Grammar ||205||

1Kumara said: -O Katyayana, I shall briefly expound the rules of Grammar which will enable infants tai easily comprehend that subject and to understand the formation of word.
2-3Terms are either Sup (substantive) or Tiri (verb). A Sup has seven cases. The forms of singular dual and plural inflexions of the subjective case are respectively called Su, Au, Jas. The subjective case-endings are added to be subject of a sentence, to the object in the passive voice, and are used in the case of address, in Pratipadikam, and in cases where the subjective sense is implied even in the absence of any verb (Lingartha). A term, that expresses a complete sense even in the absence of a verb or any case inflexion, is called a Pratipadikam.
4-5“Am,” “Au” and “Sahi” are respectively the singular, dual and plural inflexion-forms of the objective case (Dvitiya). That which is done by the subject of a sentence is called its object (Karma). Dvitiya case-endings are used in the objective case and are added to terms in association with the terms “Antara and “Antarena” Ta” “Bhis” are respectively the singular, dual .and plural inflexion forms of the Trtiya (accusative cast). Trtiya inflexions are used in Karanam (accusative). The instrument of agency through which a subject pertorms an act is called its Karanam (lit. instrument). and he who performs an act is called its Karta (doer).
6“Ne,” “Bhyam,” and “Bhyahi” are respectively the singular dual and plural inflexional forms of Sampradanam (Dative case). Dative caseendings are added to persons to which something is intended to be given, or to which something is owed, or to whom something appears likeable or delectable.
7“Nangsi” “Bhyam” and “Bhyahi” are respectively the singular, dual and plural inflexion forms of Apadanam (Ablative case). Ablative case endings are added to a term from which anything is meant to be fallen or dislodged, or from which any fear is apprehended.
8“Nahi” “Us,” and “Am” are respectively the singular, dual, and plural inflexion forms of the Sashti (possessive case). Sashthi implies possession, ownership relationship, or prominence of one among many.
9-10“Unga,” “Usa,” and “Sup” are respectively the singular, dual, and plural inflexion-forms of the Adhikaranam (locative case). Adhikaranam implies the location of a thing in another substance, and its inflexions are added to terms signifying that something is contained in them, or denoting agents under the protec-tion of some body. Ablative case endings are added to terms which signify objects that are either coveted or disliked, as well as to those used in combination with the prefixes Pari, Apa, and Am, or in connection with the terms Itara (other) and those which denote the names of the quarters of the heaven. The objective case endings are added to terms used in combination with ‘‘Ena.” as well as to the objects of a verb.
11-12Terms which are used in connection with the terms. Saha (with), Hina (without) or are coupled with the prefixed “Anu,” “Pari,” “Prati” always have the objective case-endings. Likewise, adverbs and terms denoting road are always used with the objective inflexions. Terms implying attempt at going or efforts of locomotion may either, have the objective or dative case-endings. The object of the verb “Mans,” implying an act of light or disrespectful comparison, gets the dative inflexion, if it denotes an inanimate object; denoting an animate object, or a sentient creature, it retains its all objective inflexion.
13-14Terms used in combination with Namahi (obeisance), “Svasti” (blessing to), “Svadha Svaha” ‘‘Vasat” (obeisance) and Alam (capable) get the dative case endings. Used to denote a sense like” for that reason,” or “for that purpose” they are likewise used in the dative case. Accusative case is used in combination with the term Saha (denoting accompaniment), as well as in respect of objects denoting the loss or defect of any bodily organ. Terms denoting the progress or course of time as well as the happening or contingency of an event are used in the locative case. Possessive case endings may be as well used in respect of the foregoing terms.
15-17Both possessive and locative case-endings may be added to terms coupled with “Svami,’’ Adhipali “Isvara” (lords or master), “Dayada” (heirs), and “Sutakas”). Either the locative or possessive case may be used where the predominance of one object amongst many (Nirdhira) is desired. Possessive case endings are added to terms used with “Hetu” (for that eason). Objects of the root Smr (to remember) always get the possessive inflexion. Similarly, subjects of verbs formed by Krit, as well as substantives used in connection with verbs denoting the import of killing or envying, get the possessive inflexion. Subjects do not get the possessive inflexion in connection with Nishtha suffixes (such as Ta, etc.).
18-19There are two kinds of Pratipadikam, such as the name (substantlve) and Dhatu (root). A Dhatu or root maybe deleted in ten tenses or Dasa Lakaras. “Tip, Tas” “Anti” are the inflexions of third person singular, third person dual, and third person plural, in the present tense (Lat), Sip, Thas, Tha are respectively the orms of inflexion of the second person singular, dual and plural in the present tense; and “Mi” “Vas” and “Mas” are respectively the forms of inflexion of the first person singular, dual and plural in the present tense.
20-21These forms are used only, in the Parasmai-Pada from. In the Atmanepadi from they are respectively. Te, Ate, Ante; Se, Athe, Dhve; and A, Vahe, and Mahe. “I” and its plural denote first person, “You” and its plural indicate second person, names other than these are third person, Bhu (to be) etc., are called Dhatus.
22-23Laf means the present tense. A verb having the form of present tense signifies the import of a past tense if used in combination with “Sma” Lan is past perfect tense. The tense Lin is used in conferring blessings or making benediction. In cases of direction, permission, advice, prayer: invitation, request, benediction and asking of wellbeing, Lot is the tense in which a verb is generally used. Lit signifies the past tense and is used to denote events which have happened in the absence of the speaker (lit., not under the eyes of the speaker, Paroksha). Lun is the name of the tense which is used to denote an event in the past which did not occur at the time of speaking. Lrit indicates simple future.
24-26Lut is used to-denote a future event which will take place in the presence of the speaker. In case in which the occurrence of an event or the performance of an act is being completed, the tense Lrin is used. Sometimes the past tense (Lit) is used in the place of Lot and vice versa The Lrt affixes may be added to a root in either of the three-forms or voices such as the active, passive and neuter. Trin, Ghang, Aniya, Satri, etc., are the affixes which are usually affixed to the roots.