The Nidanam of bodily parasites ||165||

1Dhanvantari said: -Bodily parasites may be divided into two classes according as they are external or internal in their origin. The external parasites of the body, again, may be divided in their turn into four species according as they germinate from mucous secretions, bodily excrements, fecal matter, or blood of the body.
2Twenty variety of parasites, each with a corresponding epithet of its own, have been enumerated (in the Ayurveda). The external bodily parasites are. but the offspring of the excrementitious matter of the body vermin of the shape and colour of sesame seeds that usually infest the hairs and wearing apparels of persons of Uncleanly habits.
3Although of extremely attenuated size, they are provided with a large number of tiny legs, Yukas and Likhyas being the representatives of these species. Two of these species should be regarded as the cause of two different diseases such as Urticaria (Kotha) and Itches (Kandu).
4All types of cutaneous affections Kushtnam) should be atributed to the presence of parasites in the skin. The external parasites originate from the mucous discharges or secretions of the body.
5The deranged Kapha in the system, augmented through ingestion of incompatible articles of fare as treacle, sweet rice, milk, milk-curd, fish or newly harvested rice, give rise to the germination of a kind of worms, which, when, fully developed, spread therefrom all through the organism.
6-7Some of them are circular in shape like the solar disc, some of them are shaped like common earth worm, some are long and trans-parent, while others are like newly sprouting paddy. Some of them are white and striated in shape, while others are copper-coloured. There are seven varieties of internal worms which are respectively nemed as the Antrada (Gnawer of the intestines), Udaraveshta (encompasses of the abdomen), Hridayada (eater of the heart), Mahaguda (the great rectal one) Cyura Darbha Kusuma (Darbha flower) and Sugandha, Odoriferous one).
8The presence of any of these kinds of parasites in the human system is marked by nausea, water brash, indigestion, swooning’s, vomiting, fever, tympanites with suppression of the stool, flatus and urine, emaciation of the body, purging and running at the nose.
9The extremely small parasites, which are found in the blood or blood-carrying vessels, are round, copper coloured, and are devoid of legs. Several varieties of these parasites are so small as to be invisible to the naked eyes.
10Six of these species, which have been named as Kesada (hair-eater), Roma-Vidhvansii (destroyer of bodily hairs) Udambara (figcoloured), Roma Dvipa, Saurasa, and Matri should be regarded as the primary cause of Leprosy and of cutaneous affections in general.
11The worms, which grow out of the feces in the intestines, usually travel in a downward direction to the anus, but when fully developed they ascend into the stomach, imparting a smell like feces to breaths, and eructation’s.
12Some of these varieties are elongated in shape, some are round, some are extremely attenuated in size, some are white, some black, some yellow, and some brown.
13They are respectively known as Kakerukas, Mpkerukas, Sansuradas, Kasulakhyas and Lalehas.
14Travelling in contrary directions, these intestinal worms produce purging, colic, tympanites, emaciation of the body with dark rings round the eyes, palour, horripilation, impaired digestion, and an itching sensation about the anus.