1A demon’s head, though cut off for his having devoured nectar, is still not deprived of life, it is said, as a result of the potency of nectar and that head became a planet, so declare some sages.
2His disc is similar in form to those of the Sun and the Moon, but he is not visible in the heavens except on Parva days (New and Full Moon days) on account of his blackness in colour. Owing to a boon conferred by Brahma, he is visible only at the time of eclipses and not on other days .
3One school of learned men says that Rahu—son of Simhika—is of a serpentine form with only the face and the tail; while another class maintains that he is formless and of the nature of pure darkness.
4For, if Rahu has a form, travels in the zodiac, possesses a head and has a circular orb, how is it that he whose movement is fixed, and uniform seizes the two luminaries who are situated 180° away from him?
5If his gait has not been fixed, how is his exact position determined by calculation? If he is to be distinguished by his tail and face, why should he not seize them at other intervals (instead of only when 180° apart.)?
6For, if this Rahu who is of the form of a serpent is able to seize the Sun or the Moon through his tail or mouth, why should he not conceal or hide half of the zodiac which is the interval between his head
7If there should be two Rahus, when the Moon. has set or risen and is eclipsed by one Rahu, the Sun (who is 180° from the Moon) should also be eclipsed by the other Rahu whose rate of motion is also similar.
8In her own eclipse, the Moon enters the shadow of the Earth, and in that of the Sun, the solar disc. Therefore, it is that the lunar eclipse does not commence at the western limb, nor the solar at the eastern limb.
9Just as the shadow of a tree goes on increasing on one side on account of the motion of the Sun, so is the case with the Earth’s shadow every night by its hiding the Sun during its rotation.
10If the Moon, in her course towards the East and placed in the 7th house from the Sun, does not swerve much either to the north or the south, she enters the shadow of the earth.
11The Moon moving from the west conceals the solar disc from below just like a cloud. The solar eclipse is therefore different in various countries according to the visibility of the eclipsed disc.
12In the case of a lunar eclipse, the concealing agency is very big, while in that of the solar, it is small. Hence in semi-lunar and semi-solar eclipses, the luminous horns are respectively blunt and sharp.
13Thus, the cause for the eclipses has been given by our ancient masters possessed of divine sight. Hence, the scientific truth is that Rahu is not at all the cause of that.
14-15The following boon has been conferred by Brahman on Rahu, the Demon: “You shall have to live, and rest satisfied with whatever gifts and oblations that may be given at the time of an eclipse.” During that period his presence is recognized. There are two places or nodes for the Moon caused by her deviation south or north and this is ascertained by astronomical calculation. The ascending node is termed Rahu.
16An eclipse can by no means be ascertained through symptoms in the form of portents. For these latter, fall of meteors, etc., occur at other times also.
17It is not correct to say that an eclipse cannot occur unless five planets combine; it is also incorrect for the learned to suppose that on tire previous Ashtami day the eclipse and its characteristics can be guessed by examining the appearance of a drop of oil poured on the surface of water.
18The magnitude of the Sun’s eclipse is to be determined by the Moon’s deflection (parallax). The direction in which the eclipse commences has to be found out through the deflection and angles of the Moon known as and (Ayanavalana and Akshavalana). The actual time of the eclipse has to be found out by noting the exact time of conjunction of the Sun and the Moon, these have been described in detail in my astronomical work Pancha Siddhantika.
19The following seven deities are in their order the lords of the successive six-month periods since creation. Brahma, the Moon, Indra, Kubera, Varuna, Agni and Yama.
20-23During the Parvan presided over by Brahman, the Brahmins and cattle will prosper. The whole period will be marked by happiness, health and abundance of com. In the Moon’s Parvan, there will be similar prosperity for the Brahmins and the quadrupeds; but the learned will suffer and there will be drought. In the six-month period owned by Indra, there will be quarrel among kings; crops of the autumnal season will fail and there will be no happiness. In the period owned by Kubera, rich people will suffer loss of wealth, but there will be general prosperity in the land. In Varuna’s period there will be no happiness for the kings, but people will be happy and there will be abundance of corn. In the six-month-period swayed by Agni—also known as Mitra— there will be plenty of crops; the people will be immune from disease and there will be abundance of water. During Yama’s period, there will be no rain; people will suffer from famine and there will be a general destruction of crops. In the event of an eight Parvan occurring next to this owing to unusual causes or phenomena, there will be general suffering due to hunger, death and drought.
24If an eclipse should occur a bit prior to the time actually calculated, there will be miscarriages and outbreak of war. In the case of the eclipse happening a bit after the expected time, flowers will wither, fruits will be destroyed and there will be general panic and destruction of crops.
25The effects of eclipses occurring a bit earlier or later than the actual time calculated have been described as stated above simply because they have been so stated in the ancient Sastras, However, the time calculated by a true astrologer will in no case prove inaccurate .
26If there should be both solar and lunar eclipses occurring in one and the same month kings will suffer destruction through the open rebellion of their army. There will further be terrible bloodshed.
27If the Sun or the Moon rises, or sets being eclipsed at the time, the crops of the Sarat season will fail and the kings in the land will sages. If such an eclipse be a total one and if the eclipsed disc be aspected by malefics as well, there will be famine and pestilence all over the country.
28-31If the eclipse should begin when the Sun or the Moon has just half-risen, the low tribes Chandalas, etc., will suffer and all sacrifices will be destroyed the visible portion of the sky be divided into seven equal divisions and if such an event happen in the first division, those that earn their livelihood with the help of fire such as gold- smiths, virtuous men, Brahmins and hermits will suffer. Agriculturists, heretics, traders, the Kshatriyas, leaders of the array, these will be destroyed, if the eclipse happens in the second division. The eclipse that occurs in the third division will bring on distress to artisans, artists, the Sudras, the Mlechchas and ministers. When the eclipse happens in mid-day, i.e., the central or fourth division, the king and the central country will be destroyed; corn will sell at fair rates. Quadrupeds, ministers, people in the harem and Vaisyas will perish when the eclipse occurs in the 5th division of the sky. The eclipse in the sixth division will destroy the womankind and the Sudras; while thieves and people living in the border countries will be annihilated when the eclipse occurs at the setting time. When the end of the eclipse happens in the several divisions of the sky referred to above, the effect will prove good to the corresponding people.
32-34Rahu when found in the Uttarayana will kill the Brahmins and kings, while in the Dakshinayana the Vaisya and the Sudra classes will be affected! If the solar and lunar eclipses begin at the four quarters, viz., the north, east, south, and west, it will kill respectively the Brahmins, the Kshatriyas, the Vaisyas and the Sudras, If found in the half-quarters (or corners), viz, north-east, south-east, south-west, and north-west, the Mlechchas, people who are marching, those that earn their livelihood by fire—potters, smiths and the like—and fire-worshippers will be affected. Further, if Rahu begins in the south, water-animals and elephants, etc., will suffer and if in the north, the cattle will suffer. If Rahu commences the eclipse in the east, he inundates the earth with floods; if in the west, agriculturists, servants and dependents, seeds and seedlings will be destroyed.
35When the Sun or the Moon occupy sign Mesha and is eclipsed there, people of the Panchala country, the Kalingas, the Surasenas, Kambojas, the Udras (the people of the modern Orissa), hunters, those employed in the military, men who earn their living by fire, all these will suffer.
36If the Sun or the Moon be eclipsed while in Vrishabha, shepherds, cattle, owners of cows and men who have risen to eminence will suffer.
37If the eclipse referred to above be in Mithuna, ladies of nobility, kings and powerful com peers, viz., ministers and the like, persons versed the arts, people living in the banks of the Jumna, people of Balkh, the Viratas, the Suhmas—all these will suffer.
38When the Sun or the Moon is eclipsed in sign Karkataka, the following people will suffer: the Abheeras, the Sabaras, the Pallavas, the Mallas (wrestlers), the Mathsyas, the Kurus, the Sakas, the Panchalas and all those that are infirm. There will also be the destruction of food grains.
39An eclipse in Simha will bring on destruction to the whole tribe of hunters, the Mekalas, people who are valorous, people similar in status to kings, kings and men living in forests. When the eclipse occurs in Kanya, the crops, poets, writers, musicians, the inhabitants of the Asmaka, and Tripura countries and all the regions that are endowed with paddy fields will suffer destruction.
40When the eclipse happens in Tula Rasi, people of Avanti, Aparanthya (western border), people of good disposition, trading class, men of the Dasama country, the Marus and the Kachchapas, all these will suffer. When the eclipse takes place in Vrischikha, the people of Udumbara, Madra, Chola, Yaudheya tribe, soldiers with poisoned weapons and trees will be destroyed.
41If the Sun or the Moon be eclipsed while in Dhanus, the chief ministers in the country, the horses, the people of Videha, wrestlers, the Panchala people, physicians, traders, people who are rough and hard, men who know the use of arms, all these will suffer. The eclipse in Makara will do away with fishes, ministers and their families, all men of the lower class, people who are clever in the use of magic and herbs, people that are old and infirm and those living by weapons.
42Through the eclipse occurring in sign Kumbha, people in the interior of mountains, those living in the west, bearers of burdens, thieves, the Abheeras, the Daradas, all nobles, people living in Simhapura and the Barbaras will be affected. The eclipse formed in sign Meena will destroy the substances that are obtained in the shores of oceans and those derived from the seas, people, living in forests, learned men and those that earn their livelihood through water and water-products. The effects of eclipses occurring in any of the asterisms will be felt in those countries signified by them as explained in the Nakshatra Kurma Adhyaya.
43The eclipses consist of ten varieties, viz. Savya, Apasavya, Leha, Grasana, Nirodha, Avamardana, Aroha, Aghrata, Madhyatama and Thamonthya.
44When Rahu is on the southern side of the Sun or the Moon during an eclipse, floods will occur and there will be happiness and freedom from fear. When Rahu is on the northern side, there will be oppression through the sovereign and thieves and people will die in consequence. If the lunar eclipse commences from the southeast, it is called Savya, while, from the north-east, it is called Apasavya. In the case of the solar eclipse, the respective directions are northwest and southwest.
45The eclipse is called (Leha) where the orb of the Sun or the Moon is enveloped (as if licked) by (the tongue of) darkness. All beings will be happy and there will be abundance of water all over the earth.
46When a third or a fourth part of the disc or even half is concealed (by darkness), it is called (Grasana); a flourishing king will suffer loss of wealth and countries which are thriving and prosperous will suffer devastation.
47When Rahu eclipses the disc all round leaving a lump of thick darkness in the middle, it is called (Nirodha). The effect of this will be that all creatures will be happy.
48When Rahu conceals the entire orb and is in that position for a considerably long period it is called (Avamardana) and the result of it will be the destruction of leading kings and important countries.
49If soon after the termination of the eclipse, the luminary be again enveloped in darkness, it is called (Arohana); there will be mutual strife among kings causing great fear and anxiety.
50The eclipse is known as strata (Aghrata) when it appears on a part of the disc like a mirror filled with the vapour of hot breath when blown on it; and it indicates timely rains and prosperity to the people.
51The eclipse is termed (Madhyatama) when Rahu appears in the centre of the disc and the entire (circular) portion surrounding the same is unconcealed (bright all round). It will affect people living in the central countries, and people will suffer from colic. There will be general panic all over the country.
52When the entire surrounding portion in the disc appears thick-dark while in the middle or central portion it is only slight, the eclipse is called Tamonthya. There will be danger to the crops through locusts, etc. and fear from thieves.
53-59If the eclipsed disc appears white, there will be peace and prosperity all over, but the Brahmins will suffer. If the colour be like that of fire, there will be risk from fire and people who live by or eke their livelihood through fire, viz., gold and silversmiths, etc. will suffer, ‘if Rahu’s colour be parrot’s hue, there will be outbreak of diseases, and crops will be destroyed by excessive rain, etc. When the colour is reddish or tawny, quick-footed animals such as camels and Mlechchas will suffer and there will be famine. When the colour resembles
that of the rays of the rising Sun, there will be famine and drought and birds will suffer. When the colour is grey, there will be prosperity all round and limited rain. When the eclipsed portion of the disc is reddish in colour or of the colour of the pigeon, or of gold or yellow-black, people will suffer from hunger. When it is of the colour of the pigeon or dark, the Sudras will suffer from diseases. When it is the colour of a (topaz?) spotless jewel (bluish-yellow), the Vaisyas will suffer destruction and there will be prosperity in the land; if it be similar in colour to that of burning flame, there will be risk from fire ; and if the disc be of the colour of a mineral, (gold ore?), there will be wars. If the colour be dark as that of the Durva stalks or yellowish, there will be outbreak of epidemics. And when Rahu is like the Patala flower in colour, there will be risk from lightning and thunderbolts. If the colour be a mixture of red and brown, it indicates the ruin of the Kshatriyas and the advent of drought. If the colour be similar to that of the rising Sun, the lotus or the rainbow, it forebodes the outbreak of war.
60-61When Mercury aspects the eclipsed Sun or the Moon, ghee, honey and oil will become dear and rare and kings will suffer. If Mars should aspect either of them in such a condition, there would be outbreak of war, risk from fire and danger from thieves. If Venus be the aspecting planet, there will be destruction of crops and there will also arise various miseries and troubles in the land. When Saturn is the planet that is aspecting, rains will fail, famine and risk from thieves will result.
62Whatever untoward effects have been declared as a result of aspects by planets on either of the luminaries at the time of the commencement or conclusion of an eclipse, the intensity will be toned down and they will prove auspicious if only Jupiter’s aspect falls on the same, just as blazing fire is put out by water.
63If at the time of an eclipse (whether solar or lunar) there should occur a strong wind, fall of meteors, dust storm, earthquake, total darkness or thunderbolt, the eclipse will recur after 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months respectively.
64If at the time of an eclipse. Mars also by his conjunction with the Sun or the Moon as the case may be eclipsed, people of Avanthi, those living at the banks of the Cauvery and Narmada and kings who have become arrogant will suffer misery.
65If Mercury be in such a position, the people living in the tract of land between the Ganges and the Jumna, on the banks of the Sarayu, those of Nepal, those living in the east coast and on the Sone riverside, the female folk, kings, warriors, boys and learned men, all will perish.
66In the case of Jupiter being thus eclipsed, learned men, kings, ministers, elephants, horses, people living on the banks of the Indus, including also those living to the north will all be destroyed.
67When Venus is (thus) eclipsed by Rahu, the people of Daseraka. of Kekaya, of Yaudheya, of Aryavartha, the Sibees, the woman-folk and the ministers and tribes will suffer misery.
68When Saturn is eclipsed, the men of Maru (of desert) of Pushkara, of Saurashtra, the minerals, etc. derived from the earth, people living in the Arbuda mountain, those of low caste, cowherds, inhabitants of the Pariyatra mountain, all these suffer loss very soon.
69If the solar or lunar eclipse should occur in the lunar month of Kartika, men that eke their livelihood through fire, those belonging to Magadha, kings in the East, the Kosalas, the Kalmashas, the Surasenas, people of Benares, all these will be affected The king of the Kalingas along with his ministers and servants will very soon meet with his end. Rahu will torment the entire Kshatriyas. Other people will be happy and there will be plenty all over the land.
70If the eclipse happens in the month of Margasira, people of Kashmir, the Kosalas and the Pundras will suffer. The animals living in the forest and the people of the West will perish. So also, the Somayajees. There will be good rain and people will be happy and prosperous.
71When the eclipse falls in the month of Pushya, there will be trouble to the Brahminsi and the Kshtriyas. The Saindhavas, the Kukaras and the Videhas will also suffer. There will be only small showers There will be famine and panic.
72If the eclipse happens in the month of Magha, Rahu gives trouble to those that revere their parents, Brahmins born in the Vasishtha Gotra, men that are fully engaged in their sacred study and in the performance of their religious duties, elephants and horses, the people of Vanga, Anga and Kasi. There will be plenty of rain to the satisfaction of the agriculturists.
73The eclipse occurring in the month of Phalguna will give trouble to the people of Vanga, Asmaka, Avanthika and those living in the Mekala mountain, dancers, agriculturists, decent ladies, bow-makers, Kshatriyas and hermits.
74If an eclipse happens in the lunar month of Chaitra the artists, writers, musicians, dancing girls, chanters of Vedas, goldsmiths and jewelers, the people of Paundra, Udlra, Kaikaya and Asmaka will suffer. The lord of the Devas (God Indra) will be quixotic in the matter of supplying rain to the Earth (i.e., there will be rain in some part and no rain in others).
75The eclipse occurring in the lunar month of Vaisakha will destroy the cotton crop, sesamum and green gram. The descendants of Ikshvaku, the Yaudheyas, the Sakas and the Kalingas will suffer. But the crops will be plenty all over the land.
76If the eclipse occurs in the lunar month of Jyeshta, the kings, their queens, Brahmins, the crops and the rains, crowds of people, good-looking persons, the Salvas and the group of hunters will suffer destruction.
77When the eclipse falls in the lunar month of Ashadha, the banks of wells, tanks, etc., will be destroyed and rivers will dry up. People living on fruits and roots, the people of Gandhara, Kashmir, Pulinda and China will suffer destruction. The rains will not be evenly distributed.
78If an eclipse should occur in the lunar month of Sravana, the following, viz., people of Kashmir, Pulindas, men of China, the Yavanas, those born in Kurukshetra, Gandhara and those living in the central tracts and the Kambojas and all whole-hoofed animals and also the grains of the autumnal season will suffer damage and perish. With the exception of those stated above, all those living elsewhere will be happy and live in plenty.
79The undermentioned will be affected when the eclipse happens in the lunar month of Bhadrapada: the Kalingas, the Vaugas the Magadhas, the Surashtras, the Mlechchas, the Suveeras, the Daradas and the Asmakas ; women will suffer miscarriages. But there will be prosperity in the land.
80When Rahu is seen eclipsing the Sun or the Moon in the lunar month of Aswayuja, the people of Kamboja, China, the Yavanas, the surgeons, the Valhikas those living on the banks of the Indus, the Anarthas, the Paundras, physicians and the Kiratas will perish. But there will be abundance of food and provisions.
81The liberation or the end of a solar or lunar eclipse is one of ten varieties : (1) Dakshinahanu, (2) Vamahanu, (3) Dakshina, Kukshi (4) Vama Kukshi (5), Dakshina payu, (6) Vamapayu, (7) Sanchhardana, (8) Jarana, (9) Madhya Vidarana and (10) Antyavidarana.
82If the liberation of the Moon takes place in the south-east quarter of the orb, it is termed—Dakshinahanubheda. The effect of this will be destruction of crops, outbreak of diseases in the face, trouble for the sovereign and advent of good rains.
83If the liberation of the Moon should happen in the northeast of the orb, it is known as—Vamahanu. The King’s son will be afflicted with some sort of fear. Facial diseases and risk by weapons are indicated. Otherwise there will be food and provisions.
84If the end of the eclipse happens on the southern side of the Moon’s orb, it is called Dakshina Kukshi. There will be trouble to the King’s children and there will be a conflict with the enemies in that direction.
85If Rahu while liberating the Moon be posited on the northern side of the orb, it is called Vamakukshibheda. Women will suffer abortion, and the crops will only be medium.
86If at the time of liberation Rahu be posited in the southwestern side of the Moon’s orb, it is called Dakshinapayu; if in the northwestern side, it is known as वामपायु. The effect is that people will suffer from pain in the anus or the generating organs in both the cases. The rains will be poor. In the case of Vamapayu, the wife of the king will die.
87If the commencement and end of the eclipse be both in the eastern side of the Moon’s orbit is termed Sanchhardana. There will be prosperity and peace in the country, abundance of crops and general contentment among the people.
88If in the case of an eclipse the commencement was in the east of the orb and the end or liberation be in the west, it is known as जरण. The effect in this case will be that people will suffer from hunger and risk from weapons. People will become anxious and there will be no kind of relief to them.
89If the liberation of the eclipse should begin from the middle of the Moon’s orb and there be light first there in consequence, it is called Madhya Vidarana: The effect will be disaffection in the king’s army. People will be peaceful and prosperous; but there will not be much rain.
90If the entire rim of the Moon’s orb should first begin to clear leaving intense darkness in the middle portion, it is called Antyadarana, the central country will suffer ruin as also the autumnal crops.
91All these (10) kinds of liberations which have been declared for the Moon’s eclipse should be deemed to apply to solar eclipses as well, the only difference being that wherever the East is referred to for the Moon, West should be substituted for the Sun. Similarly for the other pairs of quarters.
92-96If within 7 days after the termination of an eclipse there should arise a dust storm in the land, it will cause famine; if there be heavy dew, there will be outbreak of diseases; if there be an earthquake the death of an important king will happen; if there be the fall of a meteor, it portends the destruction of a minister. If there should be clouds of various colours there would be very great fear in men’s minds. If there be thunder, it will cause miscarriages. If there be lightning, there will be trouble from kings, serpents, etc. If there be Parivesha, there will be trouble from diseases. If there be false fires, there will be danger from kings and risk from fires. If there be fierce and stormy wind, it will engender fear from thieves. If there be portentous thunder, Indra’s bow or an impact of the Sun’s rays with the cloud helped by the wind, people will suffer from hunger and there will be the risk of the country being overrun by a foreign king. If there be planetary war, there will be war between kings. If Ketu be visible, the same effect will happen. If there be clear shower within these 7 days, there will be prosperity and peace in the land, and anything untoward due to the eclipse will be warded off completely.
97If after a lunar eclipse there should happen a solar one at the end of the fortnight, the effect will be that people will become wicked and unjust in their behavior and there will be disharmony among couples.
98If a lunar eclipse happens at the next fortnight after a solar one, the Brahmins will perform many sacrifices and be blessed thereby, and the entire population will be happy and contented.