CHAPTER XIX – THE SUPERINTENDENT OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

1THE Superintendent of Weights and Measures shall have the same manufactured.

210 seeds of másha (Phraseolus Radiatus) or 5 gunja (Cabrus Precatorius) = 1 suvarna-másha.
16 máshas = 1 suvarna or karsha.
4 karshas = 1 pala.
88 white mustard seeds = 1 silver-másha.
16 silver mashas or 20 saibya seeds = 1 dharana.
20 grains of rice = 1 dharana of a diamond.

3Ardha-másha (half a másha), one másha, two máshas, four máshas, eight máshas, one suvarna, two suvarnas, four suvarnas, eight suvarnas, ten suvarnas, twenty suvarnas, thirty suvarnas, forty suvarnas and one hundred suvarnas are different units of weights.
4Similar series of weights shall also be made in dharanas.
5Weights (pratimánáni) shall be made of iron or of stones available in the countries of Magadha and Mekala; or of such things as will neither contract when wetted, nor expand under the influence of heat.
6Beginning with a lever of six angulas in length and of one pala in the weight of its metallic mass, there shall be made ten (different) balances with levers successively increasing by one pala in the weight of their metallic masses, and by eight angulas in their length. A scale-pan shall be attached to each of them on one or both sides.
7A balance called samavrittá, with its lever 72-angulas long and weighing 53 palas in its metallic mass shall also be made. A scalepan of 5 palas in the weight of its metallic mass being attached to its edge, the horizontal position of the lever (samakarana) when weighing a karsha shall be marked (on that part of the lever where, held by a thread, it stands horizontal). To the left of that mark, symbols such as 1 pala, 12, 15 and 20 palas shall be marked. After that, each place of tens up to 100 shall be marked. In the place of Akshas, the sign of Nándi shall be marked.
8Likewise a balance called parimání of twice as much metallic mass as that of samavrittá and of 96 angulas in length shall be made. On its lever, marks such as 20, 50 and 100 above its initial weight of 100 shall be carved.

920 tulas = 1 bhára.
10 dharanas = 1 pala.
100 such palas = 1 áyamání (measure of royal income).

10Public balance (vyávaháriká), servants’ balance (bhájiní), and harem balance (antahpurabhájiní) successively decrease by five palas (compared with áyamáni).
11A pala in each of the above successively falls short of the same in áyamáni by half a dharana. The metallic mass of the levers of each of the above successively decreases in weight by two ordinary palas and in length by six angulas.
12Excepting flesh, metals, salt, and precious stones, an excess of five palas (prayáma) of all other commodities (shall be given to the king ) when they are weighed in the two first-named balances.
13A wooden balance with a lever 8 hands long, with measuring marks and counterpoise weights shall be erected on a pedestal like that of a peacock.
14Twenty-five palas of firewood will cook one prastha of rice.
15This is the unit (for the calculation) of any greater or less quantity (of firewood).
16Thus weighing balance and weights are commented upon.
17Then, 200 palas in the grains of másha 1 drona which is an áyamána, a measure of royal income.
187½ 1 public drona. 175 1 bhájaníya, servants’ measure. 162½ 1 antahpurabhájaníya, harem measure.
19Adhaka, prastha, and kudumba, are each ¼ of the one previously mentioned.

2016 dronas = 1 várí.
20 = 1 kumbha. 10 kumbhas = 1 vaha.

21Cubic measures shall be so made of dry and strong wood that when filled with grains, the conically heaped-up portion of the grains standing on the mouth of the measure is equal to ¼th of the quantity of the grains (so measured); or the measures may also be so made that a quantity equal to the heaped-up portion can be contained within (the measure).
22But liquids shall always be measured level to the mouth of the measure.
23With regard to wine, flowers, fruits, bran, charcoal and slaked lime, twice the quantity of the heaped-up portion (i.e., ¼th of the measure) shall be given in excess. 1¼ panas is the price of a drona.

¾ pana = an ádhaka.
6 máshas = a prastha.
1 másha = a kudumba.

24The price of similar liquid-measures is double the above. 20 panas is the price of a set of counter-weights.

6⅔ panas = of a tulá (balance).

25The Superintendent shall charge 4 máshas for stamping weights or measures. A fine of 27¼ panas shall be imposed for using unstamped weights or measures.
26Traders shall every day pay one kákaní to the Superintendent towards the charge of stamping the weights and measures.
27Those who trade in clarified butter, shall give, (to purchasers) 1/32 part more as taptavyáji (i.e., compensation for decrease in the quantity of ghi owing to its liquid condition). Those who trade in oil shall give 1/64 part more as taptavyáji.
28(While selling liquids, traders) shall give 1/50 part more as mánasráva (i.e., compensation for diminution in the quantity owing to its overflow or adhesion to the measuring can).
29Half, one-fourth, and one-eighth parts of the measure, kumbha, shall also be manufactured.
3084 kudumbas of clarified butter are held to be equal to a wáraka of the same; 64 kudumbas of clarified butter are held to be equal to make one wáraka of oil (taila);and¼ of a wáraka is called ghatika, either of ghi or of oil.