The Nidanam of Hiccough ||151||

1Dhanvantari said: -Now I shall discourse on the Nidanam of Hiccough. Hiccough and dyspnoea result from similar causes, and its preliminary symptoms, as well as the number of types in which it is ordinarily divided by pathologists, are same those mentioned under dyspnea.
2The several types of hiccough are named as Vakshyodbhava, Kshodra, Yamala, Mahati, and Gambhira.
3The wind in the stomach, enraged and aggravated by hasty and injudicious eating, partaking of sharp, unwholesome and pacifying substances and such like causes, produces a king of hiccough which is never loud, and which abates with the eating of the evening meal.
4This type of hiccough is called Vakshyodbhava or Annaja. The low and mild hiccough, which is caused by the wind enraged by fatiguing physical exercises, is called Kshudra.
5It rises from the root of the throat, becomes aggravated through labour, and abates with the partaking of food.
6The type in which hiccoughs rise in couples, and which, though mild at the outset becomes violent in course of time and in which the head and the neck are simultaneously shaken is called Yamala.
7-8Delirium, vomiting, dysentery, yawning, and distortion of the eyes are the symptoms that are found to supervene with the advancement of this type of hiccough. In the Mahahicca-type the eyebrows droop down, the temples are such, consciousness vanishes, a peculiar pain is felt in all the sense-organs the spinal bone is arched down, and an aching pain is felt about the heart.
9-11This kind of hiccough violently rises from the bottom of the abdomen or from the region of the umbilicus, in quick succession and accompanied by a loud report and an excruciating pain. Yawning and spasmodic jerks of the limbs are its characteristics. This type of hiccough proceeds only from fatal and deep-seated organic disorders, and the remedies administered to subdue the same, must be likewise deep-acting in their potency.
12-13The two last-named types should be abandoned as incurable, while the one, which is not ordinarily fatal, should be regarded as indicating an unfavorable prognosis as soon as it develops all the aforesaid grave symptoms. Any of the types of hiccough, afflicting an old man, or one of impaired digestion, or one that is extremely run down from -sexual excesses, may have a fatal termination.
14-15Any disease of whatsoever type and denomination, may prove fatal, but the only two maladies, that portene an impending danger, are hiccough and dyspnea.