The Sun ||3||

1The Sun’s southern course began at one time from the latter half of Aslesha and the northern, from the beginning of Dhanishta. This must indeed have been the case as it is so recorded in our ancient Sastras.
2-3At present, one course of the Sun begins from the commencement of Karkataka and the other from the beginning of Makara. That it is different from what has been stated above can easily be ascertained by direct
observation. By marking every day the position of an object situated at a distance at the time of the rising or setting of the Sun, or watching the entry and exit of the brim of the shadow of a stick placed at the centre of a big circle drawn on the Earth, the difference in the Sun’s course may be detected.
4When the Sun retraces his steps before he has reached Makara and changes his direction, he destroys the West and the South- When he similarly changes his course without reaching Karkataka, he brings evil to the
North and the East.
5When the Sun changes his course after staying a little longer in his northern course, there will be prosperity all over and increase of crops. The same result will accrue when he is in his natural course. But if there should be any change or alteration in his gait, he will cause fear to the whole mankind .
6On days other than Parva (= the 8th, 14th of each half lunar month and the days of the full and New Moon), the planet Thwashta trims off a part of the Sun’s brightness and darkens his disc. Then seven kings along with their subjects will meet with their end through weapons, fire and famine.
7There are 33 Ketus, the sons of Rahu, and are named Thamasa Keelakas. When they appear in the Sun’s disc, their effects should be predicted according to their colour, position and form.
8And these Thamasakeelakas when they enter the Sun’s disc produce malefic effects. The effects will be auspicious when they enter the Moon’s orb. When they assume the forms of a crow, a truncated body, a sword, etc., they produce inauspicious effects even in the Moon’s disc. Much worse will be the effect they produce when they are in the Sun’s disc.
9-10When they become visible, the following indications appear: the water will become muddy and foul; the sky will be filled with dust; there will arise storms carrying sand with them and crushing tops of mountains and trees; the trees and creepers will reveal effects contrary to the seasons; the animals and birds will become heated by the Sun; there will be false fires in all the directions; there will be thunderbolts, earthquakes and such unusual phenomena boding calamity.
11The effects described above, wiz., water becoming turbid, etc. are not to be attributed to the appearance of the Thamasa Keelakas at the time of the eclipse of the Sun or the Moon. The effects due to the appearance of the Thamasa Keelakas, etc. should be declared only when they become visible at other times and not otherwise.
12-16Wherever these Thamasa Keelakas show themselves in the Sun’s disc, there will be distress and misery to the kings ruling over these countries. And even sages, emaciated being stricken with hunger, forsaking their usual religious duties and good conduct will be emigrating with great difficulty to other countries, having in their arms infants—mere skeletons—without flesh due to want of food. Good men will be robbed of their entire wealth by thieves and will be heaving long sighs; and their eyelids will be drooping and bodies, languid; and their eyes will be obstructed by tears due to sparrow. Feeling weak and disgusted on account of trouble caused not only by their own Government but also by other (bordering) kings, people will begin to speak in disdain about the behavior of their own kings and will not attribute their suffering to their previous Karma. Clouds though thick with full quantity of water will not let loose the same to fall on the earth. Rivers will become attenuated and crops will be found only here and there (only in a few places).
17If there should appear in the Sun’s disc Thamasa Keelaka in the form of a stick, it portends the death of the sovereign; if the object appear like a body without the head (headless), there will be outbreak of diseases; if the form be that of a crow, there will be danger from thieves, and if the form be that of a Keelaka (wedge) there will be famine.
18The Sun’s disc be obscured by obstacles in the form of a king’s paraphernalia such as umbrella, chowrie, banner, etc., it indicates a change of a sovereign. If the Sun be hidden by sparks of fire, smoke, etc., it forebodes the destruction of people.
19If there should be one single object in the Sun’s disc, it denotes the advent of famine. If there be two or more, it indicates the destruction of the sovereign. And should the objects referred to above be of the colours, white, red, yellow and black, the destruction of the following classes in their order, Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras is indicated.
20And these portents appearing on the Sun’s disc bring danger from these directions to the people that behold them. People will get troubles from that very quarter in which these portents make their appearance on the Sun’s disc.
21-22If the Sun be with upward rays of copper (red) colour, it denotes the ruin of the commander. If the colour be yellow, it betokens the destruction of the king’s son; if it be white, the preceptor will die. If the colour of the Sun’s upward rays be variegated or misty and if there should be no immediate rain following, it causes chaos and disaster to the country through thieves, clash of weapons, etc.
23-24During the Sisira Ritu, the colour of the Sun will be like that of copper or tawny; it will be of greenish yellow or saffron colour in the Vasantha Ritu. In Greeshma Ritu, it will be almost pale or golden. In the Varsha Ritu, it will be whitish; in Sarad Ritu, the colour will be that of the interior of the lotus; and in the Hemanta Ritu, it will be blood-red, and the effect on mankind will be all auspicious. In the rainy season the Sun being glossy or showing the colours of other seasons a so is auspicious.
25If during the Varsha Ritu, the rays of the Sun be sharp and whitish in colour, the destruction of the Brahmins is indicated; when the colour is blood-red, the Kshatriyas will be ruined; if die colour be yellow, it indicates evil to the Vaisyas; and lastly, if it be black, the ruin of the last class should be expected. But if the rays be soft in the cases above mentioned, everything will prove auspicious.
26If the Sun in Grishma Ritu be blood-red in colour, it causes fear in the minds of the people; during Varsha Ritu the Sun be dark, there will be drought in the country. In the Hemanta Ritu, if the Sun be yellowish, diseases will spring up very soon.
27-28If the solar disc be cut across by a rainbow, it indicates something untoward to the ruling chief of the country. During the rainy season, if the Sun has a bright appearance, it indicates immediate rain. If during the Varsha Ritu the Sun be of the colour of the Sirisha flower, there will be immediate downpour of rain. If the colour be of the peacock’s plume, there will be no rain for 12 years to come.
29When the Sun is dark in colour, there will be danger to crops from insects and reptiles. If the colour be ashy, there will be fear to be apprehended from other kings. If the Son should have a slit in his disc, it indicates the destruction of the king who has the star occupied by the Sun at the time as his natal asterism.
30If the Sun, while in the upper regions of the sky be red in colour similar to the blood of the hare, there will be war in the land. If he should appear cool like the Moon without rays, the king will be killed, and another will soon occupy his place.
31If the Sun should appear like a pot, people would suffer hunger and death. If he should appear broken, people will die. if he should be without rays, it indicates fear; if he assumes the form of an arch, the chief city will be ruined; if he appears like an umbrella, it indicates the destruction of the whole country.
32When the Sun appears in the form of a flagstaff or a bow, there will be war; the same will be the case when he is quivering or of sharp rays. If there should be any black streak in his disc, the king ruling at the time will be killed by his own minister.
33During Sunrise (or Sunset) when a meteor, lightning or a thunderbolt strikes the Sun, it indicates the death of the ruling king and the installation of a foreigner on the throne.
34If the Sun should be encircled by Parivesha every day or during the two twilights or be red in colour during the times of setting and rising, it indicates a change in the sovereign.
35If during Sunrise or Sunset the Sun be concealed by clouds in the form of weapons, it indicates that fighting is imminent. If the clouds in question take the form of a deer, a buffalo, a bird, an ass, a camel and the like, there will be fear infused among the people.
36When an asterism on account of its conjunction with the Sun is subjected to a good deal of torture by the Sun’s rays, it emerges out all the more pure and clean as gold after its purification through fire.
37If the mock-Sun (halo) be to the north of the Sun, there will be fain; if to the south, there will be danger from floods; if above, there will be danger to the king; if below (i.e., towards the horizon), then the people will perish.
38If the Sun be of blood-colour when in the mid sky, it portends the destruction of the king at no distant date. The same effect will be the case if the Sun should appear red by a dry dust-storm. If his colour be dark, variegated, blue or soiled, and if birds and beasts howl dreadfully at the times of Sunset or Sunrise, the death of many people will be the result.
39A Sun with a spotless form, clear and not crooked, with bright, abundant, clear and long rays and bearing a natural appearance, colour and features will prove auspicious to the whole mankind.