Who could have imagined that from the present barbarous land of Afghanistan., the elegant, the refined, and the witty Athenian should have set out! —yet so it was. The northern course of the Indus was his first home. The Attac indeed, gave a name to the far-famed province of Attica! The Attac is at present a fort and small town on the east bank of the Indus, 942 miles from the sea, and close below the place where it receives the waters of the Cabul river, and first becomes navigable. “The name,” writes Thornton, signifying ‘obstacle* is supposed to have been given to it under the presumption that no scrupulous Hindoo would proceed westward of it. But this strict principle, like many others of similar nature, is little acted on. The banks of the river are very high, so that the enormous accession which the volume of water receives during inundation, scarcely affects the breadth, but merely increases the depth. The rock forming the banks is of dark coloured slate, polished by the force of the stream, so as to shine like black marble. Between these c one clear blue stream shot past/ The depth of the Indus here is thirty feet in the lowest state, and between sixty and seventy in the highest, running at the rate of six miles an hour. There is a ford at some distance above the confluence of the river of Cabool, but the extreme coldness and rapidity of the water render it at all times very dangerous, and on the slightest inundation, quite impracticable. On the right bank, opposite Attac, is Khyrabad, a fort, built according to some by Nadir Shah. The locality is important in a military and commercial point of view, as the Indus is here crossed by the great route which, proceeding from Cabool eastward, through the Khyber Pass into the Punjab, forms the main line of communication between Afghanistan and Northern India, The river was here repeatedly crossed by the British armies, during the military operations in Afghanistan; and here, according to the general opinion, Alexander, subsequently Timour the Jagatayan conqueror, and, still later Nadir Shah, crossed.”
If the energetic people of the Attac had their “barrier” at this point of the far-famed river of the Sindh, the triangular peninsula, which they afterwards inhabited in the land of Hellas, bounded on the north by Boeotia and the Euripus, and on its southern and eastern shores by the waters of the Saronic gulf and the Aegaean, proved a more effectual “Attac,” or barrier, than they had ever before possessed; and while the barrenness of her soil protected the classic land of Attica from, an overwhelming population, it taught her to turn her attention to the development of the arts of industry, in which she so much excelled, and the completion of a marine that enhanced the glory of her more peaceful activity. “The sterility of Attica,” says an eloquent author, drove its inhabitants from their own country. It carried them abroad. It filled them with a spirit of activity, which loved to grapple with difficulty and to face danger; it did for them what the wise poet says was done for the early inhabitants of the world by its Supreme Ruler, who, in his figurative language, first agitated the sea with storms, and hid fire, and checked the streams of wine which first flowed abroad in the golden age, and shook the honey from the bough, in order that men might learn the arts in the stern school of necessity. It arose from the barrenness of her soil, as her greatest historian observes, that Attica had always been exempt from the revolutions which in early times agitated the other countries of Greece, which poured over their frontiers the changeful floods of migratory populations, which disturbed the foundations of their national history, and confounded the civil institutions of the former occupants of the soil. Attica, secure in her sterility, boasted that her land had never been inundated by these tides of immigration. She had enjoyed a perpetual calm, she had experienced no such change; the race of her inhabitants had been ever the same; nor could she tell whence they had sprung; no foreign land had sent them; they had not forced their way within her confines by violent irruption. She traced the stream of her population in a backward course, through many generations, till at last it hid itself, like one of her own brooks, in the temporary recesses of her own soil.”
As a practical comment upon this graceful summary of national belief, I would observe that the geographical evidences I have brought forward of the ancient birthplace of the splendid race of Attica, will now be amply confirmed by the same course of demonstration, a demonstration that will prove harmonious and complete in all its proportions; for it is based upon truth. One simple but ingenious Attic boast gives at once the key to the Autochthonous origin of the Athenians. They were, then, not Auto-chthons, “sprung from the same earth,” but Attac-thans, i.e. the people of “The Attac-land.” Thus fades mythology, and the doctrine of mythopoeic propensities, and the negation of an historical basis for fable, before the light of a positive geographical and historical fact! Again, — “The belief that her people was indigenous, she expressed in different ways. She intimated it in the figure which she assigned to Cecrops, the heroic prince and progenitor of her primaeval inhabitants. She represented him as combining in his person a double character; while the higher parts of his body were those of a man and king, the serpentine folds in which it was terminated, declared his extraction from the earth. The cicada of gold which she braided in her hair, were intended to denote the same thing; they signified that the natives of Attica sprang from the soil upon which they sang, and which was believed to feed them with its deer. The attachment of the inhabitants of this country to their own land was cherished and strengthened by this creed; they gloried in being natives of the hills and plains which no one had ever occupied but themselves, and in which they had dwelt from a period of the remotest antiquity. Such, then, were some of the circumstances which gave to this small province the dignity and importance which it enjoyed amongst the nations of the world.”
The source of the grasshopper symbol of the children of Attica, is by the plain and very unpoetical aid of geography, as clearly developed, as that of their autochthonous origin. This ingenious people who compared themselves to Tettiges, or Grasshoppers, could they have referred to the original cradle of their race, would have discovered that while the northern section of their tribe dwelt on the Attac, adjoining the magnificent valley of Cashmir, with whose princes their tribe was connected by policy and domestic alliances, and whose lineage long ruled over the brilliant Athenians, by far the greater part of that primitive community whose descendants raised the glory of the Attic flag above all the maritime powers of Hellas, dwelt in a position eminently befitting their subsequent naval renown. They were the “People of Tatta” or “Tettaikes”.
Now, hold we the clue to the happy choice of their new settlements made by these sons of “Hela-des,” or the “LAND OF HELA”.
Practised mariners, expert traders, with the mercantile resources of the sea-board line of Sinde, and Mekran on the west, the magnificent Indus by which they could ascend to the northern Attica, a position which would serve as a noble depot for overland traders, whose merchandise was again easily conveyed down the Indus to the seafaring Tettaikes, or people of Tatta—these energetic sons of commerce enjoyed all the advantages of the vast traffic resulting from the coasting voyages, towards the Persian gulf. To the east, the brilliant commercial establishments on the gulfs of Cutch and Cambay; to the south, an almost interminable line of coast, dotted with the lucrative settlements of a thriving trade.
It is easy to perceive, that a voyage down this immense extent of coast was merely a subject of time—that Ceylon with this immaterial drawback; was as accessible as the Gulf of Cambay, and that even to double Cape Comorin, and ascend the eastern shores of India to the mouths of the Ganges, where a rich store of commercial imports again awaited their traffic, was simply a prolongation of their voyage.
Ample and easy means of obtaining supplies were everywhere presented along the Indian coasts; nor can we for a moment doubt that the intermediate traffic from town to town, was of the most lucrative nature. In fact, these people of the eastern coasts of India, as well as those of Poonah on the west, will be distinctly shown on that early chart of their wanderings, called “the Classical Atlas,” on which the names of the varied Indian races and Scythic tribes are recorded, in characters as indelible as the rock inscriptions of Girnar.
But to return to the Tettaikes, or People of Tatta. “This city of Sinde,” observes Thornton, “is situated about three miles west of the right or western bank of the Indus, and four miles above the point where the western and eastern branches of the river separate. Its site is consequently close to the vertex of the Delta of the Indus. The town appears to have been formerly insulated by the water of the Indus, and it is still nearly so during the season of inundation. Dr. Burnes states that it was once thirty miles in circuit; judging, no doubt, from the vast space in the vicinity overspread by tombs and ruins. These extensive ruins are scattered from Peer Puttah, about ten miles south of Tatta, to Sami-Nuggur, three miles north-west of it. The ruins of the great fortress of Kulancote show it to have been constructed with much labour and skill, in a massive style of building. ‘The vast cemetery of six square miles’ observes Kennedy, ‘may not contain less than a million of tombs — a rude guess — but the area would admit of four millions.’ In these ruins., the masonry and carving both in brick and stone, display great taste, skill, and industry. The bricks, especially are of the finest sort, nearly equalling porcelain. Kennedy observes. The finest chiselled stone could not surpass the sharpness of edge and angle, and accuracy of form.’ What wonder, when they came from the hands of the men of Attic Race ‘Tatta viewed at some distance from the outside, presents a very striking and picturesque appearance, as its lofty houses rise over the numerous acacias and other trees everywhere interspersed, and which,’ says Kennedy, ‘formed altogether as fine a picture of city scenery as I remember to have seen in India.7 Who in this picture does not call to mind the groves of Academus and the architectural magnificence of Hellenic Attica! I cannot refrain from quoting the beautiful language of Dr. Wordsworth, so singularly just, and so singularly the mirror of the parent city of Attica: — “Not at Athens alone,” he observes, “are we to look for Athens. The epitaph,—Here is the heart: the spirit is everywhere,—may be applied to it. From the gates of its Acropolis, as from a mother city, issued intellectual colonies into every region of the world. These buildings, ruined as they are at present, have served for two thousand years as models for the most admired fabrics in every civilised country of the world. They live in them as their legitimate offspring. Thus the genius which conceived and executed these magnificent works, while the materials on which it laboured are dissolved, has itself proved immortal. The classical scholar will now be enabled to test the value of that philology which derives the name of Attica from “ Acte,” the shore. The same test also he will be enabled to apply to the derivations of “Thessalos” and “Epirus,” both of which will be found to rest upon a foundation equally insecure.
And here I would remove another classical prejudice which has stood undisturbed and unsuspected for very many centuries, occupying apparently the strong ground of the Historical Olympiads3 which position,, alas ! is no guarantee for truth. Having displaced the Autochthons of Attica from their mythological position by the aid of Geography, I would throw the same searching light upon cc Philippos” of Macedon. We must understand, then, that he was no Phil-ippos, or “Lover of Horses,” but the Bhili-pos, or Bhil-Prince. His son, Alexander, claimed descent from Hammon : he was correct; for, if the reader will examine the map of Afghanistan, he will find as practical a proof of the fact as he could desire, in “Hammon” between lat. 30° 42’ and 31° 54’; and long. 61° 8’ and 62° 10’. And these same Bhils, that is, the Bhil- Brahmins planted this same Oracle of Hammon in the deserts of Africa, whither I have already shown that they had sailed, where they founded “Philai,” i-e., Bhilai, the city of “The Bhils,” in lat. 24° north, long. 33° east.
Again: I greatly doubt, if now, after a search of two thousand five hundred years, the exact locality, residence, and lineage of that strange being, the Centaur, should be discovered, all classical students would not, with me, deeply regret the discovery, as destroying one of the most innocent and delightful amusements of the speculative mind. But the old adage of the might and prevalence of truth must be vindicated. Adjoining the Tettaikes, or the Atticans, both of Greece and India, is the small province of MEGARIS, which now figures near Currachee as Ma gar Talao, or the Alligators Pool. “Magar Talao, in Sinde, is a collection of hot springs, nine miles north-east of Kurrachee, and [ swarming with alligators. De la Hoste states that there are two hundred of these animals in a small space, not exceeding one hundred and twenty yards in diameter. Some of them are very large, and their appearance, basking in the sun, is not unlike a dry date tree. These thermal springs are situated amidst rocky and very barren hills; and spring out of the bottom of a small fertile valley, thickly wooded with date trees and acacias, over which the white dome of the shrine is visible. The principal spring issues from the rock upon which the shrine is built, and has a temperature of about 98°, the water being perfectly clear, and of a sulphureous smell. Another spring about half-a-mile distant has a temperature of 130°”.
Again, the astonishing compactness of this primitive emigration is forcibly apparent. I think it can scarcely be doubted, that these combined maritime tribes of Sinde, and their north-western tribes of the Attac, embarked simultaneously in one of the most powerful fleets that ever was seen in those early days. Their course would be similar to that of their predecessors from the same point— and I would venture to suggest that possibly one of the same emigration might have colonised both Egypt and Greece, especially as the Dodanim are spoken of by Moses, as classed with other people of vast antiquity. I will not, however, press this point; for the Dodas themselves, in their original settlements, were situated so far to the north, and so many of their cognate tribes and clans are to be seen hovering over Greece in high latitudes, that it is not improbable that this northerly section of Afghanistan may have sent forth its martial colonists over land— by which route, in fact, they could have encountered no opposition sufficient to break down their warlike force, nor to disturb their steady advance towards the west. The reader will now begin to comprehend, with increasing clearness, the meaning of that constant communication between Egypt and Attica and Boeotia—those frequent missions dispatched from the former country—particularly the religious propaganda (I know not how to choose a more appropriate term, — for such it undeniably was)— which unhappily sowed the dragon’s teeth in Boeotia. The reasons for sending an apparently Egyptian—but in reality an Attic, Prince to rule over Attica, in the person of Cecrops, will now be evident to the dispassionate inquirer after truth. These, and many more histories, have been vainly charged on Greek writers as the result of mythopoeic propensities, — by men who, while they have shunned the means necessary for the recovery of history, have not scrupled to propound theories, that are absolutely as mythological as the mythologies they have condemned.
After the very astonishing manner in which the Sindian emigration has hitherto maintained its united form, a glance at the map of Greece would tell us where to look for the original settlements of the Corinthians—nor are we disappointed — for, immediately adjoining Magar Talao (the Megaris of Greece), we find the people of the Cor’-Indus (Corinthus), that is, that tract of coast stretching from the River Cori to the Indus, embracing the immediate vicinity of either river. The Cori, flowing into the south-eastern extremity of the sea-coast of Sinde, is an arm of the sea, supposed to have been formerly the estuary of the most eastern branch of the Indus, and still receiving part of its waters during high inundations. At Cotsair, twenty miles from the open sea, it is seven miles wide. The sources of the Indus, the mighty artery of North-Western India, have been always difficult of access, from the vigilant jealousy of the Chinese, who rule Thibet, and who, as Thornton observes, have succeeded in excluding Europeans from that country. The inquiries of Moorcroft, Trebeck, and Gerard have established, beyond any reasonable ground of doubt, that the source of the longest and principal stream of the Indus is at the north of the Kailas Mountain, which gave the term “koilon” heaven, to the Greeks, and COELUM to the Romans; one of the practical influences of mythology which extended to the Saxons. Mount Kailas is regarded in the Hindoo mythology as the mansion of the gods and Siva’s paradise, and is probably the highest mountain in the world, being estimated by Gerard to have a height of 30,000 feet.
Hail, mountain of delight!
Palace of glory, blessed by Glory’s king!
With prospering shade embower me, while I sing
Thy wonders, yet unreach’d by mortal flight!
Sky-piercing mountain! in thy bowers of love
No tears are seen, save where medicinal stalks
Weep drops balsamic o’er the silvered walks!
Such is a graceful illustration, of plain practical fact — of a geographical feature of stupendous magnitude, which gave rise to a mythologic fable, or to the appropriation of one already made. The basis is not only historical, but geographical; and yet, notwithstanding these facts, a mythologic superstructure of the most elaborate nature has been reared thereon; and while the towering Kylas, with its rivers and rocks, has by the Hindoo been generally unverified as a great physical fact, his imagination and his poetry have created an efficient substitute for the satisfaction of his faith. And thus it was with the native of Indus and of the rocky heights of the Hela, when he became a settler in the Hellas; and thus it, was with his polished descendant in Athens, who, though called a Greek, was yet as thoroughly Sindian in his tastes, religion, and literature as any of his forefathers. And yet, who that considers the masculine vigour of the Hellenic mind, and its political energies, would imagine that so constituted, it could place faith in untested fables—that the subtle genius of Themistocles, and the intellectual majesty of Pericles, would placidly hail traditions discarded by the historic mind as transparent fictions? Yet so it was! The same judgment that so profoundly harmonized with the severe grandeur of the Olympian Jove, enthroned by Pheidias amid the marshalled columns of the national temple, bowed to the legend of Aphrodite, the foam-born Queen of Love, and the genesis of monsters, endowed with godlike powers, but debased by monstrous passions. Strange as this anomaly may appear, it is reconcilable with the noble sincerity of the Hellenic attributes. Endowed with the most active sensibilities, the Greek sought to satisfy the ardent aspirations of his devotional yet warlike spirit; he yearned to be enrolled among the band of heroes whom their valour had exalted to the dazzling halls of Olympus. How deeply the grand reality of this reward was impressed upon the most powerful intellect, is shown by the awful apostrophe of Demosthenes to the heroes who fell at Marathon, and the breathless attention which then absorbed the very soul of the Athenian. There existed, however, — and let us beware of any crude theories to the contrary — there existed an historical basis for a national mythology—but that mythology never arose from pure invention. It has ever been the Indo-Hellenic practice to disguise that historical basis — I do not say intentionally — by poetic imagery — by Buddhistic and Lamiac miracles; miracles as wonderful as those claimed to be wrought by the Lamaism of the West—miracles, of which the history of “The Chief of the Clan Heri” (who is Buddha) furnishes a complete series—whose best Commentary is to be found in the Mahawanso. Be it our duty to decipher that which the Hellenes have obscured. We now hold the key. We know the starting point of their first emigration. We know the legends of their original country; those legends will yet be proved to be plain and direct histories, by the contrasted records of Greece, India, and Egypt; and, I may add, Persia and Assyria also; for these are of kindred race. By the adjusted accounts and by the monuments left by the three first, and by the interwoven histories of the two former, we may hope to evolve a statement of events more authentic than that connected with the first two centuries after the Olympiads, and I scruple not to say far more interesting—for these ancient annals contain the germs of the arts and the civilization with which we are now everywhere surrounded.
Mount Kylas, the Paradise of the Hindoo, and the source of the chief stream of the Indus, is described by Moorcroft, who viewed it from a table land between 17,000 and 18,000 feet high, as a stupendous mountain, whose sides as well as craggy summits, are, apparently, thickly covered with snow? “The Indus, near its source, bears the name of Sin-kha-bab, or Lion’s mouth, from a superstitious belief that it flows from one. Within eight or ten miles of its source, it was found, at the end of July, to be two and a half feet deep, and eighty yards wide. The country through which the lofty feeders of the Indus flow, varies in elevation, from 15,000 to 18,000 feet. It is one of the most dreary regions in existence; the surface being for the most part formed by the disintegration of the adjacent mountains. It is swept over by the most furious winds, generally blowing from the north. These are at once piercingly cold, and parchingly dry, and no vegetation is visible but a few stunted shrubs, and some scanty and frost-withered herbage. It is, however, the proper soil for the production of shawl-wool, which is obtained from the yak, the goat, the sheep, certain animals of the deer kind, and even, it is said, from the horse and dog. Close above Attac, the Indus receives on the western side, the great river of Cabool, which drains the extensive basin of Cabool, the northern declivity of Sufeid Kob, the southern declivity of Hindoo Koosh, and Chitral, and the other extensive valleys which furrow this last great range on the south.
“The Cabool river appears to have nearly as much water as the Indus, and in one respect has an advantage over it, being navigable above forty miles above the confluence, while the upward navigation of the Indus is rendered impracticable by a very violent rapid, immediately above the junction. Both rivers have gold in their sands, in the vicinity of Attach.” It is Cabool, at that time “Gopala,” of which the sacred historian speaks, under the form “ Havilah, where there is gold,” the river Pi-son, “Ba-sin” (“Aba-sin”), or the Indus “being that which compassed the whole land of Havilah.” Nothing can be a more distinct narrative of the primitive cities and races of mankind, nor can anything be in greater harmony with the northwestern dynasties of Asia, and the first settlements of Greece, than the account given by the venerable historian of the Jewish dispensation. Nothing can bear a higher testimony to the sacred writer than the extreme accuracy, as well as immense value to primitive history, of his inspired record, when duly read j and to this I shall have occasion to refer at a future period of my investigation.
“For about ten miles below the Attac, the Indus, though in general rolling between the high cliffs of slate rock, has a calm, deep, and rapid current; but for above a hundred miles farther down to Kala Bagh, it becomes an enormous torrent, whirling and rolling away huge boulders and ledges of rock, and between precipices, rising nearly perpendicularly several hundred feet from the water’s edge. The water here is a dark lead colour, and hence the name Nilab, or blue river, given as well to the Indus as to a town on its banks, about twelve miles below Attock.”
We have already seen the Aboa-sin giving its name to Abu-sinia, in Africa, and we now observe the Nil-ab (that is the blue water), bestowing an appellation on the far- famed “Nile” of Egypt. Ample and overpowering evidences, however, as we progress in this investigation, will arise to prove the colonization of Egypt from the coast of Sinde. Ward observes, “that the population of the banks of the Indus are almost amphibious. The boatmen of lower Scinde, for example, live like the Chinese in their boats. The leisure time of every description of persons is spent on the water, or floating on it. Such familiarity with the water, naturally inclines the population to regard it as the great medium of commercial intercourse. In proceeding up the stream when the wind is unfavorable, as is generally the case during the half-year between the autumnal and vernal equinoxes, way must be made exclusively by tracking. During the other half-year, southerly winds prevail, and the boats run up under sail before it, except where the use of sails becomes dangerous from peculiar circumstances. The length of the navigable part of the river, from the sea to Attock, has been ascertained by measurement to be nine hundred and forty-two miles; that of the upper part is about seven hundred miles; making a total length, in round numbers, of one thousand, six hundred and fifty miles.”
Such is a description of the great river of the Indus and its border inhabitants at this day; and such, no doubt, judging by the steadfastness of the oriental type, both in language and custom, were the inhabitants on the banks of this celebrated stream from the most remote periods. Can we now, after surveying the primaeval settlements of the Cor-Indi, and those people of the sea-board Attac, the Tattaikes, wonder at the happy choice of locality made by both these great mercantile people! We see that both came to their new country fraught with all the appetences and qualifications of a great commercial people; both made a most brilliant as well as judicious choice of their respective coasts and harbours, and both ran a noble career in the civilization of their species. The early abundance of gold — the graceful fabrics of the loom, and the arts of embroidery — these and a host of similar peculiarities distinctive of oriental life, all are now satisfactorily accounted for, by the simple geographical evidence of the exact origin and locality of the classical Athenian and Corinthian. What can he more thoroughly Indian than Homer’s description of the venerable Nestor’s cup:—
“Next, her white hand an antique goblet brings,
A goblet sacred to the Pylean kings
From oldest time; embossed with studs of gold,
Two feet support it, and four handles hold:
On each bright handle bending o’er the brink
In sculptured gold, two turtles seem to drink.”
The early civilization then—the early arts—the indubitably early literature of India, are equally the civilization, the arts and the literature of Egypt and of Greece—for geographical evidences, conjoined to historical fact, and religious practices, now prove beyond all dispute, that the two latter countries are the colonies of the former.
The same tendencies which induced the maritime Athenian, Corinthian, and Megarian to select in Hellas positions so favourable to commerce, influenced the movements of the Les-poi (Les-boi), or Chiefs of Les, a province lying along the coast, a little to the north-west of the Gulf of Currachie. These sea-faring people took up their abode in the isle of Les-bos.
To the south of Megaris and Corinth, the “Sar’wani- cas,” or “ People of Sarawan” had at one time formed an important settlement, as is evident from their name left as a legacy to the “Saronic Gulf.”
Sarawan is bounded on the north and west by Afghanistan; on the east by Afghanistan and Cutch Gundava; and on the south by Jhalawan, Kelat, and Mekran.1 Sarawan is about two hundred and fifty miles in length from north-east to south-west, eighty miles in its greatest breadth, and has a surface of about 15,000 square miles. It is in general a very mountainous, elevated, and rugged tract. On the west is the lofty range, called the Sara- wanee Mountains. There are, however, some level and productive tracts. The valley of Shawl “in the north is fertile, well watered, well cultivated, and has a fine climate, though rather sharp in winter. It produces in abundance grain, pulse, madder, tobacco, and excellent fruits A To the north of Sarawan and Shawl, lies the river Argiiasan, which gave its name to the province of Argos. The Arghasan rises in the western declivity of the Amran Mountains, and flows westward to its confluence with the Turnak. “ It is a rapid transient torrent, seldom retaining any depth of water for more than two or three days, and leaving its bed dry for the greater part of the year. It was found totally devoid of water when the British army marched across it, in 1839.” I cannot think but that either this district was once far more important than at present, or that the river now called Agund-ab formerly bore the name of Arghas. Be this as it may, certain it is that those who lived in the district of Arghaswere called Argh-walas (Arg-olis), or inhabitants of Arghas. And here I would casually remark, that the observant orientalist will, as this investigation proceeds, derive, through the sound basis of geography, as mirrored forth both from the Classical and Oriental side, facts most interesting to the philological student of the earliest dialects of India; nor, I trust, will this unfolding of a primitive phonetic system be without its advantages to the scholar in his attempts to decipher the ancient inscriptions of India and her earlier colonies. Certain it is, that he will be not a little surprised to find the Sanscrit of Western India, after its collocation in Egypt, through the Sindian settlers, still copiously existing in Herodotus in the names of persons and places, as well as in the offices, and the graduated ranks of Egyptian society. The singularly sharp and clipping style in which Sanscrit terms were reproduced in Greek, has effectually barred all suspicion of their real origin—and they require a course of systematic re-adjustment as methodical as an hieroglyphic investigation. In this respect, the Latin language is a much more faithful record of the names of oriental tribes, rivers, and countries, than the Greek of Herodotus, or his predecessors.
To the north of the Argh-walas (Argolis) will be found the now comparatively insignificant village of Akkehu, the record of a tribe and distinct race of far more importance than at the present day. The proper derivative form to express “the people of Akkehu” is “Akkaihu” There is no difficulty in finding them on the Corinthian Gulf as “Achaia” A tribe of the Logurhs (whose district lies somewhat to the south-west of Akkehu, and whom we have already described,) settled down in Greece in a distinct and separate body. Their new habitation was on the Crissean Bay, and the land bounded by the north-eastern shores of the Corinthian Gulf. They offer a striking proof of the durability of the habits and practices of Eastern tribes. These “Local Ozoloe” are “Logurhi Ooksh-walce,” i.e., “The Logurh settlers on the Oxus” This is an exemplification of what has frequently occurred in the history of a people of tribes. Some violent disruption among the leading members of the clan, — some confused union with another sept, and the best friends have become the most inveterate foes; — and this was as often the case with the Afghan settlers in Scotland, and with their descendants down to a comparatively recent period.
 This I shall distinctly demonstrate in the sequel.
 “Tattaikes,” derivative form from “Tatta” signifying “The people of Tatta.” In the sequel, I shall demonstrate the true origin of the term “Tatta” which ranges far beyond the foundation of this city, though it was of an antiquity so truly venerable.
 The Institutes of Menu, the Ramayuna, and the Mosaic accounts of the early magnificence of Egypt, all demonstrate the early splendour of this commercial people; for Egypt and India were of one race.
 Alexander Hamilton, who visited Tatta in 1699, calls it a very large and rich city, about three miles long, and one-and-a-half broad, and states that 80,000 persons had, within a short time previously, died of the plague, and that one half of the city was uninhabited. This would lead us to the conclusion, that previously to that calamity, the population was above
 Greece, Pictorial and Descriptive, p. 131.
 These causes and results—of vast moment in the ancient world—I shall, without any rationalizing process, place in the category of history, when treating of the foundation of Thebes.
 Hymn to Indra, translated by Sir W. Jones.
 See my “Preliminary View of the Influence of Mythology over the Early Greeks” in the “Hist, of Greece” vol. xv. of Encyclopedia, Metropolit. 1851.
 It is not a little amusing to test Greek history by Indian geography. Saron, we are told, was a king of Troezene, unusually fond of hunting; he was drowned in the sea, where he had swum for some miles in pursuit of a stag, the part of the sea where he was drowned, was called the ‘’Saronic Gulf 1”
 Sarawan. The full form is “Sarawanica,” derived from Sarawan. The short “a” is often merged (see Appendix, Bule i.), and the Sanscrit “w” or “v” is rendered by the Greek (vide Append. Bule xvi.).
 The Scotch Clans — their original localities and their chiefs in Afghanistan and Scotland, are subjects of the deepest interest. How little did the Scotch officers who perished in the Afghan campaign think that they were opposed by the same tribes from whom they themselves sprang! A work on this subject is in progress.