domenica, Giugno 13, 2021
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India in Greece


We have now seen in the Indian tribes of the Logurh, the Attach the Baihoot, Magar, Cor-Indus, Argh- walas, Sarawan, Les-poi, Akkaihu, Logurh-Ooksh- Walce—the parent states of the Locri, Attica, Bceotia, Megaris, Corinthus, Argolis, settlers on the Saronic, Lesboi, Achaians, and Locri-Ozolce. I shall now proceed to fill up in some slight degree this general outline of a great historico-geographic fact. At the same time, it must be borne in mind as a principle, that we by no means get the true original orthography of the names of places which occur at this day in Afghanistan; for disguised under modern forms, the old Hindoo names in many cases, still subsist, as I shall shortly show, and this principle applies both to Greece and Persia; still, they are not unfrequently so distinctly noted, as to present to the acute observer, historical facts of great importance.
With this group situated in North Western Epirus, I propose to continue the examination of the political element which constituted primitive Hellas. The convictions arising from these, and other apparently detached members of the Grecian aggregate, will be found even more powerful than those produced by the larger masses whom we have accompanied to the second land of the Helas.
“Bullini” is the Greek form of writing “Bolani” or “ The People of the Bolan. The Bolan pass is situated in Beloochistan, on the great route from Northern Sinde, by Shikarpoor and Dadur, to Kandahar and Gliuznee. c£ It is not so much a pass over a lofty range, as a continuous succession of ravines and gorges, commencing near Dadur, and first winding among the subordinate ridges, stretching eastward from the IIala chain of mountains, the brow of which it finally cross-cuts, and thus gives access from the vast plains of Hindostan, to the elevated and uneven tract, extending from the Hindoo Koosli to the vicinity of the Indian Ocean. Its commencement on the eastern side, from the plain of Cutch Gundava, is about five miles north-west of Dadur;3 the elevation of the entrance being about eight hundred feet above the level of the sea. The valley through which the road runs, is here about half a mile wide; the enclosing hills, five hundred or six hundred feet high, consist of coarse conglomerate. The road ascends along the course of a river, called among the mountains the Bolan, or Kouhee. The river in this part of the pass, varies in depth from a few inches to about two feet, and in the first five miles of the road is crossed eight times. At Kundye, or as it is sometimes called, Kondilan, six miles from the entrance, the pass again expands into a small oval valley; six hundred yards by four hundred^ with a hard surface of stones and pebbles. This, in time of heavy rains, becomes a lake, and then, as Outram observes, the steepness of the enclosing hills would preclude the possibility of escape, to an army caught in the torrent. At Beebee Nanee, a road strikes off due west, to Bod Bahar and Kelat, while the principal road continues its north-westerly course, towards Shawl and Kandahar. Here the serious difficulties of the pass commence, from the increased roughness and acclivity of the ground, and from its being commanded from various parts of the impending cliffs. Brom Siri-Bolan to the top of the pass, the route takes a westerly course, and for a distance of ten miles, is totally without water. The last three miles of this distance, is the most dangerous part of the pass, the road varying from forty to sixty feet, and flanked on each side by high perpendicular hills, which can only be ascended at either end. The elevation of the crest of the pass, is 5793 feet. The total length is between fifty-four and fifty-five miles; the average ascent ninety feet in the mile. The Bengal column, in 1839, spent six days in marching through the pass, entering it on the sixteenth, and leaving it on the twenty-first of March. Its artillery, including eight-inch mortars, twenty-four pounder howitzers, and eighteen pounder guns, were conveyed without any serious difficulty. The Bolan Pass, though very important in a military point of view, as forming the great communication between Scinde and Khorasan, is inferior in commercial interest to the Gomul, farther north.”1 They were the chiefs of this rugged ground that took up their abode in a district in Greece, very similar to the country just described.
The Talan, or people of Tal as the reader will observe., lie a little to the north-west of the Bullini; they are the inhabitants of the Talan-des.
Tall or Tull, is a “mall town in Afghanistan in the desert of Sewestan, on the route from Dera Ghazee Khan to Dadur.” The modern district of Sewestan is a corrupt form of Siva-Stan, or Land of Siva; still more clearly proved by the adjoining Pisheen, another- corruption for Bheeshan (“Sivaj”). The rugged land of Chaonia, in Greece, had its representative in Afghanistan as “Kahun” Kahun lies a little to the south-west of the Bolan Pass. We have then, singularly enough, the two groups, Taulantii, (Talan) Booltjni, (Bolan) Khaonia (Kahun) — in both Greece and Afghanistan, relatively situated. It would seem from this, that the ties of mountain clanship, and mountain neighborhood were of unusual strength. “Kahun in Afghanistan is a fort and town among the mountains, inhabited by the Murrees Beloochees, and extending from the southern extremity of the Suliman Range to that of the Hala. It is situate in an extensive valley or rather plain, fifteen miles long and six broad. The air is very pure, and the heat less than in the plains of Sewestan or Sinde.” If the Taulantii, the Bullini and Chaonia, in Greece, are the reflections of the Talan, Bolani, and Cahun in Afghanistan, not the less singular is the transfer of the mountains of “Kheran,” the “Keraun” Montes of Chaonia. These the classical reader will recollect, were those unfortunate mountains, that, being so often smitten with cc Keraunos,” or “Thunder” were hence, we are told, called the “Kerauni Montes” or Thunder Mountains! Kheran, or Kharan, is the “capital of a small district of the same name, bounded on the east by Jhalawan, on the west by Punjgoor. It is in general arid and barren, yielding a little wheat and barley, but not sufficient for the support of the inhabitants.” Kharan, the capital is situated close to that range of mountains now called Wushuttee, which forms, as it were, the very counterpart of the Keraunian hills, and which are essentially the mountains of Kheraun, or the “Kerauni Montes”.
To the east of Cliaonia, or the people of Cahon, lay tribes who had not sprung from the Sindian provinces; they are the Atintanes, the Greek mode of writing “A-Sindanes” i.e. Non-Sindians.
I would now direct the readers attention to the most salient feature in the land of Hellas. The mountain chain of Pindus, traversing a considerable portion of Greece, about midway between the Aegman and Ionian Seas, and forming the boundary between Thessaly and Epirus, takes its name from the Pind. Pind Dadun, situated a short distance south of that mountain chain, which rising boldly from the right bank of the Jailum, stretches far into Afghanistan, seems, from the distinct manner in which its connecting features are reproduced in Hellas, to have given its original name to the present “Salt Range” whence the “Pind,” or “Salt Range” of Afghanistan was naturally transferred to a corresponding remarkable feature in Greece. It is not a little remarkable that, in the latter country, the true Pindus, where, about the thirty-ninth degree of latitude, it sends forth the lateral chain of mountain, Othrys, forming the southern boundary of Thessaly, — should give nearly the corresponding length of the Pind in Afghanistan, viz., a distance of about sixty miles. The Pind, now the Salt Range, is an extensive group of mountains, stretching generally in lat. 32° 30’ — 33° 30’, in a direction from east to west, from the eastern base of the Suliman mountains in Afghanistan to the river Jailum, in the Punjab.
This range is, in different parts, known to the natives under various denominations; but it is by Europeans comprehended under the general term, “Salt Range” in consequence of the great extent and thickness of the beds of common salt, which it contains in many places. The general direction of the range is from north-west to south-east. The salt is granular, the concretions being very large and compact; so that platters and other utensils are made out of it and take a high polish. Most of the torrents of the Salt Range carry down gold dust in their sands, which are washed in search of the precious deposit, in numerous places, throughout the greater part of the year. Dr. Jamieson expatiates, with the earnestness of sanguine excitement, on the mineral wealth of the Salt Range, concluding in these terms: — “Such is a rapid account of the riches of this district, and there are few, if any districts in the world, where iron, gold, sulphur, salt, gypsum, limestone, and saltpeter are met with in such quantity.” Along a range of heights, to the west of the Pindus, and for the greater distance running parallel with it, dwelt the people called the “Athamanes,” a very ancient race, whose habits in many respects seem to have approximated to the North American tribes, (who, in fact, are of the same stock with the ancient Hellenes,) particularly in assigning to their females the active labours of husbandry. These were the people of the Afghan district, called “The Daman,” or “The Border” and so called because it stretches between the Suliman mountains and the Indus. “The Daman” of which the Greeks, with their ordinary euphonic affix, made Adaman and the country Adamania, (Athamania) thus exactly corresponds, by its mountain range of Acanthius, to the people of the “ Daman,” who are situated between the Suffeid Koh — corresponding to the Acanthius, and the Indus corresponding to the Achelous—both Damania in Afghanistan, and Athamania in Greece running nearly north and south[1]. The people of “Tallar,” in the “Daman,” have kept close company with their original neighbors for, grouped along the western slopes of Mount Pindus, in the immediate neighborhood of the Damanians (Athamanians), they are to be seen under the name of the “ Talares.”
The “Ac-Helous,” or Heia’s-water, the largest river in Greece, and so named from the II cl a mountains in Sinde, traverses the whole country from north to south, like the Indus in the Punjaub. To the east of the Ac-Helous, the Hela’s-water, or the Hellenic Indus, is another considerable river, the Arac-thus, i.e., the cc River of the Arac-Land.” The Arae is a pass on the most north-easterly of the four routes which, diverging from the valley of Siah Sung, debouch into that of Bamian[2]. Our geographical evidences are now rapidly strengthening every step we take. There is a remarkable point in Greece, where four mountain ranges converge. The Cambunian, Pindus, Tympha, and Lacmon. The latter glows like a gem, throwing its light on the noble bosom of Hellas. Behold in Mount Lacmon, the Lughman[3] of Afghanistan! To this central point run the Pindus and the Athamanian mountains in Greece, the Pind and the Daman mountains in Afghanistan—now blending with Lacmon, Mount Kerketius runs nearly north and south, while advancing north to Lughman, Mount Kerketcha rivets this powerful geographical evidence. The Kerketcha range connects the Llindoo-Koosh with the Suffeid Koh, and separates the valley of Cabool from the plain of Jelalabad. At its highest point, it has an elevation of eight thousand feet. It is, in general, very rugged and rocky, but where there is any soil, it is covered with large and flourishing timber.
Mount Kerketius, in Hellas, the representative of the Kerketcha range in Afghanistan recalls to the heart of an Englishman recollections as melancholy as the memory of Napier and the banks of the Sind are glorious. It was in the Kerketcha range, in the route from Tezeen to Jugduluk, that the treacherous slaughter of the whole British force, amounting to 3,909 regular troops, was effected by the subtle craft of a barbarous foe, aided by the unexampled rigours of the severest winter. Alas! how different from the military splendour and the ardent valour of the host that won the battlements of Ghuznee!
The province of Thessaly, as being the mirror of a portion of Afghanistan and the Punjab, gives rise to feelings of the most chequered interest, forming, as it does, the record of our greatest triumphs and our greatest disasters. It was the Macedonian hero who invaded and vanquished the land of his forefathers unwittingly. It was a Napier, who, leading on the small, but mighty army of civilized Britain, drove into headlong flight the hosts of those warlike clans from whose parent stock himself and not a few of his troops were the direct descendants. Thus, twice has the army of civilization signalized in Afghanistan and the Punjab its victory over the army of barbarism.
Mount Lacmon—the Lughman of Afghanistan, gave its name to that great river which disembogues itself into the Thermaic Gulf; it is called “Ila-Liacmon,” i.e. “the Lacmon which pervades the eastern section of the “Elumiotis,” or the new “Land of the y Elum?; Another stream also rising in Mount Titarus, to the east of Mount Kerkctius, receives its name from that remarkable Pass called Ci the Tatara, which, leaving the route through the Khyber Pass, a little east of Jamrood, takes a circuit to the north and rejoins it at Duka, its western termination[4].
We have then, ranging both in Greece and Afghanistan, from east to west, the following salient corresponding features:—The Daman and Atiiaman chain, blending into Lacmon and Lughman; the Pindus and Pi nd, running towards the same point then the Kerketius and Kerketcha; and still more towards the east, the Titarus and the Tatar a, while the Cam a mountain Sierra, ranging to the north west from the neighborhood of Lughman or Lacmon gave its name, “the Cama-Land, or Cam-bunii[5] to the Cambunian mountains. One more point of identity I would add, namely, that the Hestio-tis, or the Land or the Eight Cities, and the Hesht Nuggur, or Eight Cities, are both respectively situated in the neighborhood of Lughman and Lacmon, and complete the strong, connected and irrefragable chain of evidence of the Singetic colonization, and the more minute our examination of these early settlements, the more harmoniously do we find the component arrangement of the whole. This truth is clear, that while the torrent of invasion has swept over the plains and pastures of the world, carrying with it the men, the cities, and the names; the mountain homes of our race throughout the habitable globe have virtually not only preserved that mountain race itself, but its name and its lineage. As though gifted by nature with a chartered and imperishable title, it still holds forth to the sagacious mind a true and venerable document for historical training. Egypt, Palestine, and Greece, in triple harmony proclaim this truth.
Hazara is a commercial town in the Punjab, which is situate on the route from Lahore to Attock.
It is comparatively in the vicinity of Lughman and Kerketcha, and still nearer to the Tatara Pass. The reader will now observe the emigrants from that city settled upon a branch of the river Titares-Ius. Their city bears the Greek form cc Azoros;” — the same mountain tribes founded cc Hazor,” in Palestine; and there their cities, their lineage, and their worship are still more distinct than in Hellas. I shall endeavour to include them in my sketch, for such it must necessarily be seeing that the geography, antiquities, and authorities are trebled on each point of investigation. It has been already remarked that the existing nomenclature of Afghanistan, although wonderfully preserved, like that of Hellas, is still the subject of the same corrupt orthography, which early affected the true record of Greece. Thus we have seen “Sivastan” figure as “ S ewes tan,” and “Bhishan” as “Pisheen” — for which the Afghans of the present day, like the Greeks of old, would be ready to render a plausible derivation, — in fact, nothing can be a stronger case in point, or afford a stricter analogy of thought and form of expression, than the origin they give of the name “Afghan” It is identical with the frivolous style of derivation that characterized their Hellenic descendants. This will he noticed in its proper place, when the true explanation will be found to yield an historical fact of great value, and an etymological truth of much interest to the Orientalist.
I come now to one of the strongest evidences of mythology—mythology first Indian, then Greek. That evidence carries up both mythology and its historical basis to an extraordinary antiquity, being coeval with the naming of the very mountains of Hellas, and with its first towns. Both Kerketius, in Greece, and Kerketcha, in Afghanistan, Lughman in Afghanistan, and Lacmon in Greece; —and Gonoussa, Gomphi, and Perrhsebia in the former are evidences of this; and the Orientalist will, perhaps, be somewhat surprised to find the god-ships of the East fixed at an antiquity so great. On the chain of Pindus, nearly central, andin “Lingus[6]-Mons,” he will read the “Lancas,” the same as the Lunces-tis of the North[7].” Not far off, a little to the east is seen in Karketius, SivaJs son, Kartikeyu, — an euphonic change with which the Greek is very familiar. That my translation is correct will shortly be corroborated. The Vahan or Vehicle of Karti- keyu is the “Peacock,” or “ Berhi;” hence this, the Hindoo god of war, and leader of the celestial armies, is called “Berhinabahan,” or “the Peacock-mounted,” being painted as riding upon that bird—his name is also “Ganga,” as born from the Ganges. The regular derivative form of Berhi is “Berhai;” and “Berhaipae” is the “Peacock-Chiefs,” and Berhaipia (Perrhaibia), the “land of the War Peacocks.” Hence., the warrior title of Perhaibia and Perhaibiae Saltus in the neighborhood of Mount Kerketius, as also on Mount Pindus. The prince of these “Perrliaibians,” Muller observes: “was called Guneus.”
The Greek term Guneus, — the title of this military chieftain of the Thessalians, is a corruption of the Sanscrit name “Gangyus,” the designation of the Hindoo god of war. Gonnus was likewise a Perrhaibaean town, so called from Gongyus, and signifying Gonga’s town. We have thus the appropriate name of the Hindoo god of war, given to a Hindoo military chief, and to a town, the residence of a Hindoo military clan. On the derivation of “ Gomphoi,” Muller remarks, — It is indeed probable that the name Gomphoi expresses the wedge-shaped form of these rocks ” Now here is precisely an instance of the peril incurred by attempting to account for an Indian name by a Greek vocable; for when these warriors of the Peacock, or war tribe of India, gave this name, their language was not Greek, but a modified Sanscrit. How stands the case then? We have seen that “Gonnus” and “Guneus,” are “Gongus” and “Gangyus,” “Gonga’s chief” and “Gonga-ton.” Gomphoi, is “Gong-bhai,” or the “Gonga clan, or war-clan.”
A singular and most perfect relique of ancient days proves the truth of the foregoing observations. If the reader will direct his glance towards the southern base of Mount Titarus, on the map of Greece, he will see at the junction of the two northern sources of the river Titarus, the city of “Perrhaibia or Olooson.” He will bear in. mind that “Titarus” both river and mountain in Greece, take a name from the a Tatarus ” mountain pass of Afghanistan — “There the name Ooloos” observes Elphinstone,1 “ is applied to a whole tribe, or to an independent branch. The word seems to mean a clannish commonwealth. An Ooloos is divided into several branches, each under its own chief, who is subordinate to the chief of the Ooloos. During civil wars in the nation, the unsuccessful candidate for the command of an Ooloos joins the pretender to the throne and is brought into power on the success of his party. This, then, is the Olooson (Ooloosan) — the Perrhaibaean clan of warriors. Perrhaibaeans, at once mythological and historical, Trojan and ante-Troian, Greek and Afghan.
“The peacock” observes Colonel Tod, “was a favourite armorial emblem of the Rajpoot warrior; it is the bird sacred to their Mars (Kumara), as it was to Juno his mother, in the west. The feather of the peacock decorates the turban of the Rajpoot, and the warrior of the Crusade, adopted from the Hindu through the Saracen. Then with a noble burst of feeling, he goes on to say, Let us recollect who are the guardians of these fanes of Bill, his peepuls and sacred bird (the peacock); the children of Soorya and Chandra, and the descendants of sages of yore; they who fill the ranks of our army, and are attentive, though silent observers of all our actions; the most attached, the most faithful, and the most obedient of mankind.
“The martial Rajpoots are not strangers to armorial bearings, now so indiscriminately used in Europe. The great banner of Alewar exhibits a golden sun on a crimson field, those of the chiefs bear a dagger. Amber displays the Panchranga, or five-coloured flag. The lion rampant on an argent field, is extinct with the state of Chanderi. In Europe, these customs were not introduced till the period of the Crusades, and were copied from the Saracens, while the use of them among the Rajpoot tribes can be traced to a period anterior to the war of Troy. Every royal house has its palladium, which is frequently borne to battle at the saddle-bow of the prince. The late celebrated Kheechee leader, Jey Sing, never took the field without the god before him. Victory to Bujrung was his signal for the charge, so dreaded by the Mahratta, and often has the deity been sprinkled with his blood and that of the foe. Their ancestors, who opposed Alexander, did the same, and carried the image of Hercules (Baldeva,) at the head of their array. Such, too, were the Berrhai- bians, or “chiefs of the Peacock war-clans” of the Helas, the Perrhaebians of the Greeks. Again, both Lacmon and Lughman are corrupt forms of Lacshman. Lacshman was the half brother and faithful companion of Rama- chandra, and the settlement of the tribe that takes its name from his son is distinctly seen in the mountains Cana-lovii, “Gana-Lova,” or the “Tribe of Lova” they settled in “Luncestis,” Lanca’s Land[8].
With the north-western part of Macedonia we fall in with Tartarian latitudes, and a Tartarian people; they are the Bottiseans and the Briges ; properly the “ Boutias and the Birgoos,” both lying to the east of Cashmir; while the Emathian range is the representative of a part of “Emadus,” or “Himalaya.” The “ Birgoo ” of the present day is situated close to the south-eastern frontiers of the province of Spiti.1 2 As a proof of the connection between the Birgoos (Briges) and the “Gana Lova” (Cana Lovii), “tribe of Lova,” both political, dynastic, and geographical, I would quote the excellent authority of Colonel Tod, who, speaking of the Birgoo-jeer, (the Birgoo,) one of the royal Rajpoot tribes, observes, that the “Race was Sooryavansi, and the only one, with the exception of the Gehtote, which claims from Lova, the elder son of Rama; and, for the presence of fourteen tribes of Rama,3 the great sovereign of Oude, whose family clan is in full force in Greece, I refer the reader to a most singular specimen of Greek orthography, inscribed on Mount Oita, or fthe mountains of Oude/3 viz., c Call-id-Romos/ which being interpreted first into Sanscrit, and next into English, will stand thus, “Cul-Ait-Ramas. “Tribe of Oude Ramas?” I should here remark, that the Ramas were Sooryavansi, or of the Sun tribes; their mythology, history, language, and worship, with one arm reached to Rome, with the other to Peru.
I must now return to the consideration of the province of “ Thes-salia,” a Greek euphonismfor Des-Shalia, or the “Land of Shal,” Shal, for the convenience of pronunciation spelt Shawl. This is an elevated valley or table land, bounded on the east by the Curklekkee mountains overhanging the Bolan Pass, and on the west by the heights connected with Chehel Tan. “The soil is generally fertile, being a rich black loam, yielding wheat, barley, rice, lucerne, and similar vegetation suited for fodder, besides madder, tobacco, and esculent vegetables. The wildest parts of the enclosing mountains are the haunts of wild sheep and goats; the more accessible tracts yield ample pastures to the herds and flocks of the mountains. Orchards are numerous, and produce in great perfection and abundance, apples, pears, plums, peaches, apricots, grapes, mulberries, pomegranates, quinces, and figs. It is thus apparent, that the same fertility that characterised the Hellenic Thes-Salia, was the boast of its predecessor in Afghanistan. The chief town of this rich province of Greece, so famed for its cavalry, was the “City of Sal” “Pur-Sal” strangely written by the Greeks PHAR-SAL-OS. I have little doubt but that the proper name both for the Afghan and Greek province now noticed, was “ Shall and that it was so named from “shali” rice in general, but especially of two classes, the one like white rice growing in deep water, and the other a red sort, requiring only a moist soil; this is amply descriptive of the capabilities of the well-watered “Land of Shali” or Thes-Salia.
The great artery which waters this rich country finds an egress through a single chasm, celebrated for its romantic beauty, called the Dembhe or “Cleft?” “The entrance of the Peneus” says Dr. Wordsworth, “through the narrow defile of Tempe, between the mountains of Olympus and Ossa, a few miles before its entrance into the sea, suggested to Xerxes the reflection, that Thessaly might easily be flooded by damming up this only outlet of the stream, and the opinion that Thessaly was actually covered by the sea in more ancient times, appears not only probable in itself, from a consideration of its physical formation (and it may be suggested from its very name,) but is confirmed by the ancient traditions which have assumed the form of mythological legends with respect to that country. Neptune, in these accounts, strikes the rock with his trident, and opens a passage for the imprisoned water, by the fissure? The reader will not fail to recollect that the same achievement was performed in the draining of Cashmir, by Casyapa, a celebrated Budhistic saint; and he will shortly understand the value of the term Poseidon, when he will duly appreciate that primaeval industry and piety were once united in one individual. As we gradually unravel the primitive geography of the Indo-Hellenic settlements, we shall, just in that proportion, be prepared to comprehend the first history of those colonists, for, if we are foiled in the just view of the earliest geography of the land, most assuredly we shall not obtain any correct view of its history, as they are inextricably bound up with each other.


[1] The Daman, where not under the influence of irrigation, in general presents the appearance of a plain of smooth hard clay, bare of grass, but sprinkled with dwarfish bushes, tamarisks, and occasionally trees of a larger size, but seldom exceeding the height of twenty feet, either the soil or the climate being unfavorable to their further growth. The Daman is two hundred and twenty miles long from the “Kala,” or the Salt Range, on the north, to the confines of Scinde on the south, and has an average breadth of about sixty miles, fait. 110° 33’, long. 70° 71’.
[2] These passes are the lines of communication between the valley of Cabool and Cunduz, and lie over that range which connects the southwestern extremity of Hindoo-Koosli with the Koh-i Eaba mountain further south. It is the highest of the four passes, and has an altitude above the sea of 12,909 feet. Lat. 34° 40’, long. 68u 5’.—Thornton’s Punjab, vol. ii. p. 180.
[3] “Lughman in Afghanistan, a district north of Jelalabad, and bounded on the north by Hindoo-Koosh, on the east by the river of Kama, on the south by the river of Kabool, and on the west by the river Alisliang. It forms part of the province of Jelalabad, and thither the ruthless Mahomed Akbar Khan conveyed the British prisoners reserved from the massacre of Klioord Kabool. It is forty miles long, thirty miles broad, and, though having a rugged surface, is fertile, well watered and populous. It lies between lat. 34° 25’—35°, long. 70°—70° 40’.”—Thornton’s Punjab, vol. ii. p. 26.
[4] The Tatara Pass, in Afghanistan, through the Khyber mountains, between Jelalabad, is north of the Khyber Pass. It is very difficult, being scared}7 practicable for cavalry, yet of great importance, as, if left undefended, it affords a means of turning the Khyber Pass. The Tatara Pass is in lat. 30° 10’, long. 71° 20’.
[5] The Cama and Bhuma (properly Bhumi) the earth, land, or region. The Persian derivative form is Bum, a country or region. The letters “m” and “n” constantly interchange. The Cama River takes its name from the district through which it passes; it rises in the valley of Chitral, in the Hindoo-Koosh, and flowing south-west, traverses Kaffiristan, whence it proceeds in a south-westerly direction into Lughman, a province of Afghanistan, and falls into the Cabool River at its northern side, in lat. 34° 24′ N., long. 70° 35′ E.—Thornton’s Punjab, Kama.
[6] I have taken the crude form, as being identical with the Greek mountain.
[7] It is quite time to lay hare the foundation of the Greek tempi e of thought, when we find Greek Lexica of undoubted merit, following implicitly the etymologists of Greece. To these, however, there are some admirable exceptions. (See the excellent New Cratylus of the Rev. J. W. Donaldson.)
[8] Lances-des, Lanca’s land. Lanca is commonly translated “Ceylon,” but there is no doubt that Lanca is the proper name for that north-western country of India, immediately in the vicinity of Cashmir, as I shall demonstrate in my “History of Rome.”

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