Signs of Pearls ||81||

1Pearls are got from (1) elephants, (2) serpents, (3) pearl-oysters, (4) conch-shells, (5) clouds, (6) bamboos, (7) whales and (8) hogs; but the best pearls are those that are got from pearl-oysters.
2There are eight sources of the best pearls viz., (1) Simhalaka, (2) Paraloka, (3) Surashtra, (4) the Tamraparni (5) Persia, (6) the North country, (7) Pandya Vataka and (8) the Himalayas.
3-6The pearls got from Ceylon are multi shaped, glossy, swan-white and large; those from the Tamraparni are white with a slight red tinge and bright; those from Paraloka are blackish, white or yellow, mingled with gravel and uneven; those from Surashtra are neither too big, nor too small, and hued like butter; those from Persia are brilliant, clear, heavy and very valuable; those from the Himalayas are light, broken, hued like curds, large and double-shaped ; those from the North country are rough, black or white, light, of good size and brilliancy; and those from Pandya Vata are like the neem fruit, or coriander seed, trigonal and very minute.
7-8A pearl dark like the Atasee flower is presided over by Vishnu; one like the Moon, by Indra; one having the hue of orpiment by Varuna; a dark one, by Yama; one red like the seed of a ripe pomegranate or a Gunja, by Vishnu; one having the brilliance of smokeless fire or the lustre of lotus, by Fire.
9-12The price set down for a pearl of good lustre and quality, weighing four Mashakas is 5300 Karshas silver. The prices for pearls weighing 3 and half, 3, 2 and half, 2 and 1 and half Mashakas in order are 3200, 2000, 1300, 800 and 353 K. Silver. A pearl weighing one Mashaka is worth 135 K; one weighing four Rettis is worth 90 K; one of 3 and half Rettis, 70 K; a good one of 3 Rettis, 50 silver pieces (Karshas); one of 2 and half Gunjas, 35 silver pieces.
13-16The 10th part of a Pala is called one Dharana. If thirteen good pearls together weigh one Dharana, their price is fixed at 326 K. Silver. Sixteen pearls weighing so much are worth 200 K; twenty pearls, 170 K; twenty-five pearls, 130 K; 30 pearls, 70 K; 40 pearls, 50 K; 60 or 55 pearls, 40 K; 80 pearls, 30 K; 100 pearls 25 K; 200, 300, 400 and 500 pearls weighing together one Dharana are worth successively 12, 6, 5 and 3 silver pieces .
17The term to denote a collection of 13 pearls that together weigh one Dharana is Pikka; a collection of 16 is known as Pichcha; those of 20, 25, 30, 40, 55, and 80 and so forth are respectively Argha, Ardha, Ravaka, Siktha, Nigara, and Churna (or dust).
18-19The above is the price fixed for the various collections of pearls of good quality, weighing one Dharana. The price of intermediate groups of pearls will have to be found out proportionately; but suitable reductions in the prices of inferior pearls are to be made as given below: —The price of pearls that are slightly black, white, yellowish or copper-hued or slightly uneven (rough), is that given above reduced by a third; whereas that of utterly rough and yellow pearls is less by a sixth and a half respectively.
20-22It is said that pearls are produced in the heads and the places where the tusks meet, of the elephants of Airavata’s family at the Moon’s conjunction with Pushya and Sravana synchronous with a Sunday or a Monday; of the Bhadra (happy) elephants born daring the Sun’s Northern course, at an eclipse of the Sun of the Moon. These pearls are plentiful, large, brilliant and of various shapes. These are beyond any estimate and should not be perforated, being too brilliant. When worn by kings, they will prove highly sanctifying and bestow children, victory and good health.
23Very valuable and lustrous like the Moon is the pearl born of the root of the boar’s tusks; the pearl got from whales resembles a fish’s eye, is large, purifying and of great value.
24They say that pearl is produced in the clouds of the seventh layer of wind in the sky in the manner of hailstones. It falls therefrom with the brilliance of lightning and is taken away by the denizens of heaven.
25-26The snakes of the lineage of Taksha and Vasuki and those that move at will, have bright, hue-tinged pearls on their hoods. If Indra suddenly rains on a blessed spot of the earth and into a silver one may understand it to be a pearl coming from the vessel, snakes.
27A pearl born of the snakes, worn by kings will prove invaluable to them, destroy their misfortune and enemies, enhance their reputation and bestow victory.
28A pearl is to be known to have sprung from bamboo by its resembling camphor or crystal, and by its being flat and rough. The pearl born of conch shell is round, lustrous, beautiful and moon-like.
29The pearls got from conch-shells, whales, bamboos, elephants, boars, snakes and clouds cannot be easily recognized (should not be perforated); and as they are of immense value, no price has been fixed upon them by the authorities.
30All the above categories of pearls are, extremely valuable; they bestow on kings, sons, wealthy popularity, renown and desired objects and diseases and grief.
31-36A pearl-necklace composed of 1008 strings and four cubits long, is used as an ornament for Gods and is termed “Induchchanda”. Half the above (i.e, 504 strings and 2 cubits) is termed ‘Vijayachchanda’, A necklace of 108 strings and 2 cubits long is called “Hara”; one of 81, “Devachchanda”; one of 64, “Ardha Hara”; one of 54, “Rasmikalapa”; one of 32, “Guchcha”; one of 20 “Ardha Guchcha”; one of 16, “Manavaka”; one of 12, “Ardha Manavaka”; one of 8, “Mandara”; one of 5 strings “Haraphalaka”. A necklace of 27 pearls and of one cubit’s length is called “Nakshatramala” (a cluster of stars); the same is called “Mani Sopana” if it has other gems or gold beads inserted; it is called “Chatukara” (coaxer), when it Itas a central gem set in gold. An Ekavali (single string) containing any number of pearls, measures one cubit and is devoid of other gems; but when it is adorned with a gem in the middle, it is designated as a “Yashti” (stick) by the examiners of ornaments.