The Nidanam of Mukha-roga ||168||

1Dhanvantari said: -Now hear me, O Suruta, discourse on the recipes of medicinal compounds of infallible efficacy, which I shall shortly enumerate for the good of all creatures.
2-3Ingestion of astringent, pungent, bitter, acid or pacifying articles of fare, anxiety, sexual excesses, physical fatigue, fright, grief, late hours, loud talking, carrying of inordinately heavy weights, undue application to tmy kind of work and fasting all the factors, which tend to aggravate the bodily Vayu, which is naturally aggravated during the rainy season, after the digestion of food, and at the close of day.
4-5Similarly, ingestion of hot, acid, saline, alkaline, pungent and indigestible articles of fare in general, exposure to heat, and indulgence in cups and anger are the factors, which tend to aggravate the Pittam, which is spontaneously aggravated-during the process of digestion, in summer and autumn, and at the middle part of the day or night.
6-7Ingestion of sweet, acid, saline, emulsive, cold, gr heavy (of digestion) articles of fare, use of newly harvested dee, or of the flesh of animals that live in pools or in marshy places, want of physical exercise, day sleep, and sedentary habits in general are the factors, which tend to aggravate the Kapha, which is spontaneously aggravated in the morning, just after eating and in the spring time.
8-9Roughness of the skin, contraction of the limbs, an aching sensation, tympanites, anaesthesia, horripilation, atrophy or numbness of any part of the body, looseness of the limbs with a tawny brown complexion, increase of physical strength, or extreme prostration are the specific traits of the deranged and aggravated Vayu, as well as of diseases due to its agency.
10-11Heat with a burning sensation in the body, redness and inflammation of the (affected part), exhalation of an acid, pungent, or cadaverous smell from the body, perspiration, thirst, vertigo, and epileptic fits, as well as jaundice or chlorosis form the specific features of the deranged Pittam.
12Gloss of skin with a sweet taste in the mouth, a sense of being packed in wet sheet, oedema, coldness, heaviness, itching, somnolence, and a delayed crisis are the symptoms, which indicate the action of the deranged Kapha.
13The presence of the combined symptom, of any two of this Dosha as in a disease points to its Bidoshaja origin, while a combination of all the three Doshas in a disease indicates it Sannipatika origin.
14The human body is the receptacle of Dog as, Dhatus (fundamental organic principles) and Malas (excreta). A normal equilibrium among them is called health, while an increase or decrease of any of them is called disease.
15Blood, fat, flesh, myosin, bones, marrow and semen are called Dhatus; the deranged Vayu, Pittam and Kapha are called Oops, while stool, urine, etc., are called Malas.
16-17aThe Vayu (nerve energy) is cold, light, subtle, pacifying and mobile; the Pittam (bile) is acid, pungent and hot, and brings on suppuration in diseases of the albumen and Glycogen; Kapha (mucous) is sweet, heavy, slimy, shiny and emulsive.
17b-18aThe Vayu is principally located in the rectum and pelvis; the Pittam, in the digestive apparatus; and the Kapha, in the stomach and head and about the bones (synovia).
18b-19Things of pungent, bitter or astringent flavour aggravated the deranged Vayu; saline, acid and pungent things aggravate the deranged Pittam, while sweet, aaline and hot things aggravate the deranged Kapha. Proper antidotes to these, administred in diseases, lead to their subsidence, while they contribute to keep, the normale equilibrium among the fundamental organic principles in health.
20A sweet taste improves the eyesight and increases the quantity of Dhatus and lymph chyle, while an acid taste is digestant, appetizing and relishing.
21-23A saline taste is purgative, emetic, digestant, and liquefacient. A pungent taste is digestant, appetizing, anti-toxic, anti-corpulent, and exciting. A bitter taste is a febrifuge, and is appetising, laxative, and refrigerant. An astringent taste is liquefacient, choleric, aperient and absorbent. A drug is the receptacle of taste, potency, and digestive transformation. The potency of a drug is either cooling or thermo-genic. Digestive transformation (reaction undergone in the stomach by a thing after digestion) is either sweet or pungent.
24A physician, patient, nursing attendant and medicine form the four legs of a medical treatment, and an absence of any of these makes it abortive or impossible.
25The season of the year, the place (of residence), age, digestive capacity, physical temperament of the patient, as well as the state of his body and its strength, things he is accustomed to, and the nature of the disease and to the curative drug to be employed should be taken into consideration before commencing a medical treatment. A well-watered, well drained, hilly country, well shaded by forests, is called a Jangala country in which hemorrhage is found to be the prevailing disease. A marshy place, or a swampy country, in which Vayu and Kpha are naturally aggravated, is called an Anupa country.
26A country, which partakes of the physical trays of both these kinds, is called a Sadharana country. Infancy extends to the sixteenth year of a person, youth extends thence forward to the seventieth year, and after that is the old age.
27The Kapha predominates in infancy; the Pittam, in youth; and the Vayu, in old age. Surgical operations should be done with the help of cauterization of both kinds (fire and alkali) on infants and old men.
28An emaciated frame should be tried to be made stout; a corpulent body should be tried to be reduced in bulk.
29An active, muscular frame is all that is be desired in life. The strength of a person should be inferred from his sustaining power, physical work and cheerfulness of mind. A healthy man is possessed of an indomitable energy and courage.
30Even food and drink, which are ordinarily calculated as unwholesome, should be regard-ed as congenial to persons in whom they fail to produce any distressing symptoms.
31Vayu-generating. Pitta-generating, or Kapha-generating food, exclusively taken by a person, makes, his physical temperament marked by a preponderance of Vayu, Pittam, or Khapha, hence one should partake of a mixed kind of diet.
32A man of Vattika temperament has a sinewy frame and sparse hairs of a volatile disposition and talks much in dreams. The hair of a man of Pittaja temperament becomes prematurely grey.
33-34He is irritable and fair-complexioned, easily perspires and dreams of fire in sleep. A man of Kaphaja (phlegmatic) temperament is possessed of a crown of glossy hair, is a somewhat sluggish disposition, and dreams of water in sleep.
35A man of a bi-humoral temperament is possessed of mental and physical traits peculiar to each of those humours.
36-37The digestive capacity of a person is either sluggish, sharp, irregular, or normal; and of these four kinds the normal one is to be preferred. In the irregular kind measures and remedies calculated to subdue, the deranged Vayu should be employed, while in sharp and sluggish forms, Pitta-subduing, and Kapha-destroying remedies should be respectively employed.
38In digestion, is the parent of all diseases; and there are four forms of indigestion such as, the A.ma, Amla, Rasa, and Vishtambha.
39In the Amaja form vomiting should be induced with the administration of Vaca and salt.
40In the Amla form of indigestion, which is marked by the non-emission of semen, vertigo, swoonings, etc., the remedy consists in drinking cold water and inhaling cold air.
41-42In the indigestion of undigested lymph chyle (Rasa), which begets an aching pain in the limbs, with a numbed, confused feeling in the head and a distaste for food, the patient should be advised to forego all food and drink, and to take a sleep in the day. In the Vishtambha form of indigestion, which is marked by tympanites, colic, and suppression of stool and urine, diaphoretic measures should be employ-ed, and solution of common salt should be internally administered.
43-44The three forms of indigestion (Ama, Amla and Vishtambha) should be regarded as respectively due to the actions of the deranged Kapha, Pittam, and Vayu. A prudent man, (suffering from indigestion), should plaster his abdomen with a paste of Hingu, Tryushana, and rock salt, and enjoy a siesta in the day; inasmuch as these measures are found to be curative in all forms of indigestion. Hosts of bodily ailments result from the use of unwholesome food, hence one should refrain from taking any food that proves in congenial to one’s system.
45-47A potion of honey and warm water acts as a digestant, and milk is incompatible with Karira, fish and milk-curd. The group of drugs, which is known as the major Paca Mulam and which consists of Bilva, Sonyaka, Gambhari, Patala, and Ganikarika, is appetising, and subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapha. The group of drugs, which is known as minor Panca Mulam, and which consists of Salaparni, Prishniparni, Gokshura, Vrati and Kantakari, is restorative and subdues the deranged Vayu and Pittam.
48Theses two groups of drugs jointly what is called Dasa Mulam, which forms curative in Sannipatika forms of fever, cough, asthma, aching pain at the sides, and somnolence.
49-50Medicated oils and Ghritas. cooked and prepared with the aforesaid Dasamalam, as well as Dasamiila plasters and pastes cure Sannipatika forms of diseases. Take water four times as much as the drugs, boil it down to its quarter part, add oil or Ghrita, four times as much as this drug decoction, and milk to the weight of the oil or Ghrita, and drug-paste to a quarter weight of the latter, and cook it in the usual way. The medicated oil or Ghritam of Dasamulam, properly prepared (neither over nor under-cooked, should be employed as potions and clysters; that, which is over-cooked, should be used as unguents, while that which is under-cooked should be used errhines. This is the usual practice.
51A cure denotes the restoration of the gross body and its internal organs to their normal condition or functions, and a patient, whose vital energy is not at its lowest ebb, should be alone medicinally treated.
52A patient, who becomes hostilely disposed to his friends, elders, and physicians. and fondly attached to his enemies, and the functions of whose sense organs have become perverted, should be looked upon as on the point of death.
53A patient, who becomes hostilely disposed to his friends, elders, and physicians. and fondly attached to his enemies, and the functions of whose sense organs have become perverted, should be looked upon as on the point of death.
54A patient, the bones of whose ankles, knee joints, fore-head, jaws and cheeks have become loose and look hung down, would soon give up his ghost. A black tongue, sunk eyes and nose, black hung down lips and a fetid exhalation from the mouth are the symptoms, which indicate an approaching death.