannot better illustrate their position in the most venerable annals of Greece than by presenting the reader with the brilliant yet faithful picture of the noble tribes of the Aswas, drawn from Colonel Tods “Annals of Rajasthan.” Meanwhile, I would remark that these were the clans, who, descending from the Amoo, or Oxus — in fact the “Ox-ud-race,” or “Rajas of the Oxus,”“ boldly encountered the Macedonian hero. These were the chiefs who founded a kingdom around, and gave an enduring name to, the Euxine Sea. They were the chiefs of the Oxus, and their kingdom was that of the Oox-ina (Eux-bne), or kings of the Oxus, a compound derived from Ooxus, and ina, a king. Of this the Greeks made Euxinos. The old tale ran, that this sea was first called Axeinos, or the inhospitable; that it was then changed to eu-xeinos, or the hospitable. We have thus a most fortunate preservation of the old term; ooxa with ina, will, by the rules of Sandhi, exactly make good the old name Ookshainos ( keivos). Thus, the Greek myth “the inhospitable” (sea); the Sanscrit History — Ooksliainos, “the chiefs of the Oxus[7]”.
These were the mighty tribes” who by their numbers and their prowess” gave” from their appellation “Asii” its enduring name to the continent of “Asia” “The Aswas” observes Colonel Tod, “were chiefly of the Hindoo race; yet a branch of the Suryas[8], also bore this designation. It appears to indicate their celebrity as horsemen[9]. “All of them worshipped the horse, which they sacrificed to the sun. This grand rite, the Aswamedha[10] on the festival of the winter solstice, would alone go far to exemplify their common Scythic origin with the Getic Sacae, authorizing the inference of Pinkerton, that “a grand Scythic nation extended from the Caspian to the Ganges.
“The Aswamedha was practised on the Ganges and Sarjoo[11]” by the Solar Princes, twelve hundred years before Christ, as by the Getes in the time of Cyrus; ‘deeming it right,’ says Herodotus, to offer the swiftest of created, to the chief of uncreated beings:’ and this worship and sacrifice of the horse, has been handed down to the Rajpoot of the present day. The milk-white steed was supposed to be the organ of the gods, from whose neighing they calculated future events: notions possessed also by the Aswa, sons of Boodha[12], “on the Yamuna and Ganges, when the rocks of Scandinavia, and the shores of the Baltic, were yet imtrod by man. The steed of the Scandinavian god of battle was kept in the temple of Upsala, and always “found foaming and sweating after battle.” Similarity of religious manners affords stronger proofs of original identity than language. Language is eternally changing — so are manners; but an exploded custom or rite” traced to its source, and maintained in opposition to climate, is a testimony not to be rejected. When Tacitus informs us that the first act of a German on rising was ablution, it will be conceded, that this habit was not acquired in the cold climate of Germany, but must have been of Eastern origin; as were the loose flowing robe, the long and braided hair, tied in a knot at the top of the head.” And here I would pause to direct the attention of the reader to the well-known passage of Thucydides, so forcible an evidence of the Scythic origin of the Athenians, and so amply confirmed by the geographical evidences I shall bring forward. “It is not long since, observes that sagacious writer, “that the more elderly among the rich Athenians, ceased to wear linen tunics, and to wreathe their hair in a knot_, which they clasped by the insertion of a golden grasshopper. Hence, also, this fashion was, on a principle of national afiinity, extensively prevalent among the more ancient lonians.” “The original land of the people of Attica, practically shown, with the powerful aid of latitude and longitude, and exhibiting that people as dwelling among the lonians of the parent-stock, will amply account both for their linen dress and the style of arranging their hair.
“The Rajpoot,” continues Colonel Tod,” “worships his horse, his sword, and the sun, and attends more to the martial song of the bard than to the litany of the Brahmin. In the martial mythology, and warlike poetry of the Scandinavians, a wide field exists for assimilation; and a comparison of the poetic remains of the Asii of the East and West, would alone suffice to suggest a common origin. As an evidence of the soundness of this opinion it is “sufficient to observe” that the European, “Scandinavian” and the Indian, “Kshetrya” or “warrior caste are identical; the former term being a Sanscrit equivalent for the latter. “Scanda-Nabhi” (Scandi-Navi) signifying “Scanda chiefs[13]; so that both language and practice prove the Indian origin of this race.
I add other extracts from Colonel Tod, for the advantage of the sceptics of the Trojan war, — not as a proof of that event, for that I shall elsewhere amply demonstrate — but to remind them how thoroughly Indian was Hellas at the period of that mighty struggle.
“The war-chariot is peculiar to the Indo-Scythic nations, from Desaratha[14], “ and the heroes of the Mahabharat, to the conquest of Hindusthan, when it was laid aside. On the plains of Coorukheta, Crishna became charioteer to his friend Arjoona; and the Getic hordes of the Jaxartes, when they aided Xerxes in Greece, and Darius on the plains of Arbela, had their chief strength in the war-chariot[15].”
I here take the opportunity of observing, that one of the heroes just noticed will be found to be not only an
Indian chieftain” but one of the Grecian gods. Speaking of the worship of arms by the military race. Colonel Tod observes, “The devotion of the Eajpootis still paid to his arms and to his horse. He swears by the steel and prostrates himself before his defensive buckler, his lance, his sword, or his dagger. The worship of the sword in the Acropolis of Athens by the Getic Attila, with all the accompaniments of pomp and place, forms an admirable episode in the history of the decline and fall of Eome; and had Gibbon witnessed the worship of the double-edged sword, by the Prince of Mewar, and all his chivalry, the historian might even have embellished his animated account of the adoration of the scymitar, the symbol of Mars.
Such were the warlike tribes, “the Children of the Sun,” that first peopled the land of Hellas. If the reader will now refer to the double map of the old and the new settlements of the sons of Hellen, he will distinctly see a system of colonization corresponding to the various provinces in the parent country of the emigrants. Bordering on the Euboean sea, he will discern the “Loom.” These are the inhabitants of Logurh, a district of considerable extent in Affghanistan, south of the city of Cabool. It extends up the northern slope of the high land of Ghuznee; and, as its elevation in all parts exceeds six thousand feet, the climate is very severe in winter. The Logurh Eiver, with its various feeders, inter- sects and drains this district, which, being well watered, fertile, and cultivated with much care, is one of the most productive parts of the country. ‘ Adjoining the small Grecian province of Locri” of which the Ozolian Locrians (whomi shall shortlynotice) are a section — are the Boeotians, lying immediately to the north-west of Attica, embosomed in the mountains of Helicon, Parnassus, and Cithseron.
The soil of this country was famed for its fertility, and its inhabitants for their vigour and military hardihood,and often did they bear off the prize of the gymnastic contest at the Olympic games. Their square-built figure, and the massive mould of their martial form, pointed out this race as essentially adapted to deeds of warlike emprise. Nor is this to be wondered at; they were the Kshetriyas, or great warrior-caste of north-western India; the “Baihootians,” a people who came from the fertile banks of the Behoot, or Jailum[16], the most westerly of the five great rivers of the Punjab, which intersect that region east of the Indus. This mighty river rises in Cashmir, the whole valley of which it drains, making its way to the Punjab, through the pass of Bramula, in the lofty range of Pir Panjal. The regular derivative form of Behuti is Baihooti, signifying the “people of the Behut.” The term Bahoot, however, is more especially connected with the “Bahoo,” or “Arm” of Brahma, whence the warrior caste of India was, by a poetical Hindoo fiction, supposed to have sprung. Immediately flanking the province of Bosotia to the east is the large island of Eu-boia; so called from its having been colonised by the warlike clans of the Ef-bahooyas. And now observe the extraordinary antiquity of the Hindoo mythologic system. These warriors are Bahooja[17], i.e., “Born from the arm (of Brahma.”) Not only so, they are “z”-bahooyas, i.e.. The Baliooyas or warriors par eminence. Hence their settlement was “Euboea” or the land of “the Great Kshetriyas”. Thus it is clear” that this part of the mythology of India is coeval with the settlement of the island.
The principal feeder of the Jailum is the Veshau, which so far exceeds the upper feeders of the Jailum, that its fountainhead should be regarded as properly the source of that great river. “The Veshau flows by a subterraneous passage from Kosah Nag_, a small bat deep lake”, situated near the top of the Pir Punjal mountain, and at an elevation of about 12,000 feet above the level of the sea. “Here Vigne states, “its full strong current is suddenly seen gushing out from the foot of the last and lofty eminence that forms the dam on the western end of the lake, whose waters thus find an outlet, not over, but through, the rocky barrier, with which it is surrounded.” The stream, thus produced and reinforced, subsequently receives numerous small feeders; passes through the City Lake, the Manasa Lake, and the Wulur, or Great Lake, and sweeps through the country, confined by embankments, which prevent it from overflowing the lower part of the valley. The whole course of the Jailum through the valley, before it finds an outlet through the pass of Baramula into the lower ground of the Punjab, is about one hundred and twenty miles, for seventy of which it is navigable. It is the opinion of Vigne, that the river made its way gradually through this pass, and thus drained the lake, which, according to tradition, formerly occupied the site of the valley. The Jailum was unquestionably the Hydaspes of the Greeks. It is still known to the Hindoos of the vicinity by the name of Betusta, corrupted by the Greeks, according to their usage, with respect to foreign names. The scene of the battle, between Porus and Alexander, is generally- placed at Julalpoor”.
It is impossible not to be struck with the singular similarity of the tract of country both old and new; the land which these martial emigrants left and that on which they entered. Both richly watered with numerous streams, and both extremely fruitful. The Wulur, or the “Great Lake” in the parent country, the Lake Copias in the land of Hellas, the Kshetriya or warrior caste, in either region of the world, complete the harmonious landscape of antiquity; and this singular identity of taste, as well as of locality, I shall again have occasion to notice. As in the lands of the far-off Sinde, so in their new settlements, the ingenious and lively people of Attica are found close neighbours to the Boeotians. What a vivid picture does this fact convey of the steadiness of the progress, and compactness of the array which brought these martial bands of the Helas to their final settlement in Greece, the land of their adoption! How truly did they exchange one land of mountain and of flood, for another almost its exact counterpart! How powerful and resistless must have been their progress, that they should arrive at their destined home, in such unbroken order!

NOTES

[1] From Hela, and Ina a king; Hela-ina, by the rules of Sandhi, or combination, making Helaines, “The Chiefs of Hela.”
[2] Eeli, sun; Ina, king.
[3] Apollod., 1731. Thirlwall, Hist. Greece, vol. i., p. 101.
[4] Hist. Greece, vol. i., p. 101.
[5] Aswa-pos (As-opos), Aswa chiefs (Aswa, a horse, and pos, a chief).
[6] The misunderstanding of the familiar use of the term “Sons “in the earliest historians of Hellas — who, in plain terms, are the Indian writers of early Greece — “has led to a total negation of its historical value, and the substitution of the theory of mythological invention, which has no guarantee from the plain facts of the case. The ancient chieftains of Afghanistan, like the Scots, their immediate descendants (of whose ancient power, position, and rule in the north of this island, I hold the most interesting and undeniable proofs), used the term in the ordinary phraseology, of the clan, as “Hector of the Mist,” “Sons of the Mist,” “Sons of the Douglas,” “Sons of Mac Ivor.” The same misapprehension of the nomenclature of the Sacha tribes, other Hellenic settlers, has still further propped up the feeble claims of mythology. “The Serpent,” “The Eagle,” “The Sun,” are, simply and ordinarily, the “Serpent-tribe,” “Eagle-tribe,” “Sun-tribe.”
[7] The Greek “Oxus “should be properly “Ooksha,” so called from Ooksha, an ox; which, as the reader will perceive, is at once very fair English and Sanscrit.
[8] “Suryas” the Sun-tribes (from Surya, the sun).
[9] Aswa and Hya are synonymous Sanscrit terms for “Horse” — Asp in Persian; and as applied by the prophet Ezekiel to the Getic invasion of Scythia, B.C. 600, “the sons of Togarma, riding on horses “— described by Diodorus; the period the same as the Tacshak invasion of India.
[10] Aswa, a horse, and Medha, a sacrifice.
[11] The Gogra or Gharghara River.
[12] W —Bodhan, Vodhan, Woden.
[13] Scanda is the name of Kartikeya, the Hindoo god of war.
[14]This title of the father of Rama denotes a “charioteer.” (From Das ten, and Ehatha a car. “Whose car bore him to the ten quarters of the universe.” — Wilson, Sansc. Lex., s. v.)
[15] “The Indian satrapy of Darius,” says Herodotus, “was the richest of all the Persian provinces, and yielded six hundredtalents of gold.” Arrian informs us that his Indo-Scythic subjects, in his wars with Alexander, were the elite of his army. Beside the Sacasenae, we find tribes in name similar to those included in the thi-ty-six Rajcula (Raj a- tribes). The Indo-Scythic contingent was two hundred war-chariots and fifteen elephants. By this disposition, they were opposed to the cohort commanded by Alexander in person. The chariots commenced the action, and prevented a manoeuvre of Alexander to turn the left flank of the Persians. Of their horse, also the most honourable mention is made: they penetrated into the division where Parmenio commanded, to whom Alexander was compelled to send reinforcements. The Grecian historian dwells with pleasure on Indo-Scythic valour: “There were no equestrian feats, no distant fighting with darts, but each fought as if victory depended on his sole arm.” They fought the Greeks hand to hand.” — Rajast., vol. i. p. 69.
[16] Called also Jelum, Jilum, Veshau, and Veynt.
[17] Bahoo, the arm; Bahoo-ja, Arm-born. The letter “j “often assumes the soft sound of the “j,” a Sanscrit letter equivalent to the Greek “i.” The Greek “Eu” is the corresponding form to the Sanscrit “Su,” “well,” in every case. See Appendix, Rule 9.

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