CHAPTER XI – EXAMINATION OF GEMS

1THE Superintendent of the treasury shall, in the presence of qualified persons, admit into the treasury whatever he ought to, gems (ratna) and articles of superior or inferior value.
2Támraparnika, that which is produced in the támraparni; Pándyakavátaka, that which is obtained in Pándyakavata; Pásikya, that which is produced in the Pása; Kauleya, that which is produced in the kúla; Chaurneya, that which is produced in the Chúrna; Mahéndra, that which is obtained near the mountain of Mahéndra; Kárdamika, that which is produced in the Kárdama; Srautasíya, that which is produced in the Srótasi; Hrádíya, that which is produced in (a deep pool of water known as) Hrada; and Haimavata, that which is obtained in the vicinity of the Himalayas are the several varieties of pearls.
3Oyster-shells, conch-shells, and other miscellaneous things are the wombs of pearls.
4That which is like masúra (ervum hirsutam), that which consists of three joints (triputaka), that which is like a tortoise (kúrmaka), that which is semi-circular, that which consists of several coatings, that which is double (yámaka), that which is scratched, that which is of rough surface, that which is possessed of spots (siktakam), that which is like the water-pot used by an ascetic, that which is of dark-brown or blue colour, and that which is badly perforated are inauspicious.
5That which is big, circular, without bottom (nistalam), brilliant, white, heavy, soft to the touch, and properly perforated is the best.
6Sirshaka, upasirshaka, prakándaka, avaghátaka, and taralapratibandha are several varieties of pearl necklaces.
7One thousand and eight strings of pearls form the necklace, Indrachchhanda.
8Half of the above is Vijayachchhanda.
9Sixty-four strings make up Ardhahára.
10Fifty-four strings make up Rasmikalápa.
11Thirty-two strings make up Guchchha.
12Twenty-seven strings make up Nakshatramála.
13Twenty-four strings make up Ardhaguchchha.
14Twenty strings make up Mánavaka.
15Half of the above is Ardhamánavaka.
16The same necklaces with a gem at the centre are called by the same names with the words ‘Mánavaka’ suffixed to their respective names.
17When all the strings making up a necklace are of sirshaka pattern, it is called pure necklace (suddhahára); likewise with strings of other pattern. That which contains a gem in the centre is (also) called Ardhamánavaka.
18That which contains three slab-like gems (triphalaka) or five slab-like gems (panchaphalaka) in the centre is termed Phalakahára.
19An only string of pearls is called pure Ekávali; the same with a gem in the centre is called Yashti; the same variegated with gold globules is termed Ratnávali.
20A string made of pearls and gold globules alternately put is called Apavartaka.
21Strings of pearls with a gold wire between two strings is called Sopánaka.
22The same with a gem in the centre is called Manisópánaka.
23The above will explain the formation of head-strings, bracelets, anklets, waist-bands, and other varieties.
24Kauta, that which is obtained in the Kúta; Mauleyaka, that which is found in the Múleya; and Párasamudraka, that which is found beyond the ocean are several varieties of gems.
25That which possesses such pleasant colour as that of the red lotus flower, or that of the flower of Párijáta (Erithrina Indica), or that of the rising sun is the Saugandhika gem.
26That which is of the colour of blue lotus flower, or of sirísha (Acacia Sirisa), or of water, or of fresh bamboo, or of the colour of the feathers of a parrot is the Vaidúrya gem Pushyarága, Gómútraka, and Gómédika are other varieties of the same.
27hat which is characterised with blue lines, that which is of the colour of the flower of Kaláya (a kind of phraseolus), or which is intensely blue, which possesses the colour of Jambu fruit (rose apple), or which is as blue as the clouds is the Indraníla gem; Nandaka (pleasing gem), Sravanmadhya (that which appears to pour water from its centre), Sítavrishti (that which appears to pour cold shower), and Súryakánta (sunstone) are other forms of gems.
28Gems are hexagonal, quadrangular, or circular possessed of dazzling glow, pure, smooth, heavy, brilliant, transparent (antargataprabha) and illuminating; such are the qualities of gems.
29Faint colour, sandy layer, spots, holes, bad perforation, and scratches are the defects of gems.
30Vimalaka (pure), sasyaka (plant-like), Anjanamúlaka (deep-dark), Pittaka (like the bile of a cow) Sulabhaka (easily procurable), Lohitaka (red), Amritámsuka (of white rays), Jyótírasaka (glowing), Maileyaka, Ahichchhatraka , (procured in the country of Ahichchhatra), Kúrpa, Pútikúrpa, and Sugandhikúrpa, Kshírapaka, Suktichúrnaka (like the powder of an oystershell), Silápraválaka (like coral), Pulaka, Súkrapulaka are varieties of inferior gems.
31The rest are metalic beads (káchamani).
32Sabháráshtraka, that which is found in the country of Sabháráshtra; Madhyamaráshtraka, that which is found in the Central Province; Kásmaka, that which is found in the country of Kásmaka; Sríkatanaka, that which is found in the vicinity of the mountain, Vedótkata; Manimantaka, that which is found near the mountain Maniman or Manimanta; and Indravánaká are diamonds.
33Mines, streams, and other miscellaneous places are their sources.
34The colour of a diamond may be like that of a cat’s eye, that of the flower of Sirísha (Acacia Sirísa), the urine of a cow, the bile of a cow, like alum (sphatika), the flower of Málati, or like that of any of the gems (described above).
35That which is big, heavy, hard (prahárasaham, tolerant of hitting), regular (samakóna), capable of scratching on the surface of vessels (bhájanalékhi), refractive of light (kubrámi), and brilliant is the best.
36That which is devoid of angles, uneven (nirasríkam), and bent on one side (pársvápavrittam) is inauspicious.
37Alakandaka, and Vaivarnaka are the two varieties of coral which is possessed of ruby-like colour, which is very hard, and which is free from the contamination of other substances inside.
38Sátana is red and smells like the earth; Gósirshaka is dark red and smells like fish; Harichandana is of the colour of the feathers of a parrot and smells like tamarind or mango fruit; likewise Tárnasa; Grámeruka is red or dark red and smells like the urine of a goat; Daivasabheya is red and smells like a lotus flower; likewise Aupaka (Jápaka); Jongaka and Taurupa are red or dark red and soft; Maleyaka is reddish white; Kuchandana is as black as Agaru (resin of the aloe) or red or dark red and very rough; Kála-parvataka is of pleasant appearance; Kosákaraparvataka (that which is the product of that mountain which is of the shape of a bud) is black or variegated black; Sítódakíya is black and soft, and smells like a lotus-flower; Nágaparvataka (that which is the product of Naga mountain) is rough and is possessed of the colour of Saivala (Vallisneria); and Sákala is brown.
39Light, soft, moist (asyána, not dry), as greasy as ghee, of pleasant smell, adhesive to the skin, of mild smell, retentive of colour and smell, tolerant of heat, absorptive of heat, and comfortable to the skin–these are the characteristics of sandal (chandana).
40(As to) Agaru (Agallochum, resin of aloe): Jongaka is black or variegated black and is possessed of variegated spots; Dongaka is black; and Párasamudraka is of variegated colour and smells like cascus or like Navamálika (jasminum).
41(Agaru is) heavy, soft, greasy, smells far and long, burns slowly, gives out continuous smoke while burning, is of uniform smell, absorbs heat, and is so adhesive to the skin as not to be removable by rubbing;—these are the characteristics of Agaru.
42(As to) Tailaparnika: Asókagrámika, the product of Asókagráma, is of the colour of meat and smells like a lotus flower; Jongaka is reddish yellow and smells like a blue lotus flower or like the urine of a cow; Grameruka is greasy and smells like a cow’s urine; Sauvarnakudyaka, product of the country of Suvarnakudya, is reddish yellow and smells like Mátulunga (the fruit of citron tree or sweet lime); Púrnadvipaka, the product of the island, Púrnadviipa, smells like a lotus flower or like butter; Bhadrasríya and Páralauhityaka are of the colour of nutmeg; Antarvatya is of the colour of cascus,—the last two smell like Kushtha (Costus Speciosus); Kaleyaka which is a product of Svarna-bhúmi, gold-producing land, is yellow and greasy; and Auttaraparvataka (a product of, the north mountain) is reddish yellow.
43The above (fragrant substances) are commodities of superior value (Sára).
44The smell of the Tailaparnika substances is lasting, no matter whether they are made into a paste or boiled or burnt; also it is neither changed nor affected even when mixed with other substances; and these substances resemble sandal and Agallochum in their qualities.
45Kántanávaka, Praiyaka, and Auttara-parvataka are the varieties of skins.
46Kántanávaka is of the colour of the neck of the peacock; Praiyaka is variegated with blue, yellow, and white spots; these two are eight angulas (inches) long.
47Also Bisí and Mahábisí are the products of Dvádasagráma, twelve villages.
48That which is of indistinct colour, hairy, and variegated (with spots) is (called) Bisí.
49That which is rough and almost white is Mahábisí (great Bisí); These two are twelve angulas long.
50Syámika, Kálika, Kadali, Chandrottara, and Sákulá are (other kinds of skins) procured from Aroha (Arohaja).
51Syámika is brown and contains variegated spots; Kálika is brown or of the colour of a pigeon; these two are eight angulas long. Kadali is rough and two feet long; when Kadali bears variegated moonlike spots, it is called Chandrottarakadali and is one-third of its length; Sákulá is variegated with large round spots similar to those that manifest themselves in a kind of leprosy (kushtha), or is furnished with tendrils and spotted like a deer’s skin.
52Sámúra, Chínasi, and Sámúli are (skins procured from Báhlava, (Bahlaveya).
53Sámúra is thirty-six angulas long and black; Chínasi is reddish black or blackish white; Sámúli is of the colour of wheat.
54Sátina, Nalatúla, and Vrittapuchchha are the skins of aquatic animals (Audra).
55Sátina is black; Nalatúla is of the colour of the fibre of Nala, a kind of grass; and Vrittapuchchha (that which possesses a round tail) is brown.
56The above are the varieties of skins.
57Of skins, that which is soft, smooth and hairy is the best.
58Blankets made of sheep’s wool may be white, purely red, or as red as a lotus flower. They may be made of worsted threads by sewing (khachita); or may be woven of woollen threads of various colour (vánachitra); or may be made of different pieces (khandasanghátya); or may be woven of uniform woollen threads (tantuvichchhinna).
59Woollen blankets are (of ten kinds):—Kambala, Kauchapaka, Kulamitika, Saumitika, Turagastarana, Varnaka, Talichchhaka, Váravána, Paristoma, and Samantabhadraka.
60Of these, that which is slippery (pichchhila) as a wet surface, possessed of fine hair, and soft, is the best.
61That (blanket) which is made up of eight pieces and black in colour is called Bhingisi used as rain-proof ; likewise is Apasáraka; both are the products of Nepal.
62Samputika, Chaturasrika, Lambara, Katavánaka, Praváraka, and Sattalika are (blankets made of) the wool of wild animals.
63That which is manufactured in the country, Vanga (vangaka) is a white and soft fabric (dukúla); that of Pándya manufacture (Paundraka) is black and as soft as the surface of a gem; and that which is the product of the country, Suvarnakudya, is as red as the sun, as soft as the surface of the gem, woven while the threads are very wet, and of uniform (chaturasra) or mixed texture (vyámisravána).
64Single, half, double, treble and quadruple garments are varieties of the same.
65The above will explain other kinds of fabrics such as Kásika, Benarese products, and Kshauma which is manufactured in Pándya (Paundraka).
66Mágadhika (product of the Magadha country), Paundraka, and Sauvarnakudyaka are fibrous garments.
67Nágavriksha (a species of a tree), Likucha (Artocarpus Lakucha), and Vakula (Mimusops Elengi), and Vata (Ficus Indica) are the sources (of their fibres).
68That of Nágavriksha is yellow (pita); that of Likucha is of the colour of wheat; that of Vakula is white; and the rest is of the colour of butter.
69Of these, that which is produced in the country of Suvarnakudya is the best.
70The above will explain the fabrics known as kauseya, silk-cloth, and chinapatta, fabrics of China manufacture.
71Of cotton fabrics, those of Madhura, of Aparánta, western parts, of Kálinga, of Kási, of Vanga, of Vatsa, and of Mahisha are the best.
72As to other kinds of gems (which are not treated of here), the superintendent shall ascertain their size, their value, species, form, utility, their treatment, the repair of old ones, any adulteration that is not easily detected, their wear and tear due to lapse of time and place, as well as remedies against those which are inauspicious (himsra).