Essential features of a divine temple or of a palace ||47||
1Suta said: -O Sounaka, hear me describe the essential features of a divine temple or palace. A plot of ground should be divided into sixty-four equal rectangular divisions occupying all the points of the compass.
2The Catushkona of the inner court of the adytum should be comprised of four such rectangular divisions, and the doors of the temple should be made of number twelve in all. The walls of the edifice should be raised upon such forty-eight quadrilateral divisions.
3In height the plinth should be mad commensurate with the length of the platform me at the top of the ground elevation and twice that measure above that. The inner cavity of the vault should be made co-extensive with the entire length of the adytum.
4-5The indents on both sides should measure a third or a fifth of the chord of the inner vault which should be so arched as to rise up to the; half of the entire height of the pinnacle. The height of the terrace or the pinnacle part of the divine edifice should be divided into four equal parts over the third part, from the bottom of which the Vedic or the top of the platform should be constructed; and on the top of the fourth part the ornamental figure should be placed which is generally made to edge the entire height of the temple from the bottom.
6-7In the alternative, the homestead land should be divided into sixteen equal parts over the four central parts of which the adytum of the temples should be raised. The walls of the edifice should be raised upon twelve such rectangular divisions or chambers, and the height of the walls should he made commensurate with the length of four such parts as are compatible with the laws of proportion.
8The height pf the terrace of the pinnacle should be made of measure twice the, height of the wall, and the open verandah or the platform all around the temple should be made of a quarter part of the height of the terrace in breadth.
9-10The indents on. both sides of the temple should be of a fifth part of the length of the adytum in breadth. Again an indent should be left out which would measure such a fifth part. The essentials described above are what should be compiled with in building divine edifices in general.
11-12Now I shall deal with another class of divine structures which are usually constructed in proportion to the lengths of the images of their inmate deities. The Pitha or the pedestal of the image should be made commensurate with the length of the latter and the adytum should he made, O Sounaka, of twice that length. The walls should be of equal length with the latter, while the plinth should be made half as much broad as the adytum.
13-14O Sounaka, the pinnacle should have twice the height of the plinth and the vault of the temple should be made so as to cover the entire space occupied by the pedestal and the adytum combined. the indents having been left aside to the measure previously directed. O Sounaka, I have described the characteristic measures of temples which are built in proportion to the dimensions of images of their inmate deities. I shall presently deal with a class of divine edifices which are constructed in measures proportionate to those of their door-frames.
15A measure of four arms should be divided into eight equal parts which would be the measures for the breadth of the door, of the same might be made of twice that breadth.
16The upper part of the door, like the upper part of the pedestal, should be perforated with holes, as the upper part of the door would be taken in by the wall to the length of a pada measure.
17The plinth should be made twice as much broad as the door and the terrace or the pinnacle part of the temple should be made of twice that measure. The vault should be arched from the spring line as before laid down on the regions of indents at the top of the walls of the temple.
18-19I have already described the essential traits of a divine temple built proportionate to its mandapa; now I shall describe one of a different structure. The ground, on which the image of the deity would be installed, should be tripled in measure, which would thus give the dimensions of the exterior; the area of the temple must be less than that of the ground on which the same should be erected by a pada in all direction, and the area of the adytum should be made half of that of the latter.
20The walls should be made equal in height to the length of the adytum or the space enclosed within them, and the pinnacle should be twice as much high as the height of the wall. Now, I shall describe the different classes of temples according to their respective measure and origin.
21-22The different forms of divine edifices are mainly grouped under five heads such as the. Vairaja, the Pushpakasha, the Kailasa, the. Malikahvaya and the Trivishtapam, which should be looked upon as the abode of all, deities and in which their images might be safely installed.
23-27The first of the above classes of temple is characterized by a rectangular shape; the second class is marked in a quadrilateral shape; the third class has circular shape, the fourth class of temples has a shape which appertains of the different segments of spheres; while the fifth class of temple is octagonal; These five classes of temples, which are the proper abodes for all forms of divine manifestations, admit of being divided into various sub-divisions as it were, thus giving rise to forty-five different shapes of temples which are the Meru, the Mandara, the Vimana, the Bhadraka the Sarvatobhadra, the Rucaka, the the Nandana, the Nandivardhana and the Srivatsa, these nine arising out of the class of the rectangular Vairaja from of the temple. The nine temples which owe their origin to the genus Pushpaka are known as (1) the Valabhi, (2) the Grharaja, (3) the Salagrha, (4) the Mandira, (5) the Vimana, (6) the Brahmamandira. (7) the Bhavana, (8) Uttamca, and (9) the Sivikavesma.
28-32aThe names of the nine circle temples which appertain to, and proceed out of, the genus Kailasa are the (1) Valaya, (2) Dundubhi, (3) Padma, (4) Mahapadma, (5) Mukuli, (6) Usnisi, (7) Sankha, (8) Kalasa, (9) Guvavriksha. The class Mahakahvaya has fathered the nine spheriodical temples which are called the (1) Gaja, (2) Vrishabha, (3) Garuda, ( 4) Siritha, (5) Bhiimukha, (6) Bhiidhara, (7) Srijaya and (8) the Prthividhara and (9) the Hamsa. The nine octagon shaped temples, which fall under the genus Tripishtapa, are named as (1) Vajra, (2) Cakra, (3) Mushpka, (4) Vabhru, (5) Vakra, (6) Svastika, (7) Gada, (8) Srivrkasha, and (9) Vijaya which is also known as Vijaya Sveta.
32b-34aNow I shall describe the situations of the triangular, lotus shaped, crescent-shaped, rectangular and the octagonal divine edifices, and narrate the purposes for which they should be built in those shapes. A temple, built in the shape of a triangle, imparts wealth and sovereignty, increases. the duration of life and gives wives and male offspring’s to the consecrator.
34b-38The consecrator should plant a banner on the top of the temple, and build the Garbha Grha or the entrance chamber just in front of the door; and the mandapa or the sanctuary of the temple should be built with an equal number of lines with the latter, one full window and a half having been opened therein. The mandapa should be commensurate with the measure of a wall and a half should be made to measure twice the thickness of the wall in length. The ornamental cornices should be laid down so as to include spaces of unequal measure between them, the intervening spaces having been filled in with horizonal lines of unequal thickness.
39-40A divine edifice, of the Meru class, should be provided with doors and furnished with four sheds of top chambers over them, while the terrace should be decorated with a hundred turrets. The Mandapas or the top chambers of the above edifice should be so constructed as to have three arches differing from each other, both as regards their shape and dimension.
41-45In some of the temples the bullocks are carved out in relief while in others they are carved in to the body of the top chambers. Thus, the temples differ from each other in appearance, shape and size which vary in construction according as the character of the image residing therein varies. No hard and fast rule can be laid down for constructing temples for the gods who are self-originated, and accordingly they should be built according to the measures stated before, of rectangular shape and possessing courts and turrets and top-chambers over their terraces: and the hall for musical entertainments should be built contiguous to the door of the temple.
46The celestial waters of the gods should be sculptured on the various angular quarters of the divine mansion, and a little remote therefrom the houses for monks should be built.
47The ground should be washed with water containing fruits and flowers. The consecrator should previously worship the gods about to be installed in the temple. Vasudeva is the god of gods, and a person, who. consecrates a temple to him, attains all merit.