The simple, “but undeniable facts, which I have brought forward, resting upon a substantial geographical basis, will now commend themselves to the judgment of the dispassionate enquirer after truth, when he discovers, that not only the Attac, the LOGURH, the Beyhoot, the Arghosan, the Loghuri-Ookshwalae (Locri-Ozolae), Magari, Sara- wan, Cor-Indus, the Lespoi, Arghwalas (Argolis), and Akkeha, are represented with astonishing faithfulness in Hela-des, or Hella-dos,—but that the province of Cashmir and its neighborhood, and its tribes, and its Maha-bharatian history, are transported to this Hella Nova, with almost the faithfulness of a lithographic transfer from one material to another.
About thirty miles to the south of the Greek To-Maros, are situated the important people of the Cassiopsei; they too have come from the y’Elumyo-tis, or “the land of the river Yelum,” which encircles their western and northwestern frontier; they are the tribes of Cashmir—the CASYA-pas. And now behold an historical and geographical base, for a supposed mythological tale; for here we are fortunately brought into juxtaposition with the most important point in all India for an historical foundation. The most authentic document which north-western India possesses—(and north-western India is now made synonymous with Greece, more especially with northern Greece,)—is the Rajatarangini. The Rajatarangini, written at Cashmir, the identical point whence the Cassiopsei, or “people of Casyapa,” set out on their emigration into north-western Greece, is a dynastic record of the princes of that far-famed valley, whose chronicles ascend to the venerable antiquity of b.C. 2448. The claim to an antiquity so vast will not, per se, form the slightest objection to the reception of a chronicle to whose astonishing age the Assyrian monuments, lately discovered, form a fitting pendant. The art of writing, so far from being an invention of moderate antiquity, will be found to range up to a period bordering upon the most venerable antiquity. The most ancient of the Vedas, which could never have been handed down by tradition—for there is nothing like narrative to promote memorial record—takes the date of b.C. 1500 Now, as primitive Greece has practically become primitive India, and as the people of the latter country were, even from the most ancient times, most careful in genealogical records, it is impossible, knowing, as we do, that the Egyptians are the same people — acknowledging, as we do, the amazing antiquity of the art of writing amongst them, supported, too, by the authority of Moses, — it is impossible, on rational grounds, to deny the same art to the Greek — i.e. the Indian of primitive Hellas. I cannot in this place avoid introducing the remarks of the learned translators of the “Dabistan:” — “So much at least may be considered as established. 1st. That the limits of history are to be removed farther back than those before fixed. That in the earliest times, primitive nations, related by language to each other, had their origin in the common elevated country of Central Asia, and that the Iranians and Indians were once united before their emigration into Iran and India. This great fact presents itself, as it were, upon the border of a vast abyss of unknown times. These are just reflections; borne out both by the sacred historian, and by sound ethnological principles. But we must now return to the singular transcript of Cashmir and its neighborhood, presented by Central and southwestern Epirus.
Casyapur, or the “city of Casyapa,” is not without its clear and distinct notice in the earliest Greek historian, Herodotus, who, in the usual style of Greek orthography, wrote the name of the city as “Caspa-tur-os,” a corrupt form of “Caspa-dwar”-os,” the Sanscrit “v” being as usual replaced by the Greek “u”; Pakta-war, the neighboring province to the north; he calls Paktua-ka, a very fair derivative of the same word “Pakta,” the ancient province of Casya-pur; or Cashmir.
“Kashmir is an elevated tract north of the Punjab, enclosed by very lofty mountains, having in the middle a level and alluvial soil watered by the river Jailum, and in all other parts, a very uneven surface, formed by numerous ridges and gorges, extending from the plain to the culminating line of the surrounding range. The etymology of the name of this celebrated region has singularly perplexed antiquarians. Wilford derives the name from the Chasas, a very ancient and powerful tribe, who inhabited the Himalaya and Hindoo Coosh, from the eastern limits of India to the confines of Persia. They are mentioned in the Institutes of Menu, and other sacred books of the Hindoos, and still hold large tracts in northern Hindoostan. Humboldt states3 ‘that its primaeval name was Casyapamar, signifying the habitation of Casyapa, a mythological personage, by whose agency the valley was drained? Casyapa, according to the Hindoo authorities, was the grandson of Brahma, and lived as an ascetic, on the mountain contiguous to the lake which originally occupied the valley. The city founded in the country thus drained, was called after the saint Casyapur, or ‘Town of Casyapa’ converted in ordinary pronunciation into Cashappur, and passing ultimately into Cashmir. Abul Fazel, in his abridgment of the Raja Tarangini, merely states, that Kushup, an ascetic, first brought the Brahmins to inhabit the country, after the water had subsided.” I would here suggest that there may possibly be no difficulty in reconciling these apparent variations. The matter may perhaps be thus stated: —
The Chasas – The great tribe.
Casya Pa – The Chasa chief.
Coh Chasas (Cau-casas) – The mountains of the Chasas.
Chas-payus (Cas-pius) – The sea of the Chasa chiefs.
Chas-mir (Cash-mir) – The lake of the Chasas.
Casopas (Casso-poei) – The people of Casyapa, or the Chasa chief, or The Cashmirians.
Cashmir has on the north; Bulti, or Little Thibet; east; the mountainous tracts of Zanska, Kishtewar; south, Jamu, Chumba, Bajawur, and some other small hilly districts occupying the southern declivity in the mountains inclosing the valley in that direction, and sloping to the plain of the Punjab; on the west is the wild unexplored country held by the Dardas, and the remnant of that once powerful race, — the Gaikkers. If the limits be considered as determined by the culminating ridge of the tortuous range of mountains which on every side enclose it, Cashmir will be found to be one hundred and twenty miles long, from the snowy Panj al on the south-east, to the Durawur ridge in the north, and seventy miles broad, from the Puti Panj al on the south, to Shesha Nag at the northeast. The shape of the outline is irregular but has a remote resemblance to an oval. Hugel estimates the plain forming the bottom of the valley, to be seventy-five miles long, and forty miles broad.1 The general aspect of Cashmir is simple and easily comprehended; it being a basin bounded on every side by lofty mountains, in the enclosing range of which are several depressions, called popularly passes, as they afford means of communication between the valley and the adjacent countries. The Panjals, or mountains forming the range which encloses Cashmir, appear, with little exception, to be of igneous origin, and basaltic, their usual formation being a beautiful amygdaloydal trap. In June, 1828, the city of Cashmir was shaken by an earthquake, which destroyed about twelve hundred houses and one thousand persons. Besides the low alluvial tract extending along the banks of the Jailum, and forming the greater part of the cultivable soil of the valley, there are several extensive table lands of slight elevation, stretching from the mountains various distances into the plains.
These Karywas, as they are called by the natives, are described by Vigne as composed of the finest alluvial soil, usually free from shingle. Their surface is verdant, and generally smooth as a bowling-green, but they are divided and deeply furrowed by mountain streams. He considers the appearance they present a strong proof of the tradition that the whole valley was once occupied by a lake. The grandeur and splendour of Cashmirian scenery result from the sublimity of the huge enclosing mountains, the picturesque beauty of the various gorges extending from the level alluvial plain, to the passes over the crest of the enclosing range; the numerous lakes and fine streams rendered often more striking by cataracts the luxuriance and variety of forest trees, and the rich and multiform vegetation of the lower grounds. Vigne is untiring in its praise, calling to his aid the mellifluous eloquence of Milton: —
Of hill and valley, rivers, woods, and plains;
Now land, now lake, and shores with forest crowned,
Rocks, dens, and caves.
The Cashmirians probably excel all other branches of the great Indian nation, in physical qualities. Vigne describes the men as of broad Herculean build, and of manly features: Moorcroft regards the aboriginal race as in general tall, and of symmetrical proportions, and adds, that amongst the peasantry are to be found figures of robust and muscular make, such as might have served for models of the Farnesian Hercules. Elphinston and Foster, also, bear evidence to their athletic and finely proportioned formation. How little did these eminent travellers imagine that this was the very race, this identical people of Cash- mir, and its immediate neighbourhood, that helped to form from their splendid stock, the manly vigour of Hellas, and the exquisite beauty of her daughters. Both Chaeroneia and Plataeia are settlements from this district Caironaya being the people of Cashmir, and Platalia being Baltteia those of Balti. From such a distance did that northern vigour emanate, which gave at once to Hellas her warriors and her poets.
“The language of Cashmir is a dialect of Sanscrit and is written in the Devanagri character. It contains a large admixture of Persian, in which the records and correspondence of the government are written. Cashmir abounds in monuments of a peculiar style, generally indicating very remote antiquity, and clearly referable to a period previous to the Mahomedan invasion” Of these, the temple of Cooroo Pandoo has already been noticed. Such are the people of Casyapa, or the Cassopaei, of Hellas, as described by undoubted authority—authority that gives an overpowering weight to the geographical evidences already, and about to be, brought forward. Now hold we a sufficient clue to the splendid shawls—the pepla of both goddesses and princesses. In the ruby mines and mineral wealth of the neighboring regions we see the magnificent necklace of Harm onia, presented by the “Devas” or Devi, or (…), or priests, at her nuptials, and the explanation of that abundance of gold once existing throughout Greece, in articles of regal luxury and of private wealth now is explained the frequent use of ivory and its artistic adaptations; now are explained the graceful forms of the so-called Grecian, but, in reality, the Cashmirian beauties; now do we distinctly discern the sources—the ever living models of those magnificent and manly forms that have been eternized by the skill of Pheidias. It is thus incontrovertible, that, while the Attac, Tatta, the Kori, and the Indus and Magar gave at once to Greece her practised seamen, and her commercial bias, in the communities of Attica, the Tettiges, the Cor-Inthians, and the Megareans, that by the same emigration Hellas was gifted with the noblest and the most lovely forms that ever graced the Temple of Creation.
We have seen Soo-Meros, Pambur-des, and Doda, flanking Cashmir on the East, and represented in Epirus by To-Maros, Pambo-Tis, and Dodon; we have yet to contemplate, mirrored forth on the western slopes of the Pindus, a southern province of Cashmir. That province is Matan; and the new sojourners in Hellas, who have left the verdant plains of their father-land, are called “Metan-Astae” or “People of Matan” Matan is “a Karywa, or table land, extending from the town of Islamabad to the base of the range, enclosing the valley on the east. Notwithstanding its situation below those vast mountain masses, it is devoid of streams, or other natural means of irrigation, but consisting, almost entirely, of very fertile alluvial earth; it bears, when cultivated, abundant crops of wheat, barley, and most kinds of grain, excepting rice. The great depopulation of Cashmire, however, has rendered it for the most part a waste, presenting a surface of the finest verdure, unbroken by tree, shrub, or human habitation … Hugel assigns to it a breadth of four or five miles in every direction He also mentions the solitude and unbroken silence of this fertile plain, which formerly was irrigated by means of a great aqueduct, now completely ruined. This table-land is elevated from 250 to 300 feet above the great alluvial plain of Kashmir. On a slight eminence, at its western extremity, are situated the ruins of a very ancient building, which excites in all spectators feelings of admiration, approaching to awe, by the elaborate skill displayed in its construction, and the simple, massive, and sublime character of its architecture. It is built of huge blocks of hard compact limestone, the black colour of which adds to its gloomy grandeur. This extraordinary monument of early civilization consists of an outer colonnade, inclosing an area, in which stands the principal building, detached. There are four great gateways; one in the middle of each side, and facing the four cardinal points; those facing east and west being much finer than the others. Within the enclosure made by this peristyle, and equidistant from the side walls, is a magnificent temple, of a rectangular outline, seventy feet long, sixty feet wide, and in its present state, about forty feet high. The whole character of the building, like that of the enclosing colonnade, is massive, simple, and severe, yet in excellent taste. Some notion of the style may be formed by imagining a combination of the Egyptian, Tuscan, and Saxon. The tradition of the Cashmirian pundits, assigns it to an antiquity of about two thousand five hundred years: with them it bears the name Korau Pandau, and is attributed to Kooroo and Pandoo, two kings, who figure in the remote legends of Hindoo mythology. It is also known by the name of the ‘City of the Sun’ Hugel observes, ‘My description, unfortunately, gives little conception of the impression produced by this simple majestic structure, which I class among the finest ruins of the world. The forms are throughout noble, and the embellishments often tasteful; but it is peculiarly characterized by the huge masses of which it is constructed; and the effect of these is heightened by the dark hue of the marble, and the desolation in which it stands, in the most fruitful valley in the world”. Let the reader turn his eyes towards the province lying immediately to the west of Cashmir—it is “Attac” the parent Attica—the solution of the architectural problem of the temple of the Cooroos and Pandoo is easy: let him know that a line of Cashmirian princes ruled in Attica—the Attica of Greece, as their ancestors had ruled over the parent states of the Attac and Cashmir; let him know that the descendants of that noble race still exist on the north-western frontier of Cashmir. Let him farther know, that Pandion sprang from the chiefs of the Attoc, a clan of the great Yadoo tribe; that the descendants of that Yadoo tribe yet linger round the; Elumyo-des or Yelum-land, between the Indian Attica, and the Casyo-pas of the Punjab; that Cecropos was a chief of the Pelasga race; that the Pelasga are “the people of Pelasa” part of which vast people are to be seen on the northern skirts of Cashmir that a temple, reared to the deified Pandoo, still stands mid the people of Metan, or the Metan-astse; that the chief town among the Cassiopaei, in Greece, is Pand’osia, Pandoo Town that, on the “Royal River” and near the “Royal Lake” in Greece, is again founded by these exiles of Cashmir the city of their great tribe “Coo- curoos” that this city is built at the confluence of the “ Royal River” (Acheron), and the Co-cootus; that the parent city, “ Coh-cothus,” or ec Coth-on-the-hill,” notwithstanding the lapse of ages, still stands close to the Casyopas, or Cashmirians; that the still more ancient name of “ Cichurus,” was E-Phure, “ The Hiya Town,” or “Hi-pur,” once the capital of He-paira (Epeiros), or “The Hiya-chiefs land,” laved by the waters of the Hi-yanian (Ionian) Sea, or the “ Sea of the Horse Tribes.” Let him again direct his glance across the waters that separate the land of the Hellenes, those “ Chiefs of the Hela,” from south-western Italy; let him again behold, rising beneath the same meridian as its predecessor in Greece, another royal town of the Pandoos—“ Pandosia; ” another “ Royal River,” “ Ache Ron.” But why disguise the fact? These Pandoos are an exiled race; they are essentially “ Su-Budhas emphatically “ The Budhas,” and the river which flows through this, their western settlement, announces the fact in language the most distinct. But I cannot here abandon the noble exiles of the House of Pandava, without observing that not only are the Chiefs of Cashmir, of Egypt, and of Attica, and the Pandion and Pandarus of Greece, bound up with the geography of Hellas, and of India, but also the Bharatas and the land of the Bharatas, and the history of the “Maha Bharata.”
Bharataversha is the classical name for India proper, so called from Bharata, the son of Dushyanta, whose patrimony it was his descendants were called the Bharatas, amongst the rival clans of whom named the Cooroos and Pandoos, arose the fierce rivalry, which was decided on the fatal field of Coorookshetra, in the neighborhood of Delhi. It was this gigantic struggle, which continued to rage for eighteen successive days, which forms the subject of the magnificent poem of the Mahabharata,1 which I shall shortly have occasion to notice.
As the reader will now be convinced that the geography of north-western India is the geography of northern Greece, so will he also find that their early histories are one and indivisible. The great heroes of India are the gods of Greece. They are, in fact, as they have been often rationally affirmed, and as plausibly but not as rationally denied, deified chiefs and heroes; and this same process of deification, both among Greeks and Romans—the descendants of colonists from India, continued, especially among the latter people, down to and throughout the most historical periods. I regret that I cannot subscribe to the theories propounded by several writers of high and deserved celebrity, in Germany, relative to the foundation of the Greek mythology; still less, that I cannot accede to the doctrine of Greek invention, and Greek mythopoeic propensities, as laid down by Mr. Grote, in his otherwise valuable History of Greece, as the exponent of that wide and crowded panorama, which has been styled Greek legend, and Greek mythology; a panorama painted by foreign artists.
I regret the tendency of this theory so much the more, because its dictum not only rests upon an arbitrary basis, but because its doctrine, if correct, must forever preclude all independent and vigorous research—because we are required to accede to that which has not been proved, viz., that the mythology of the Greeks rests upon a foundation purely inventive. I. believe the ordinary sense of mankind, will allow, that there is nothing less mythological than geography securely settled by latitude and longitude; and further, that if to this geography there should be found inseparably attached, names proved to be historical, as well as geographical, by the mutual plain and practical harmony of their relations, — that then we are furnished with a document of the most trustworthy character; because, in fact, the very geography — which cannot be shaken — is the very history of which we are in search. If, therefore, I demonstrate the latitude and longitude of Tartarus, exhibit by the same means, the native land of Erectheus, Erecthonius, Poseidon, the Centaurs, the Autocthons, and the Tettiges, their historical, must be considered as powerful as their geographical evidence. The observations of Col. Mure, in his admirable cc History of Greek Literature,” form so correct a commentary upon the theory that would attribute Greek mythology to Greek invention, that I shall make no apology for introducing it in this place.2 “The principle of human apotheosis, or in other words, of awarding divine honours to mortals, is not only one of the most prominent characteristics of Helleno-Pelasgic superstition, but one which distinguishes it from every other ancient form of Paganism … Among the Greeks the practice can be traced with singular consistency, from the earliest period of which tradition has presented any memorial, down to the final extinction of classical paganism. But the principle was too inveterate to give way even to a change of religion. It was transferred from the temple to the Church, from the heathen to the Roman Catholic mythology, in which system the canonised saints and martyrs offer the closest analogy to the deified Pagan heroes. The analogy is admitted and aptly expressed in the title ‘Divi’ common to both Pagan and “Roman Catholic demigods” The Divi, in fact, of the early Roman Pontiffs were the Sanscrit “Devas,” Brahmins, or “religious teachers,” — Deva expressing both “ God,” and him who was looked upon as a god by the inhabitants of Hellas and of Rome; for we are not to suppose that the term “Divi” took its rise in the so-called historical periods of Rome.
I have been thus explicit on the diametrically opposite doctrines of “Deification,” and “ Mythopoeic Invention,” because each will shortly be brought to the test of truth; when it will be found that both the prime deities of Northern India (and, necessarily, on geographical grounds, of Greece and of Egypt), are the deified heroes of the Ramayuna, and the Mahabharatha, and other venerable Indian records, as well those records now in existence, as those preserved in Puranic compilations. And these observations are of a tendency so purely historical as to be indissolubly bound up with the very name of Grakoi, or Greeks. “We must,” sagaciously observes Col. Tod, “discard the idea that the history of Rama, the Mahabharat of Krishna, and the five Pandora brothers, are mere allegory; an idea supported by some, although their race, their cities, and their coins still exist.”3 There is a scepticism founded upon simple doubt, and there is a scepticism founded upon a pre-determined theory. The first may be overcome, because it is amenable to the doctrine of rational probabilities; the second is most difficult to vanquish, because, being founded upon a mythological fiction of its own, rational probabilities are discarded, as abhorrent to that fiction. To doubt well, and to doubt much, are things widely different; the former often constitutes the integrity of justice—the latter would totally discard all circumstantial evidence, and demand conviction or acquittal upon nothing less than mathematical evidence. As the geography of Epirus and Attica, is necessarily connected with the Indo-Grecian histories Qi those countries, as well as other parts of Greece, I shall here introduce the account, both of the war of the Mahabharata, as related by Colonel Tod, and the sound reflections of the same clear-sighted writer ; who in common with other authors of still higher literary talent, though not of superior judgment, has been looked upon as rash, in attempting to establish the connection of the east and the west; and those very points of discussion which he has raised, forcibly and rationally urging this connection, have been those the most condemned by men who, while thus speaking, ex cathedra, had never gone into those geographical evidences, by which alone the truth of this connection could be tested.
Now that this problem is solved, I am impelled as a matter of justice to the memory of those talented orientalists who, like Colonels Tod and Wilford, nobly upheld the historical reality of the Indo-Greek connection, to bear my testimony to the soundness of their deductions, and the energy which supported them beneath much literary obloquy. Is it not astonishing, that reason should so halt halfway in its deductions as to allow the derivation of the Greek from an Indian language, and yet deny the personality of those who spoke it; or, in other words, deny the settlement of an Indian race in Greece? “The affinity,” observes the learned Dr. Prichard,1 “between the Greek language, and the old Parsee, and Sanscrit, is certain and essential. The use of cognate idioms proves the nations who used them to have descended from one stock. That the religion of the Greeks emanated from an eastern source no one will deny. We must, therefore, suppose the religion, as well as the language of Greece to have been derived, in great part, immediately from the east.” The language of Colonel Tod, on the historical reality of the Pandavas, is so full of honest enthusiasm, and abounds with such just reflexions, and gives so clear an epitome of the war of the Mahabharata, that I shall here introduce it. “ Arrian/’’ he remarks/ cc who sketches the history of the family ruling on the Jumna, in Alexander’s reign, clearly indicates that he had access to the genealogies of the Pandoo race; a branch of which ruled in those regions eight centuries subsequent to the memorable conflict of the Mahabahrata, which forms an era in the very dawn of Hindoo history. There is no name so widely disseminated in the local traditions of India as that of Pandoo; from the snowy Himachil to Cape Comorin, every nation and tribe has some memorial to exhibit of this celebrated race. Yet, although the name has been perpetuated through the lapse of ages, in the geographical nomenclature of the regions they inhabited; and although nations far remote, and without intercourse, possess monuments which they attribute to the race; and although one peculiar character forms the inscription of all such monuments, still there are sceptics as to their existence, who imagine the ( Great War’ as fabulous as the Trojan. For such there is no law of historic evidence short of mathematical demonstration that will suffice. The triumphal column of the Yadoos at Delhi, mentioned by the bard ‘Chund’ seven centuries ago; that at Praga, the first seat of their power; the form of Bhima, in the valley of Mokunderra; the caves of Dhoomnar, of Nasuk, and Girnar, with their various rock-inscriptions; the sepulchral mounts of Pandu-mandalan, in the Carnatic, and many other places, separated a thousand miles from each other, might in vain be appealed to.”
The scene of the outbreak of the first burst of passion between the rival clans of the Cooroos and the Pandus, is placed at Hastinapoor, the modern Delhi. “On the death of Pandu,” observes Col. Tod, Duryodhana, nephew of Pandu, asserted the illegitimacy of the Pandus, before the assembled kin. With the aid, however, of the priesthood, and the blind Dhertarashtra, his nephew Yoodishtra, eldest son of Pandu, was invested by him with the seal of royalty, in the capital Hastinapoor. Duryod- hana^s plots against the Pandu and his partisans, were so numerous, that the five brothers determined to leave, for awhile, their ancestral abodes on the Ganges: they sought shelter in foreign countries about the Indus, and were first protected by Drupdeva, king of Panchalica, at whose capital, Panchalinagara, the surrounding princes had arrived, as suitors for the hand of his daughter, Drupdevi. But the prize was destined for the exiled Pandu, and the skill of Arjoona in archery, obtained the fair, who threw round his neck the garland of marriage, (Burmala). The disappointed princes indulged their resentment against the exile, but by Arjoona’s bow they suffered the fate of Penelope’s suitors, and the Pandu brought home his bride, who became in common the wife of three brothers— manners decisively Scythic. The deeds of the brothers abroad were bruited in Hastinapoor, and the blind Dhertarashtra’s influence effected their recal. To stop, however, their intestine feuds, he partitioned the Pandu sovereignty; and while his son Duryodhaua retained Hastinapoor, Yoodishtra founded the new capital of Indra- presVha … On the division of the Pandu sovereignty, the new kingdom of Indraprestha eclipsed that of Hastinapoor. The brothers reduced to obedience the surrounding nations and compelled their princes to sign tributary engagements. Yoodishtra, firmly seated on his throne, determined to signalize his reign and his sovereignty, by the imposing and solemn rites of Aswamedha and Rajsoo. In these magnificent ceremonies, in which princes alone officiate, every duty, down to that of porter, is performed by royalty.
“The steed of sacrifice, liberated under Arjoona’s care, having wandered whither he listed for twelve months, and none daring to accept this challenge of supremacy, he was reconducted to Indraprestha, where, in the meanwhile, the hall of sacrifice was prepared, and all the princes of the land were summoned to attend. The hearts of the Cooroos, burned with envy at the assumption of supremacy by the Pandus, for the Prince of Hastinapoor’s office was to serve out the sacred food. The rivalry between the races burst forth afresh j but Duryodhana, who so often failed in his schemes against the safety of his antagonists, determined to make the virtue of Yoodishtra the instrument of his success. He availed himself of the national propensity for play, in which the Rajpoot continues to preserve his Scythic resemblance. Yoodishtra fell into the snare prepared for him. He lost his kingdom, his wife, and even his personal liberty, and that of his brothers, for twelve years, and became an exile from the plains of the Yamuna.
“The traditional history of these wanderers, their many lurking-places, now sacred,—the return to their ancestral abode, and the grand battle (Mahabharat) which ensued, form highly interesting episodes in the legends of Hindoo antiquity. To decide this civil strife, every tribe and chief of fame, from the Caucasus to the ocean, assembled on Curu-Khetu, the field on which the empire of India has since, more than once, been contested and lost. This combat was fatal to the dominant influence of the fifty – six tribes of Yadu? On each of its eighteen days combat, myriads were slain; for c the father knew not the son, nor the disciple the preceptor/ Victory brought no happiness to Yoodishtra. The slaughter of his friends disgusted him with the world, and he determined to withdraw from it ; previously performing at Hastinapoor funeral rites for Duryodhana (slainby the hand of Bhima), whose ambition and bad faith had originated this exterminating war.
Yoodishtra, Baldeva, and Crishna, having retired with the wreck of this ill-fated struggle to Dwarica, the two former had soon to lament the death of Crishna, slain by the aboriginal bribes of Bhils, against whom, from their shattered condition, they were unable to contend. After this event, Yoodishtra, with Baldeva and a few followers, entirely withdrew from India, and emigrating northwards by Sinde, to the Himalayan mountains, are there abandoned by Hindoo traditional history, and are supposed to have perished in the snows.”
These heroes will again be found in Greece, as deified beings; and as such they will distinctly appear. In perfect harmony with the religious faith of the Buddhistic settlers in Phthiotis and the Othrys, the Himalayas of Greece, — in harmony with the creed of the Cashmirian colonists of that country, they are the subjects of a saintly invocation, and a saintly ascription of power over the elements, identical with the present Buddhistic creed of Rome. While therefore the marvels wrought by these ancient saints and their Italian successors may be allowed to repose in the same medieval escrutoire, the fact of their existence as men of the same passions with ourselves, will be taken as historical, their miracles as poetical.
I have already pointed out the great settlement of the “Hiya tribes,” or the “Ionians,” in western Greece, and I have adverted to the term Ionian as applied to the sea which laves the shores of that country. It was from the clans of one of the Pandava brothers—these warlike chiefs whom I have just noticed, that the great eastern sea of Hellas, — the JEgaian, derived its appellation. “Vijaya,” or “Victory,” was the proud designation of Arjoona, the third of the Pandavas; his martial bands were, from this title of “Vijaya,” by the regular patronymic form, designated the “Vaijaya,” or “the clans of Vijaya;” an appellation that took firm root in the Greek language as ’Aigaios. These warlike tribes I look upon as the relics of the great conflict recorded in the Mahabharata, an event fixed at about b.C. 1430 ; which, from connecting circumstances, I am inclined to place about fifty years previous to this date. The “Aigaians undoubtedly formed a part of the Himalayan emigration, more especially in connection with the people of Cashmir. Vigi-para, a corruption of “Vijaya-pur,” or “Vijaya-town,” still standing in Cashmir, taken in connection with the temple of the Pandoos (of whofii Arjoona or Vijaya was one), and the settlement in Greece of the Cashmirians and Himalayans (Xynia and Othrys), throw a powerful light upon this ancient emigration, and supply, in the great conflict of the “Mahabharata” an adequate motive for this extensive settlement.
The name of the martial Arjoona, the chief of the Aigaians, is ‘well preserved in a northern district of Thessaly, called from him, Pelagonia, properly “Phalgoonia,” from “Phalgoontjs,” a name of Arjoona.
The classical student will remember that the lonians were called Pelasgoi Aigiales the latter term supposed to be Greek and translated “Shores-men” With the idea of the, sea, however, it has no connection; it simply means that the lonians, or horse-tribes, were “Aijyaleis Pelaska,” or “Arjuna’s — Clans of Pelasa.” The connection between the Attac and Benares has already been noticed, and nothing is more clear than that there existed in the earliest times the most intimate connection between north-western India and the eastern Gangetic provinces. Of this, no more direct and powerful evidence can be found, than that the Pali forms of the Sanscrit constitute the base of the Ionic dialect, while the source of the Doric is to be sought for in the rough northern Sanscrit, once spoken by the tribes bordering on Little Thibet.
While the clans of Arjoona, the “Aigaians,” settled in a powerful body on the eastern shores of Hellas, another large band of the same martial chiefs, colonised a considerable portion of Epirus. These were the cc Kshetryas,” or “ warrior caste;” who gave to their new abode the designation of “Kshetr’ine” or the “Kshetra-chiefs,” a name which “appears in the Greek form of “Kestr-ine,” and supplied to the Romans the term “Castra.” These renowned clans were “Des-B’rati” (“Thes-Pr’oti”), i.e. of the “Land of Bharata;” the same Bharatas,1 be it remembered, who gave a title to the “Maha-B harata” the record of the tremendous war, which thus gave an additional population to northern Greece. The “Bes-Bhlatians,” or “Thes-Protians” the reader will observe, are found in Hipairus, immediately in connection with the Cashmirians and people of Draus, just as the Aigaians, the other division of the Pandari clans, are found contiguous to the same people in Thessaly. But yet this survey of the Pandavas and the Bharatas is far from being complete. They appear again across the southern channel of the Adriatic (Himalayan) waters, under the name of “B’rootii” (B’rutii), with the royal town Pandosia. Their clans are again distinctly seen in Macedonia, as the Dassaretii, or Yadoo tribes; so called from “Yadoo,” the country on the west of the Jumna river, about Mathura and Vrindavan, over which Yadoo ruled. Again, bringing these people in connection with the Himalayan provinces, Crishna, one of the great warriors in the memorable conflict of the Mahabharata, is styled the Yadu-Nath, or “ Yadu- Lord,” being descended from Yadoo, the eldest son of Yay ate, the fifth sovereign of the Lunar race.” He also will be found acting a most important part in Grecian history. I would here point out a singular specimen of the Greek system of recording names, by which history was made to assume the garb of fable; it occurs in connection with these early colonists of Greeee. Evemerus, the Messe-nian, we are told, derived the parentage of a chief, called “Brotos” from “a certain Brotos, an Autochthon;” while Hesiod deduced it from Brotos, the son of Aither and Hemera; on which subject, misled by his Grecian guide, Mr. Grote has very naturally remarked that, “This Brotos must probably be intended as the first of men.” This strange piece of Greek travesty is, however, soon restored to its original text, by geographical evidence.
“Brotos,” the “Autochthon” of Evemerus, is “ Bhratas,” a chief of “Barata;” an “ Atacthan ” (Autochthon), or hero of the Atac-land; Barata being situated about fifteen miles from the Atacthans, or Autochthons, as will be seen by the map of the Punjab; while Hesiod’s genealogy comes nearly to the same point, since he makes his hero “the son of Blraratas, the Hai-The’ro (…), or Haya Priest, and of Hem-aba, that is, tire Himalayan Mountains. Notwithstanding these orthographical errors, however, the important fact of the careful preservation of the Hellenic genealogies is clearly established, as we shall repeatedly have occasion to remark; so carefully treasured in fact are they, that they will, as we progress, afford the most interesting, as well as convincing proofs that, whether these genealogies ascend to the gods, or to heroes, or to men, they are equally trustworthy, as a thoroughly sound basis for history. The error is theirs who, translating Sanscrit names by homogeneous Greek sounds, and very naturally discrediting the absurdities thereby produced, have upon this foundation been led to deny the existence of any historical basis upon which these errors repose.
A little to the north-west of the Cassopaei or Cashmi-rians, was the island of Kork-uras, so called from its colonists, the “Kork-waras” or people of Kerku in Little Thibet; while being also a settlement of the “P’Haya- kes (P’llaia-kcs) or Haya Chiefs’ its inhabitants were called Phocaces. The name of “Schema,” it also received from the settlers from Sh’aker, situate on the right bank of the Jailum, while a section of the Bulling or the people of the Bolan, called the Dreban,1 having been the first colonists of the island, gave to it the name of Drepane. Still farther to the south lay the “ Cephall-ini,” (Gopal-ini) or <c chiefs of Crishna,” who had emigrated from “Cabul,” the Asiatic corruption of “ Gopal,” 3 while immediately to the west and north-west the clans of “Carna,” prince of Angadesa, took up their abode in the province of “a’Carnania,” a name derived from the usual Greek euphonic affix of the “a,” and “ Caruari,” the plural form of Carna. The small settlement, “Carnos Isle,” lies to the central west of “Acarnania.”
Karna himself, the elder brother of the Pandoo princes, by the mother’s side, being the son ofcc Surya,” (“the Sun,”) having taken the part of the Cooroos in the great conflict of the Mahabharata, had been slain by Vijaya (Egaeus), or Arjuna, the third of the Pandavas, who hence obtained the title of “Karna-jit,” or “Conqueror of Carna.” The history of Carna the “Sun-born” will be again noticed in its proper place. The source of this Greek settlement is still seen in “ Karna,” a north-western district of Cashmir. The Suryatanvas, (Eurytanes,) or the Kamas, the clans of the Jumna, are to be seen on the southern base of the JEtolici Montes, or the mountains of Oude, while the Agraei or people of Agra, lie immediately to the north. Flanking the Agrseans on the west, are the “ Am-Bhilochians,” (Am-Philochians) or Bhiloochs of Am, “a stronghold on the north-western bank of the Indus, enclosed between the river and the lofty and thickly wooded range of the Mabeen hills, an off-set of the Himalaya.” The Bomienses, or “Bamian tribes,” have already been noticed. Among the “Ait- aly’ans, CEt-Alayan or Oude-dwellers,” essentially the “children of the Sun,” are to be found also the “ Ophienses,” a name interesting both to the philologist and the historian.
They are the Afghans. The term Ophi-Jensa, “Serpent tribe,” or Snake-tribe, viz. the “Tag, or Tacshak, is but the reflected Sanscrit of Oph-gana, or Af-ghan; ‘Ahis’ Sanscrit, ‘Op-his’ Greek, and ‘Aphia’ Cash-mirian, being the corresponding equivalents of the first member of the compound. Yet this is the term ‘Afghan’ which the natives of that country, in the’ same spirit with the Greeks, their descendants, derived from the Persian ‘Afghan/ ‘lamentation/ given to the race, say they, on account of their lamenting their expulsion from Judea.
The historian thus learns, that the Tacshak or Serpent Tribe, (Ophiensa) at the era of the Scindian emigration into Greece, formed but an insignificant portion of that nation, of which it has now usurped both the name and the power.
Then, the Hellenes and the H elopes, or chiefs of the Hela, were the dominant clans; while both the people of the Damam (Athamania) and those of Cahun (Chaonia), the latter now comparatively an insignificant people, made a far more important appearance on the map of Greece, than the then slender tribe of the Ophienses or Afghans.
I shall now rapidly bring this geographical sketch to a close; nor should I have taxed the patience of the reader to this extent, had it not been indispensable to demonstrate irrefutably primitive Greece as being primitive India. On the “Goorkha” Hills (the “Corakos Mons” of JEtolia,) are the Goorkha Calli-enses,” or “Goork-ha War-tribes;” to their south the “Hyan-tes,” or Land of the Hyas,” who are situated along the banks of the “E-Venus,” so called from its having been a settlement of the Hya Brahmins. The Coureetes, or people of the Land of the Coree,” those founders of ft Cire-ta,” and nurses of Zeus, are, in accordance with the sea-faring habits of their old country, situated near the southern shore of Etolia. There is one characteristic of Indian society stamped irrevocably and unmistakably upon the map of Greece, viz, the distinct provinces which are dotted over its surface. This separation it was that produced the civil wars, and ultimately the ruin of Greece. This it was, which, under the form of the Heptarchy, proved the weakness of England; and this it is, which with the same narrow feeling of a puny nationality, is still desired for Great Britain by the ignorant or the ambitious, as the best mode of forming an United Kingdom. The same system was evident in the Indo-Saurian settlements of Palestine, where the children of Israel found the numerous tribes of the Hivite, Amorite, Perizzite, Jebusite, and many others, exactly analogous to the habits of these same Indians, whether under the name of Britons, Sachas, or Saca-soos (Saxons). “The whole of India,” writes Colonel Wilks, “is nothing more than one vast congeries of such republics. The inhabitants, ever in war, are dependent upon their respective Potails, who are at the same time magistrates, collectors, and principal farmers. They trouble themselves very little about the fall and dismemberment of empires; and provided the township with its limits, which are exactly marked out by a boundary line, remain intact, it is a matter of perfect indifference to them who becomes sovereign of the country”.
 Casio-psei, Greek form.
 The “Raja Tarangini” is not one entire composition, but a series of compositions written by different authors at different periods; a circum- stance, as Professor Wilson observes, that gives a greater value to its contents; as, with the exception of the early periods of the history, the several authors maybe regarded almost as the chroniclers of their own times. The first series is by Calhana Pundit, who treats copiously of the earliest history of Cashmir. (See the admirable notices and very copious and very learned treatise of Professor Wilson on the Hindoo History of Cashmir, Asiatic Researches, vol. xv.)
 The Dabistan,” by Shea and Troyer, Orient. Transl. Fund.
 Preliminary Discourse, p. 76.
 Dwar, literally “a door,” is a common affix to Indian towns; as Ram-dwar, &c., so that the simple element Basyapa remains.
 Mir, properly “the ocean.” (Vide Wilson’s Sans. Lex., lib. v.) But I am inclined to think it is not only the Latin “mare” but the “meers” of England, as Winder-meer; nor must we forget that these Cashmirians once lived in this isle.
 “Kasyapa,” observes Professor Wilson, (As. Bes., vol. xvi. p. 455,) in speaking of the eight deified Budha teachers, or human Buddhas, “is a name known to the orthodox system, and perhaps had once existence. He seems to have been the chief instrument in extending civilisation along the Himalayan and Caucasian mountains, as far as we may judge from the traditions of Nepal and Cashmere, and the many traces of his name to be met with along those ranges.”
 Devos, the Greek (…), is the ordinary name of a religious teacher, or priest.
 “Matan, and Vfasti, dwellers; from the verb vas, to dwell; Vasti, plural only.” — Wlson’s Sans. lex., s.v. This “v” is the old Greek, or rather Sanscrit sound, called digamma; sounded by the old Greeks, but dropped by their descendants.
 I shall distinctly show the tribes of the Yadoos contiguous to the northern boundary of Thessaly.
 One of the Pandoo leaders.
 The “Pass “(Durra, or Dwarra of Mokund, an epithet of Heri).
 The Pandionis Regio, of Ptolemy, having Madura as a capital; which yields conviction that the Pandoos colonised this region, and gave the name of this old seat of power, Mathura on the Jumna, to this new settlement.
 Aswamedha, from Asiva, a liorse, and MedUa, a sacrifice.
 “In detailing the lists of the Maghada kings, the Vishnu Purana states that from the birth of Parikshit to the coronation of Nanda, 1015 years elapsed. Nanda preceded Chandragupta 1000 years ; and Chandragupta, as identified with Sandracoptus, ascended the throne, b. c. 315. Parikshit was the grandson of Arjuna, consequently the war of the Mahabbarat, occurred 1430 years before the Christian era. Wilford reduceB this by sixty years, and places the conclusion of the Great War, B.c. 1370. The difference is not very material; and either date may present an approximation to the truth.”—Prof. Wilson’s Analysis of the Puranas. As. Journ., vol. xiii. p. 81.
 At the moment the combatants are about to make the onset, Arjuna feels a melancholy compunction at the idea of wading to the throne, through the blood of his brothers, kinsmen and friends, whom he recognises in the ranks of the enemy. He opens his mind to his companion (Crishna) who chiding him for his tameness of spirit, tells him that he belongs to the caste of warriors, that war is his element and his duty, and that for him now to recede, would be to lose both empire and honour. Upon Arjuna’s still testifying his reluctance to begin the work of death, Crishna replies to him in a strain, the terrible sublime of the Sanchya doctrine of fatalism; thus beautifully rendered by Milman: — “Ne’er was the time when I was not, nor thou, nor yonder kings of earth: Hereafter ne’er shall be the time, when one of us shall cease to be. The soul, within its mortal frame, glides on through childhood, youth and age, Then in another form renewed, renews its stated course again. — All indestructible is he that spread the living universe; And who is he that shall destroy the work of the Indestructible. Corruptible these bodies are, that wrap the everlasting soul— The eternal, unimaginable soul. Whence, on to- battle Bharata! For he that thinks to slay the soul, or he that thinks the soul is slam, Are fondly both alike deceived. It is not slain—it slayeth not, It is not born—it doth not die; past, present, future know it not; f Ancient, eternal, and unchanged, it dies not with the dying frame.” Such are the savages that first peopled Greece, “feeding upon acorns.”
 As usual the ancient digammated sound of the “v” was lost; a practice prevalent throughout the structure of the Greek. The name “Vaijaya,” thus became “Aijaia,” whence the adjective “aigai-os-a-on.” The “j” and “g” are constantly commutable; hence “Agaios.” The Pah form is Wijjayo.