On the Exploration of Water Springs ||54||

1-2I shall now explain the science of ‘Water-finding’ which leads to religious merit and renown, for, it helps men to ascertain the existence of water. Just as there are veins in the human body, even so do they exist, some higher up, others lower down, in the earth. The water that falls from the sky with the same colour and taste, assumes various colours and tastes owing to the difference in the nature of the earth. Hence it should be examined in relation to its environments.
3-5The divine lords of the eight quarters beginning with the cast are in their order, Indra, Agni, Yama, Nirriti (demon), Varuna, Wind, the Moon and Siva. The veins in the different quarters are known by the names of their respective lords. There is a ninth, called ‘The Great Vein’ in the middle of these. There are hundreds of veins branching off from these and bearing distinct appellations. A vein that comes up from the nether world is good; so are those in the four directions. But those in the intermediate quarters are not auspicious. Hereafter I shall explain the characteristics of the veins.
6-7If Rotang (tree) is seen flourishing in waterless tract, there will be water at a depth of 7 and half cubits at a distance of 3 cubits to the west of the tree. There will be found a westerly vein flowing underneath. At a depth of 2 and half cubits, the symptoms would be a pale white frog; thereafter, yellow clay, and further, a very hard stone (which will break only by the application of great heat) and underneath that there will be water.
8In a similar tract, if a Jambu tree is found, an easterly vein will be obtained at a depth of ten cubits at a distance of three cubits to its north. The signs are, the earth smelling like iron at a depth of five cubits; next, pale-white clay, and further, a frog.
9-10If there is an anthill nearby to the east of a Jambu tree, there will be sweet water at a depth of ten cubits at a distance of three cubits to the south of the tree. When the earth is dug 2and half cubits deep, there will be found fish; next a stone with the colour of a dove; and next blue clay. Here there will be plenty of water for a long time.
11If there is an Indian Fig tree in a waterless tract (with or without an anthill thereby), there will be a vein of good water at a distance of only three cubits to its west and at a depth of 12 and half cubits. Here, the signs are a white snake at a depth of five cubits and further a stone as dark as collyrium.
12-13If there be an anthill to the north of an Arjuna tree, there would be water at a depth of 17 and half cubits, at a distance of three cubits to its west. When the earth is dug 2 and half cubits deep, there will be a white lizard; then at a depth of five cubits, grey clay; then dark, then yellow, then white, and then sandy earth. Beneath that, abundant water is to be predicted.
14-15There will be sweet and never-failing water at a depth of 11 and half cubits at a distance 3 cubits to the south of a Nirgundi (Indigo) tree with an anthill nearby. At a depth of 2 and half cubits, there will be red fish; then, red brown clay; further, pale-white clay; then, sand mixed with gravel, beneath that, there will be water.
16When an anthill is seen to the east of a Jujube tree, water is to be declared at a depth of 15 cubits at a distance of 3 cubits to its west When the earth is dug 2 and half cubits, a white lizard will be found.
17If a Jujube tree is seen along with a Palasa tree, water will be found at a depth of 16 and a fourth cubits at a distance of 3 cubits to its west. At a depth of 6 cubits, the sign will be a non-poisonous snake.
18There will be water at a depth of 15 cubits at a distance of 3 cubits to the south of a place where a Bilwa and an Indian fig tree are together. The sign at a depth of 2 and half cubits is a black frog.
19-20If an anthill is seen near a Kako Dumbara tree, there will be a westerly water vein flowing at a depth 16 and half cubits. The signs are pale yellow clay and white stone; and at a depth of 2 and half cubits a lily coloured white rat will greet the eyes.
21-22When a Kampillaka tree is seen in a waterless tract, there will be a southerly water-vein flowing at a depth of 16 ad a fourth cubits at a distance of 3 cubits to the east of it The sign 5 are blue clay, then lily-coloured, and further dove-coloured clay ; and further, at a depth of one cubit, there will be a fish with the smell of goat, and beneath that, a little brackish water.
23There is a water-vein called Kumuda, which flows at a depth of 15 cubits and at a distance of two cubits to the north-west of a Sonaka tree.
24If there is an anthill nearby to the south of a Vibhitaka tree, there will be a water-vein at a depth of 7 and half cubits at a distance of 2 cubits to its east.
25-26When the anthill is to the west of the same tree, there will be a water-vein at a depth of 22 and half cubits at a distance of a cubit to its -north. The signs are a white scorpion (?) at a depth of 6 cubits, then a crimson stone; then to the west flows a vein. This vein will disappear after three years.
27-28If there is an anthill darkened by holy grass to the north-east of a Kovidara tree, there will be undrying water at a depth of 22 and half cubits between the tree and the anthill. The signs mentioned are a snake of the colour of a lotus calix at a depth of 5 cubits; red earth and a coryndon stone.
29-30If a Saptaparna tree is surrounded by an anthill, water is to be declared at a depth of 25 cubits at a distance of one cubit to the north of it. The signs are a green frog it a depth of 2 and half cubits, the earth resembling yellow orpiment, a stone dark like the cloud, and beneath that, a northerly vein carrying good water.
31-32When a frog is seen at the foot of any tree, there will be water at a depth of 22 and half cubits at a distance of one cubit to its north. The signs are a mongoose at a depth of 5 cubits, then blue clay, yellow, then white clay and next a stone of the shape of a frog.
33-34If there is an anthill to the south of a Karanja tree, there will be a water-vein at a depth of 17 and half cubits at a distance of 2 cubits to its south. The signs are a tortoise at a depth of 2 and half cubits; there will first of all appear an easterly vein, then a northerly vein containing sweet water; then a green stone below; underneath that, there will be water.
35-36If there be an anthill to the north of a Madhulra tree, there will be water at a depth of 37 cubits at a distance of b cubits to the west of the tree. The signs are: first, a big serpent at a depth of 6 cubits, then tawny clay, a stone of the colour of horse gram; next, there will be an easterly vein, carrying always foamy water.
37If there be a glossy anthill covered with holy grass and Durva to the south of a Tilaka tree, there will be water at a depth of 25 cubits at a distance of 5 cubits to the west of the tree. The vein there is an easterly one.
38-39If there be an ant-hill to the west of a Kadamba tree, there will be a northerly vein, carrying inexhaustible water with the smell of iron at a depth of 28 and three fourth cubits at a distance of 3 cubits to the south of the tree. The signs are a gold-hued frog at a depth of 5 cubits; and next, yellow-clay.
40If a palm tree or a cocoanut tree is found covered with anthills, there will be a southerly water-vein at a depth of 20 cubits at a distance of 6 cubits to the west of the tree.
41-42If there be an anthill to the south of a wood-apple tree, there will be water at a depth of 25 cubits at a distance of 7 cubits to the north of the tree. The signs will be; a spotted snake at a depth of 5 cubits, then black clay, a hard stone, next white clay then there will be a westerly vein and next, a northerly one.
53-44If there be an ant-hill or a Jujube tree to the north of an Asnaantaka tree, there will be water 17 and half cubits down and 6 cubits to the north of the tree ; the signs will be : a tortoise in the first layer (5 cubits deep), then brown stone, next, clay with sand; then first of all a southerly vein and next, a northeasterly one.
45-46If there is an anthill to the north of a Haridra tree, there will be water 28 and 3 fourth cubits down and 3 cubits to its east. The signs are a blue snake in the first instance, next, yellow clay, then, an emerald-like stone, next black earth, then first a westerly vein and next a southerly one.
47-48If in a waterless place are seen the characteristics of a watery tract or soft Virana grass or Durva, water will be available at 5 cubits below the earth; or if a kind of brinjal, Trivrita Nagadanti, Sukarapadi, Lakshmana and Navamalika Creeper be found to be growing, water will be found at 15 cubits below the earth and two cubits to the south.
49Those trees which are glossy, have long branches hanging down, are very short and extensive have water nearby; whereas hollow and rough trees with shattered leaves do not indicate water in the neighbourhood.
50-51If Tilaka, Amralaka, Varunaka, Bhallaiaka, Bilwa, Tincluka, Ankola, Pindara, Sirisha, Anjana, Parushaka, Vanjula and Atibala are very glossy and covered with anthills, there will be water 3 cubits from there to the north at a depth of 22 and half cubits.
52If in a grassless place, a patch of ground is seen covered with grass, or in a grassy place, one is seen without it, a vein of water or treasure is to be declared to exist there.
53When a thorny tree flourishes in the midst of non-thorny trees or vice versa, there is a treasure or water at a depth of 18and 3 fourth cubits at a distance of 3 cubits to the west.
54Where the earth being stamped by feet emits a loud sound, a northerly water-vein will be found there at 1 and half cubits.
55Where a single branch of all tree hangs low or is colourless, it is to be understood that water exists at a depth of 15 cubits under the branch.
56Where the fruits and flowers of a tree are unnatural, a water-vein flows at a depth of 20 cubits at a distance of 3 cubits to the east. The signs are stone below and yellow earth.
57If a Kantakari (Brinjal?) is seen without horns but with white flowers, there will be water underneath it at 17 and half cubits.
58Where in a waterless place there is a date tree with two tops, water has to be declared to its west at 15 cubits.
59If a Karnikara or Palasa tree bears white flowers, there is water two cubits to the south at a depth of ten cubits.
60Where the ground steams or smokes, there is water at 10 cubits; and it may be stated that the vein will yield an abundant supply of water.
61Where, in the region of a field, the crops that have grown perish, or there is glossy and very white vegetation, there is a great vein at 10 cubits.
62Now I shall expound the possibilities of veins in desert regions. The water-veins run below the earth’s surface in the shape of camels’ necks (i.e. syphons.)
63-64If there is an anthill to the north-east of a Peelu tree, there will be water to its west. The vein will run in a northerly direction at a depth of 25 cubits. The signs would be in the first instance a frog, brown clay, then green clay, then below, a stone and under that water.
65-66If the anthill is to the east of the Peelu tree, there will be water 4 and half cubits to the south at a depth of 35 cubits. The signs will be in the first instance there will be, at a distance of 5 cubits, a white and dark snake of only one-cubit length; to its south flows a vein with plenty of brackish water.
67If there is an anthill to the north of a lender bamboo, there is sweet water to its south at a depth of 50 cubits. When the earth is dug 5 cubits, a yellow frog will be seen.
68If there is an anthill to the west of a Rohitaka tree, three cubits to its west, there is a vein of Srackish water flowing to the west at a depth of 60 cubits.
69If the anthill is to the east of an Indra tree there is a vein one cubit to its west at a depth of 70 cubits. The sign is a brown lizard in the first layer of 5 cubits.
70-71If there is an anthill to the north of a golden tree, there is water two cubits to the south at a depth of 75 cubits. The water here will be brackish. When the earth is dug 2 and half cubits, there will be a mongoose; next, copper coloured stone; then, red earth; then there flows a southerly vein.
72-73If a Jujube tree and a Rohita tree are joined together with or without an anthill nearby, there is water three cubits to the west at a depth of 80 cubits. The water will be tasty. At first, a southerly vein flows, then a northerly one? next, a stone resembling a paste, next white clay; at 2 and half cubits, a scorpion will be seen.
74If a Jujube tree is joined with bamboo, there is water 3 cubits to the west at a depth of 90 cubits. The vein is a north-easterly one with abundant water.
75If a Jujabe tree is seen in combination with a Peelu tree, there is inexhaustible water, but brackish, 3 cubits to the east at a depth of 100 cubits.
76When Kakubha and bamboo trees or Kakubha and Bilwa trees are joined together, there is water two cubits to the west at a depth of 125 cubits.
77When there is pale white Durva or holy grass on the top of an anthill, a well should be sunk in its middle. Here there is wather at a depth of 105 cubits.
78If, in a place full of Kadamba trees, Durva grass is seen on an anthill, there is water 2 cubits to the south at a depth of 125 cubits.
79-80When there is a Rohitaka tree surrounded by three trees of different types in the midst of three anthills, water is to be predicted there. The water is four cubits and 16 digits to the north of the centre of the anthills at a depth of 200 cubits. First a stone will be seen and beneath that a water-vein.
81Where there is a knotty Samee tree and an anthill to its north, there is water 5 cubits to the west at a depth of 250 cubits.
82When there are five anthills in a place and the central one is white, there is a vein underneath the middle one at a depth of 275 cubits.
83Where a Samee tree is combined with a Palasa, there is water 5 cubits to its west at a depth of 300 cubits. When the earth is dug 2 and half cubits deep, first, a snake will be seen, and next, yellow clay mixed with gravel.
84Where there is a white Rohitaka tree surrounded by an anthill, there is water one cubit to the east at a depth of 360 cubits.
85Where there is a white Samee tree full of thorns, there is water one cubit to its south at a depth of 375 cubits. At a depth of 2 and half cubits, there will be a snake.
86The existence of water in a forest tract may not be determined on such indications as apply to a desert. The characteristics mentioned, viz, Jambu Vetasa, etc., in waterless tracts, if seen in deserts, water should be declared to exist there at twice the depth mentioned.
87-88If a Jambu tree, Trivrit, Maurvi, Sisumari, Sariva, Siva, Syama, Varahi, Jyotishmatee, Garudadhvaja. Sukarika, Mashaparnee and Vyaghrapada creepers grow by an anthill, there is water three cubits to the north of it at a depth of 15 cubits.
89The above measures apply only to watery tracts; but in a forest region, the depth should be 25 cubits. If there be the same indications in a desert, water might be seen at a depth of 35 cubits.
90Where some ground, otherwise uniform and devoid of grass, trees, anthills and bushes, contains a piece of unusual appearance, there is water at a depth of 25 cubits.
91Where the earth is soft, low, sandy and emitting sound, there is water at a depth of 22 and half or 25 cubits.
92There will be plenty of water at 20 cubits to the south of smooth trees. The same may be said when a tree in the midst of a thick wood shows uncommon symptoms.
93Where in a forest or watery tract the earth goes down being trodden upon, or where numerous insects are seen without their abode, there is water at a depth of 7 and half cubits.
94An isolated cold spot in a warm ground denotes cold water; an isolated warm spot in a cold ground, warm water at a depth of 17 and half cubits and at 4 cubits’ distance, if a rainbow, fish or ant-hill is seen.
95If, in a row of anthills, one is taller than the rest, there is a vein underneath that; and where vegetation that has grown withers away or does not sprout at all, there is water at a distance of four cubits.
96Where a banyan, Palasa and Indian Fig tree, or a banyan and a Palasa tree are found together there is water underneath them at 3 cubits distance. The vein lies northward.
97-98If there be a well to the south-east of a village or town, it would mostly cause constant fear, and danger from fire to men. If it is situated in the south-west, it causes loss of children; if in the northwest, it threatens the wife; wells in directions other than these three are productive of beneficial results.
99Thus, have I treated of the subject of water-finding in verses composed in the metre, having gone through the work on the subject written by sage Saraswata. Now I shall explain the same subject in few metre as taught by sage Manu.
100-102A water vein will be found at a depth of 15 cubits in a place where trees, shrubs and creepers are smooth and densely covered with leaves, where lotus, Gokshura, Usira (…) and Kula or Gundra grass, Kusa, Darbha, Nalikaor Nala grows. Where date-trees, Jambu, Arjuna and Vetasa or milky trees, shrubs and creepers or mushrooms, Hastikarna, Nagakesara, lotus, Kadamba, Karaja and Sinduwara trees grow, or wheretthere is Vibhitaka or Madayantika, there is water at 15 cubits. So also, in a place where there is one mountain upon another.
103There is plenty of sweet water in a place which is full of Munja grass, reeds and holy grass, where the earth is blue and mixed with pebbles, and where the earth is black or red.
104A copper-coloured earth mixed with gravel will yield water of an astringent taste; red-brown earth, brackish water; a pale white ground produces saltwater; and blue earth, sweet water.
105Saka, Aswakarna, Arjuna, Bilwasarja, Sriparni, Arishta, Dhava and Simsapa trees, other trees, shrubs and creepers being coarse and having leaves full of holes, indicate the existence of water far off.
106A piece of earth that has the colour of the Sun, fire, ashes, camel or donkey is declared to be water-less. Where bamboo sprouts are red and milky and the earth red, there is water underneath a stone.
107Also a stone or rock that resembles beryl, green-gram, cloud» dark gem, ripe fig, bee or collyrium, or is brown, has got abundant water nearby.
108A rock which resembles in colour a pigeon, honey, ghee, silken clodi or some creeper, yields soon inexhaustible water.
109A rock that is filled with red or variegated spots, that is pale white or has the colour of ashes, camels, donkeys, the Sun, lire, bee or the flower of Augushtika creeper is without any water nearby.
110Tho.sc stones that possess the colour or lustre of moon light, crystal gem, pearl, gold, blue gem, mercuric sulphide (?), collyrium, the rays of the rising Sun, or yellow orpiment, are auspicious; and the following is the authority of Sage Manu in Vritta metre on the point.
111Such stones as enumerated above are auspicious and ought not to be broken, since they are always occupied by Yakshas and Nagas. The kings in whose realms such rocks are found will never experience drought.
112When a rock cannot be broken by hammering, fire should be made on it with, the logs of Palasa and Tinduka trees and it should be burnt until it assumes the colour of the fire and then it should be sprinkled with lime water then it can be broken.
113The ashes of Maneevaka tree and reeds should be boiled in water and sprinkled on the rock seven times after heating it. Then it will break.
114Butter- milk, gruel and liquor with horse gram and Jujube fruits must be kept for seven nights and then poured on the rock and heated as before. Then it will break.
115The leaves and bark of Neem tree, Sesamum stalks, Apamarga, Tinduka and Guduchi must be burnt to ashes. These ashes should be dissolved in the urine of cows and poured six times on the heated rock. Then it will break.
Sloka 116 —Same as Ch. L. SI. 25, (P. 405), supra.
Sloka 117 —Same as Ch. L SI- 26, (P. 405), supra.
118A pond extending from east to west retains water for a long time, while one from north to south does not, since it is spoilt invariably by the waves raised by the wind. One who wishes for such a pond or tank should cover its walls in contact with the water with strong timber, or with stones and the like, the soil being rendered hard by the trampling of elephants, horses, etc.
119The banks of the tank must be shaded by Kakubha, Banyan, Mango, Plaksha, Kadamba, Nichula, Jambu, Vetasa, Neepa, Kuravaka, Tala, Asoka, Madhuka and Bakula trees.
120On one side let an outlet for the water be made with the passage being built of stones; let a panel without apertures be fixed in a frame and fastened to the earth with dust and mud.
121A mixture of antimony, Musta bulbs, Andropogon, powder of Rajakosataka and myrobalan combined with Kataka nuts should be put into a well.
122If the water is muddy, pungent, saltish of bad taste, and not of good odour, it will by this mixture become clear, tasteful, good-smelling, and endowed with other good qualities.
123The asterisms which are propitious for sinking wells are Hasta, Migha, Anuradha, Pushya, Dhanishta, Ultanphalguai, Utlarashadha, Uttarabhadrapada, Rohini and Satabhisha.
124One should first offer oblations to Varuna and drive ‘a wedge of banyan or Vetasa at the place of the Vein, having honoured it with flowers, perfumes and incenses.
125Having viewed the opinions of Baladeva and others, I have first dealt with the subject of water derived from the clouds after the full Moon in the month of Jyeshta (Adh. XXIII, supra). This second method of exploring water from the earth has now been clearly treated by me, Varahamihira, by the favour of the sages.