Discourse on Yoga and acts of piety ||49||
1Brahma said: -Hari, the author of creation, etc., should be adored by the Self-create Brahma and other gods, and Brahmana and other castes, according to the rites of their respective orders. Hear. their respective duties, O Vyasa.
2Celebrating sacrifices for themselves and others, making gifts and accepting them, study and teaching constitute the six-fold duties of the Brahmanas.
3Making gifts, studying and celebrating sacrifices are my duties of the Kshatriyas and the Vaisyas. To govern is also the duty of a Kshatriya whereas cultivation constitutes that of a Vaisya.
4To serve the twice born is the duty of the Sudras. Handicraft and menial service are also their duties.
5Begging, attending the preceptor, Vedic study, abandonment of worldly affections and possessions and the preservation of the sacred fire constitute the duties of a Brahmacarin.
6All the four Asramas (orders) have twofold conditions. They are called Brahmacarin (religious student) Upakurvana (householder), Vaishthika and Brahmatatpara .
7He who having duly studied the Vedas enters into the order of house holder, is called Upakurvanaka. He, who continues the life of the religious student till his death, is called Vaishthika.
8O foremost of the twice-born, the preservation of sacred fire, the entertainment of the guests, the celebration of sacrifices, making gifts and the adoration of the deities constitute the duties of a householder.
9A Udasina (one disassociated from the world) aid a Sadhaka (one devoted exclusively to religious practices), becomes a householder in two ways. A Sadhaka, while he is busy with maintaining, his relations, becomes a house holder.
10He, who having neglected the payment of three-fold debts and renounced wife and earthly possessions, etc. roves about alone, is a nominal Udasina.
11-12The duty, of a dweller of the forest (hermit), consists in duly sleeping on earth, living on roots and fruits and studying the Vedas.
13He is the best of ascetics living in the forest who practises austerities in the forest, worships the gods, offers oblations to fire and studies the Vedas. Being emaciated greatly by practising hardest austerities, he, who is engaged solely in the meditation of the Deity, is known as a Sarhyasin stationed in the Vanaprastha order.
14The Bhiksu or the mendicant, who daily practises Yoga, is self-controlled and follows the light of Jnana (knowledge), is called Parameshthika.
15The great ascetic, who delights itself and in ever gratified and besmeared with sandal, is called Bhiksu.
16Begging alms, Vedic studies, vow of silence, ascetism, meditation, perfect knowledge and disassociation from tlie world constitute the duties a Bhiksu.
17Parameshthikas are divided into three classes-viz. Jnana Sarimyasinsa Veda Sarimyasins and Karma Samyasins .
18-19Yoga is also three fold-Bhoutika . Ksatra; and the third is Antasrami. Abstract meditation of the Deity is also three-fold Prathama Dushkara, Antima. Religious rites beget emancipation and pursuance of worldly objects creates desire.
20-21Vedic rites are two-fold-Pravrtti and Nivrtti . Nivrtti or extinction of desire is preceded by Jfiana or knowledge and Pravrtti is worked out by the worship of sacred fire.
22-24Forgiveness, self-restraint, compassion, charity, want of avarice, simplicity, want of jealousy, visiting sacred shrine, truthfulness, contentment, faith in the existence of God, the subjugation of senses, the adoration of the deities, the worship of the Brahmanas, abstinence from doing injury, speaking sweet words, not to slander and amiability-these are the duties of the various orders of the four castes. The region of Brahma is reserved for those Brahmanas who perform sacrificial rites.
25-26That of Indra is intended for those Kshatriyas who never fly away from the battlefield. Maruta is intended for Vaisya to perform their own deeds. That of the Gandharva is reserved for the Sudras who steadfastly serve [the three higher castes].
27-28The region, of the eighty-eight-thousand Rishis who have controlled their vital powers, is also reserved for those who live forever with their preceptors. The region, which is reserved for the seven Rishis, is also intended for the ascetics who live in the forest.
29-30aThe blissful region of Brahma is reserved for the Yatis who have controlled their mental and intellectual faculties, for those who practise Nyasa and those who uphold the discharge of vital fluid. No ascetic returns from this region. The immortal, eternal, undecaying, ever blissful region of Isvara, called Vyoma, from which an emancipated person never returns, is reserves for the Yogins. Hear, I will describe in brief the eight sorts of Mukti or emancipation.
30b-31Yama is of five sorts, viz., abstaining from harming others, abstaining from killing animals, truthfulness, doing good to all creatures, restraint of speech, belief in God, abstaining from knowing a woman, Brahmacarya (life of a religious student), renunciation of all and accepting no gifts.
32Niyamas are five, beginning with truthfulness and divided into two classes, external and internal. They are purification, truthfulness, continence, penance and subjugation of senses.
33Svadhyaya is the recitation of Vedic Mantrams. And with the concentration of mind one should adore Harl. Asana (yoga posture) consists of Padma and other, and Pranayama is the suppression of vital airs.
34Inhaling the breath and sending it with Mantrams and meditation, either twice or thrice, is called Puraka.
35-36Absolute suspension of breath is called Kumbhaka. Expiration by one nostril is called Recaka. The withdrawal of the organs of senses from external objects is called Pratyahara. Dhyana is the meditation on self and Brahma. The steadying of the mind is called Dharana.
37-38The state of mind in which one’s soul is absolutely immersed in Brahma and when he thinks “I am Brahma” is called Samadhi. I am Self, the Para-Brahma, ever existent, full of knowledge and without end. The bliss of
knowing Brahma us realized when on understands Tattvamasi . I am Brahma, am without body and organs of senses.
39I am devoid of mind, intellect and egoism. I am the light in three states of wakefulness, dreaming sleep, and dream less sleep.
40I am eternal, pure, enlightened, existent, blissful and without second. I am that Prime Purusha. I am that undivided, portionless Purusha. A Brahmana, thus meditating, is freed from the fetters of the world.