There are three distinct features in which north-western Asia is reproduced in Greece. These demonstrate, in the most comprehensive form, three separate groups of original colonists. How the settlements founded by these respective bands may have been subsequently modified, cannot be decided without an attentive examination of the geography and history of India and Northern Greece. The Ac-Helous, or Helas-avater, is properly the representative of the Indus. The Pene-i-os (Paen-i-Os,ec The chiefs of the Ookslius ” or Onus,) and the Sperchius (river Sverga) of the Ganges. All the evidences bearing upon this subject go to establish these facts indisputably. It is evident, however, that Western Thessaly was the stronghold of those powerful As was or Horse tribes, that gave such a distinctive name to the Ionians; one of these great clans, the Catti, will be shortly noticed.
The Ionians, (a Greek form of expressing “Hiya- nians” and Yavanians, i.e. “The Horse tribes,”) after their emigration into Greece, formed on the western banks of the Pindus, and in fact in the whole of Western Greece, settlements of a nature so durable, as to give their abiding designations both to land and sea; their original seats will be seen on the northern Indus. From this great branch of the human family noticed by the Hebrew legislator as “Javan” was named the Hiyanian (Ionian) Sea, and Hipairus (Epirus). These great tribes, — the Yavanas, — are by Sanscrit writers designated as widely as their actual extent, viz., from Bactria (t e. Bhoo- ctria, or land of the “Great-war-caste” to the shores of Greece. Hence, the apparent looseness of the term, so often noticed by Orientalists. The most south-westerly confluent of the Hellenic Oxus, is the Pamisus, a name derived from the same source as the Paro-Pamisus of the Greeks, i.e. the Hindoo-Koosh mountains in the immediate vicinity of the Oxus. The Paropamisus of the Greeks is the Pahar-oop-Bamis, or the Mountain near Bami, or Bamian.
Such a stream, in fact, exactly corresponding to the Pamisus of Thessaly, which flows into the Peneus, or Oxus of Greece, will the reader find rising near Bamisus (Bamian), and flowing into the Oxus of Asia. Nor will these Bamian people in Greece be found very far from their new Pamisus, they are the Bomi-enses (Bamian tribes) situated about twenty miles to the south of the source of the Pamisus.
Ranged across the western flank of the great southern barrier of Thessaly, that extends from the Pindus to the Pagassean bay, is a powerful body of Buddhistic adherents. We are now surrounded by the inhabitants of a northerly latitude; they have come from the extreme north-westerly boundaries of the Punjab, and the frontiers of Thibet. With them, as in the case of all emigrants, especially from mountainous lands, they have brought the names of the blue hills they loved so well:
Mirror’s by faithful hearts, the torrent’s rush,
The peaceful lake, — the hill’s eternal snow, —
Thou canst not banish from the soul; that gush
Of mountain melody, and memory’s flow.
The lofty chain of heights which I have just noticed, replaces in Greece the vast north-western “Himalayas” of India. And here mythology and history are but one, and carry up the Hindoo system to a vast antiquity. The great Thessalian sierras of Mount Othrys are the Odrys of India. Odrys is the Sanscrit name of the Himalaya, as King of the Mountains. The name “Othrys” will be found much better preserved in its original form in a more northerly latitude than the Othrys of Thessaly; namely, in that range of heights called “Adri-us Mons” flanking Dalmatia on the east. These Adrian or Himalayan people gave their name both to sea and land. The former, the Adri-atic; the latter, the “Adri-us Mons; their fellow-emigrants were the people of “Skardo” in Little Thibet; they are seen grouped by their side in Mons Skarpus. Corroborative evidences, such as these, I could produce tenfold, but the immense field which lies before me, forbids anything but the merest notice of the various localities harmonizing with the subject under investigation. We shall now be in possession of two clear historical records of the highest importance connected with a supposed mythological era of Greece. 1st. The high antiquity of both the Buddhistic and Brahminical sects in Greece. 2dly. The decisive existence of the Lamaic system in that country at a period equally ancient. The secession of the Buddhists, those great dissenters of antiquity, from the Brahminical party, I shall distinctly carry up to an antiquity far superior to what has been called the legendary era of the Dryopes. These emigrants who have given the name of the Odrys, or Himalaya to the great southern range of Thessalian Hellas, are the inhabitants of Bh (u) dhyo-des, Ph () Thio-Tis, or “The Buddha land and these Buddhas, to this day, stationed in the northeastern frontier of Cashmir, are called Bop-pas, that is Chiefs of Budh.
The Buddhas have brought with them into Thessaly the far-famed mythological, but equally historical name of “Cailas” the fabulous residence of Cuvera, the god of Wealth, and the favourite haunt of Siva, placed by the Hindoos among the Himalayan mountains, and applied to one of the loftiest peaks lying on the north of the Manasa Lake. Practically the Cailas, a ridge of high mountains, is situated about 31° of north lat., slanting to the north-west and south-east, and almost parallel to the Himalaya, which those Hindoos called “Cailas,” and which the Greeks very fairly preserved in “Caila” (Coela) immediately to the north of the “Xunias Lake ” (Xynias) or lake of Cashmir. While the Pamisus, or the “ River of Barman,” takes its rise on the western verge of Othrys, the Greek Himalaya, the “ Ap-i-danus,” the great feeder of the Peneus or Thessalian Oxus, rises on a spur of the western Othrys. Ap-i-danus is connected with the history of the illustrious chief of Cashmir—a history involved in Indian mythology, which, like the mythology of Greece, is but history distorted. Danu was the daughter of Daksha, wife of Casyapa, and mother of the Daitvas of Hindoo mythology. These beings will, in the course of our investigation, be found as historical as the Autochthons, or the late Athenian Grasshoppers. The Ap-i-danus is Danus River, or Danus-water, and the reader will observe that it takes its rise immediately contiguous to the lake of the Greek Cashmir (Xynias), thus connecting Casyapa the founder of Cashmir, his wife Danu, and his people the “Dana-oi,” the Danavas of the Sanscrit! Both the “Dana-oi,” and the Achaei of Homer are ranged close to the Greek Himalayan. The historical value of this geographical evidence will soon be apparent.
Among the Buddhists, to the south of Othrys, or Himalaya Nova, and settled along the sea-board, were the Lamienses, or “Lama tribes,” whose chief city was Lamia, or cc Lama’s town.” To the mountain promontory, which terminates the district of the Mag-ne-tes, “the Land of the Magha, or Mogul tribes”—these high northern settlers gave the name of one of the great
Buddha of remote antiquity, a fact which goes far to strengthen our confidence in those Buddhistic writings which are allowed to be genuine. Tissaios, the Greek adjectival form of the name of the great Buddhist-pontiff “Tisso,” boasts an antiquity preceding, and in all probability long preceding, this settlement in Hellas; for the name “Tisso” is as much a transfer from the neighborhood of the Himalaya as “Cailas” and “Othrys.” The reader has only to turn his eyes towards the very focus which first darted the rays of this Buddhistic emigration into Greece, to be convinced of this, — for to the north of Cashmir, adjoining these Bhutias,—adjoining these Himalayas, he will still read the venerated name of “Tisso;” hence the transfer to the lofty Greek promontory.2 But our evidences pause not here, they are positively becoming cumulative. Immediately to the south of Lamia, “the Lama’s town,” is the river “Duras.” disemboguing itself into the Lamiac Gulf. The river Daras, Dras, or Draus of Thibet—for it is thus variously written—flows through a valley of that name in Ladakh at a short distance north of the northern frontier of Cashmir. Rising on the the Bultul or “Kantal Pass,” it flows northward to the Indus, which it joins opposite to the valley of the Moral. Closely bordering on the LamasJ people, extending into the valley of the Sperchcius eastward as far as Thermopylae, were the Dryopes,4 who had, it must be confessed, a name of a surprisingly mythological sound. These singular beings were said to be so named from “Drus,” “an oak,” and “Ops” “the voice;” the Greeks thus insinuating that they spoke from the oak. Alas! their days of mystery are numbered. The reader will understand, then, that these people are no mythological beings, but Druo-ees, or “Chiefs of the Draus” and that their southern settlement is in Doris, on the river Chara-dras (Kira-Dras), or the “Cashmir Dras” where they again appear as Dryopes; he will also see them again among the Cassopsei, or Cashmirians, at the sources of the Chara-dras (“Kira-Dras”) in Epirus. So much for truth and so much for fable. The truth is the Sanscrit version, the fable is the Greek; yet both fable and truth repose upon an historical and geographical basis.
But I cannot be content with a passing notice of the people of the Dras; for, as a nation, we are deeply interested in their early history. Not only so, we have been closely connected with them; and, farther still, long did they dwell in our island, and by the interesting records and traditions concerning them that have descended to our own times, they have provoked our unabated and lively curiosity. Why should I conceal the fact? These Druo-pes are our own ancient Drui-des or Druids!
These venerated, sages, chiefs of the tribes of the Draus, were of the Indu Vansa or Lunar Race. Hence the symbol of the Crescent worn by these Druids; they too, like most of their race, were Budhists, and. they shall tell their own history. Their chief settlement here, was “the E-Budes,” i.e. “the Hi-Budh-des,” and their last refuge in Britain from the oppression of the Romans, the descendants from their own stock, was the “Isle of Saints” or “Mona.” This is indeed the Druid Bard—this, the minstrel of the Cymry—this, the Bhaut of the ancient Rajpoot—this, the harper of Homeric song—this, the Demodocus of Homeric feasts—this, the glorious minstrel, who, in the guise of a divinity, draws homage from his fellows—this, in truth, the Delphic god—this, the founder of the wealthy shrine, the oracular response—this, the subject of the glowing lay, the living faith of the Homerid of Chios. This is the god, who, from his lofty watchtower, spies the tall bark of Crete as it ploughs its way towards the Peloponnesus; he it is, whom the Buddhist poet glorifies with the ascription of saintly power over the elements of nature.
The settlement of the people of the Draus in this island, the northern part of which was essentially that of the Hi- Budh-des (E-budi-des,) or the land of the Hiya Buddhas, at once accounts most satisfactorily for the amazing mechanical skill displayed in the structure of Stone Henge, and harmonizes with the industrious and enterprising character of the Buddhists throughout the old world; for these are the same people who drained the valley of Cashmir, and in all probability the plains of Thessaly.
Observe now this same race of Buddhists in Thessaly, in that district which was written by the Greeks Ph ( ) thio-tis, but by the first settlers B (u) dhyo-des, or “Buddhas Land.” They are situated near the Dukas or DRAS-River – and again, we see the town of Hy-budiha (Hy-pata), near Othrys, the Himalayas of Greece. I would here remark on the singular transfer of mythology to history. It is from the Himala Mountains of the Sacas that the “Saca-soono,” those sons of the Saca (“Saxons or Sac-sons,” for the words are at once Sanscrit, Saxon, and English) derived their Himmel or “Heaven.” Thus did the Indian Heaven become that of the German. Neither have the emigrants from Cashmir forgotten their beautiful lake, nor the saintly founder of their state. Both Casoo-lake and Casoo-town, the grateful record of Casoo-pa, the “ Chasa-chief,” the founder of Cashmir, occupy an intermediate position between Mount Othrys, the Hellenic, the Himalaya, and Mount Cailas; they appear respectively in Greek writings as X’oo-nias Lake and X’oo-nise,5 while nothing can be more prominent than the new position chosen for the people of “Burgo-pur,” that is Burgo-town. They have taken up then? abode close to the sources of their old river “Duras” their settlement is on a mountain, which; bears the modernized Greek form of “Phrugia-pura” Nor have the Brahmins forgotten the Ganges and its mountain sources, while the Lamas are found principally grouped around the northern shores of the Lamaic Bay, and at the embouchure of the great river, which there disembogues itself, a party of the Aineanes or Brahmins, have taken up their abode at the sources of Sbergius (Sperchius,) “the river of Paradise” and their chief town is Sbergium or Paradise, while on the celestial river Spercheius is built the city of Brahma (Ainia.) This city does not bear the title of Aincea generally, but specifically, for these emigrants have brought with them the name of their old dwelling-place, the town of Oin. “Oin” in the Punjab is a small town near the base of the mountains, enclosing Cashmir on the south. It is situated on the river Jailum, the navigation of which here again becomes practicable, after its interruption between Bara- mula and this place.
Dodona again accompanies the Druopes, the Chara- Dras/ and the Cassopaei, or Cashmirians in Epirus. The Sbergius (Sperchius, or river of Paradise), which I have just noticed, is the Greek representative of the Sberga-Apaga — the Ganges; Spergapaga, literally “Heaven’s river” being the exact reflection of the adjectival form “Sbergius” the heavenly river, that is, the Ganges, The Greek Sperchius, like its Indian namesake, takes its rise in the Thessalian Othrys, King of Mountains, the Himalayas of Greece. The Oitoei, or the people of Oude, are settled to the south. Again the pliant element of Greek etymology is at work; now to amuse, formerly to mislead us. Sperchein, “to hasten” was the philological representative of the river Sperchius.
The small province of “Doris,” in Greece, derived its population from the river Dor, immediately adjoining the western frontiers of Cashmir. The river “Dor,” in Cashmir, “Doda,” and the great mountain “Mer”transplanted into Greece as To-mar-os are all in the same northerly direction.
Add to this that the “Dor” is one of the aboriginal war-clans of Goorkha, and we have a powerful series of facts, tending to fix these warriors in a high northerly latitude, immediately contiguous to the Himalaya mountains, or “Odrys,” where we again find them in the Othrys of Greece. The military prowess of the Dorians, therefore, is not to be wondered at.
And now, if the future historian of Pelasgian Hellas will pause for a short time., and ask himself, honestly, how far he is acquainted with the people of the Hellenic Himalayas—how much he knows of their general writings, habits, original country, sacred books, and sacred rites; how far he is acquainted with the Brahminical, the Budhistic, and the Lamaic systems; how far acquainted with the history, written and traditional, of the Surya and Indo-Vansa tribes—a conscientious answer will give him his true position as an Hellenic historian for that vast period which, beginning with the great Budhistic mission of Cadmus, traverses the wars of the kindred tribes at Troy, and ends with the subjugation of those early religionists of Greece, the Elootiis (PIelots), clad in their Tartar sheepskin, who like the Cokaunes (Caucones), or inhabitants of Cocaun, were some of the first Tartar tribes that formed the primitive population of Hellas.
It is vain to expect the emancipation of Grecian history from the disguises which overlay its beauties, unless the Budhistic miracles with which it abounds be placed on their just footing, and the full historical value given to every genealogy which is conformable to geographical evidence.
I shall not then despair of seeing a trustworthy and a most interesting history of the first centuries of the Hellenic nation. But this history must be evolved on authorities totally independent of any Grecian writer, except as an outline or a clue to the truth.
 Hiyan, plural of Hiya, a horse—Hiyanies (Ionios) is a derivative form. Yavan signifies “a swift horse,” a title identical with Hiyan. The ordinary resolution of the Sanscrit “v” into the Greek o,” and the “y” into its corresponding form “i,” absorbs the two short vowels, and gives the form “I, o, n,” and the derivative “Ionios.” (See Appendix, Bules vi—xx.)
 From Hi, a horse; pa, a chief; and ira, the earth.
 The well-known identification of Ionia and Yavana by Prinsep, in the inscription of Asoka, the Buddhist emperor of India, is as satisfactory to the philologist, as to the historian.
 Bamian is evidently the plural form of Bcwi the people of Bami. “Pakar Pami, the mountain of Bami, — commonly called Bamian; in Sanscrit, Vami-nagari or Vami-gram, emphatically called Budha Bamian. Bamian is represented in the books of the Buddhists as the source of holiness and purity.” — Wilford, As. Bes, vol. vi. p. 463.
 Bami and v’ensa, a tribe; “v” lost by the ordinary Greek practice of Digamma. (See Appendix, Rule vii.)
 From MS. Poem.
 Properly “Adris.” The forms Adris, Udris, or Odris, represent but one sound. The Sanscrit short vowel “S” sounds as the “u” in “but;” the same obscure sound with the “e” of “ le, me, te, se ” of the French, and the “o” in “Dumbarton.” Adris is composed of Adri, a mountain, and is a king; by the rules of combination, Adris. The combination “th” is the Greek “A” (See Appendix, Rule xvii. “ dh, th.”)
 “Dryopes” is the English form of “Druopes,” (see Rule xiii.) from Draus and Pe, “a chief.”
 Druo-pes, Chiefs of the Draus; Dru-i-des, the people of, — “the land of the Dras.” This the Romans received as the appellative of the tribe. I hold the most interesting and authentic evidences of the early settlement of these and other neighboring communities, which I shall shortly lay before the public.
 The Budhas of the Hi or Hya tribe; Hi-Budh-des, the land of the Hya Bud’has.
 “Mona,” properly “Mooni.” “A holy sage, a pious and learned person, endowed with more or loss of a divine nature, or having attained it, by rigid abstraction and mortification.”—Wilson’s Sans. Lex., i.v.
 The term Bardus is tho disguised form of Bhaut with the Latin termination.
 The Latin form, is Phrygia Pura, and is of the same form as Naya-pala or Nepaul; similar combinations in Indian names are of common occurrence. The “y” Sanscrit takes the place of the fti” in Greek. (See Append. Rule xx.)
 Vena, Brahma. Vaina and Vainyanes, derivative forms of Vena, signify the descendants or people of Brahma; the “v” digammated, is lost. (See Rule vii. Appendix.)
 Sverga is the Hindoo Paradise. As the letters “v” and “b” are commutable, I have used that form which gave rise to the Greek “ Spercheius.” (See Rule xii. Appendix.)
 Sberga, heaven, and apaga, a river. By combination Sbergapaga.
 Ganga or Ganges, “the River” by way of eminence.
 See Rule xiv. Appendix.
 “The records of this period (a.D. 812 to 836) writes Colonel Tod, “ are too scanty to admit of our passing over in silence, even a barren catalogue of names, which, as text with aid of collateral information, may prove of some benefit to the future antiquarian and historian.” Then follows this transcript of the annals of the country.