On Dharmasastra ||213||
1Suta said: -Now I shall relate to you the rules of conduct to be observed by Brahmanas, etc., which Brahma first learned from Hari and expounded to the holy Vyasa. and proper performances where of grant all things to their performers.
2-3A twice-born one, having learnt the Vedas and the scriptural law, shall perform acts (rites) enjoined to be performed in the Vedas; unable to perform the Vedic rites, he shall perform those mentioned in the law codes (Smrd). Even incapable of performing either class of these acts, the intelligent one shall perform acts of good conduct. The Sruti and the Smriti are the eyes, as it were, of Brahmanas in respect of detect of detecting the true virtue. Bereft of one of these eyes of Sruti and Smriti, a Brahmana verily becomes a moral oneeyed; bereft of both he becomes morally blind.
4Pieties described in the Sruti and Sastras and the acts of good conduct performed by the pious triply form the eternal virtues (duties eternally obligatory on all).
5Truthfulness, gift making (charity), absence of greed or avarice, knowledge, performances of religious sacrifices, divine worship, and self-control, are the eight sacred constituents of good conduct.
6The body and sense-organs of the pious, effulgent with a kind of sanctified light, do not adhere to sin, like water drops to lotus leaves. Of men of all the four orders virtue forms the main stay of existence.
7Truthfulness, performance of religious sacrifices and austerities (meditation), and charity are the cardinal duties of householders.
8-9Leaming (knowledge), opulence, proactive of austerities, valour, noble parentage, and absence of disease (sound health) are the factors that lead to the elevation of a man in this world; all these proceed from the practice of virtue. From virtue proceed happiness and knowledge; knowledge leads of the ultimate emancipation of one’s own self.
10Performances of religious sacrifices, endowments for the public good, study of the Vedas, and practice of charily in conformity with the injunctions of the Sastras may be described as the eternal duties. commonly obligatory on Brahmanas, Kshatriyas and Vaisyas.
11Imparting lessons (teaching)to the pure and the body, officiating as priests and the religious sacrifices performed by the pure, and acceptance of gifts from persons not in any way impure or unholy are the three means of earning livelihood, open to Brahmanas, in the opinion of the Munis.
12Military professions and protection of creature from hurt or injury are the callings of Ksatriya. Rearing of cattle, agriculture, and trade are the means by which Vaisyas shall earn their living.
13-14Service of the three twice-born classes, to be made preferentially in the order of enumeration, should be the vocations of Sudras. Residence near the preceptor, service of the consecrated fire, study of the Vedas, three ablutions; each day, ritualistic ablutions, wearing of clotted hairs, carrying of staffs, wearing of Mekhalas, living off alms, residence near the preceptor till death, or a clear shaving of the head are the duties which are obligatory on Brahmacharins.
15-16Perfomances of Agnihotra sacrifices, earning of livelihood by means proper to his order, procreation of sons on his own married wife, and on days not interdicted as Parvas, making offerings to the gods and to his departed manes, as well as feeding of all guests (Atithis) to his house, and perusal of the true imports of Srutis and Smrtis are the duties of a house-holdor.
17-18Wearing of clotted hairs on the head, performances of Agnihotra sacrifices, lying down on the bars ground, wearing of deer-skin, residence in the forest, living on roots, bulbs, fruit and Nivara grains, etc., abstention from all forbidden acts, daily performance of three ablutions. observance of vow, and propitiation of the gods, Atithis and his departed manes are the duties of a forest dwelling (Vanaprastha hermit).
19-21Abstention of all acts or undertakings, living on alms, residence under the trees, non-acceptance of gifts, living in harmony with all and sundry (lit. not in conflict with any), practising of equality to all, maintaining equanimity under all painful or pleasurable circumstances, acquisition of mastery over pleasure and pam, purification of both inside and out, practice of silence and meditation, drawing in of all the . sense organs from the external world, practice of constant meditation and attempt at being one with the thought, and purification of ideas are the duties which are obligatory on a Parivrajaka to cultivate.
22Truthfulness, forbearance, compassion, purity, abstention of all killing propensities and sacred discourse are the bounden duties of all the four social orders.
23Those, who strictly conform of the aforesaid laws and duly perform their respective duties, come by a better fate. Now I shall relate to you the duties of a householder from the time when he leaves his bed to that when he goes to sleep in the night.
24-25Rising at the Brahama Muhurta (about half an hour before the dawn) a householder shall attend to the calls of nature, and then having carefully washed himself, at the close of the night, shall think of his own good both in this world and the next. Then he shall bathe and attend to the rite of his Sandhya meditation.
26-27He shall perform the rite of his morning Sandhya after having washed his face and cleansed his teeth. One should void stool and urine, looking towards the north, in the day; and towards the south in the night. At the two junctions of the day and night, the rule laid down in respect of urination and defecation in the day should be followed.
28In shade, in darkness in the day or night, as well as in times of danger to life or of illness, a Brahmana can void stool or urine, looking towards any quarter of the sides, best convenient. One shall not void urine on cowung, charcoal, or an anthill, nor inclear pure water, or on the furrows of a ploughed field.
29Similarly, urination near the road side, in an assembly, or over writing materials are forbidden. Earth should not be taken from beneath the water, from a temple, from an anthill, from about mouse-hole, or from a cremation ground.
30The residue of earth with which one has purified oneself (cleaned one’s person) should be avoided. One Mrittika (half a Prasritiful Earth) should be used in rubbing the external orifice of the urethra, three Mrittikas should be used in rubbing the anus, three Mrittikas in rubbing the palm of the left hand, and a Half Mrittika in rubbing the palms of both the hands, after voiding stool.
31-32Now I shall describe the process of purification, after voiding urine. One Mrittika should be applied to the external orifice of the urethra; three, to the anus; ten, to the palm of the left hand; five, to the soles of feet; and seven of each of the arms. The greatest quantity of Mrittika (clay) which should be used in cleansing the orifices of the external ducts of the body, under these circumstances, is half of what can be contained in the palm of one’s hand, outstretched and hollowed.
33-34The second is half of that of the former, and the third is half of that of the second. He, who is incapable of voiding stool or urine in a sitting posture, shall perform half of these purifications, after urination or defecation. Half or a quarter part of the purifying measure, enjoined to be performed in the day, shall be performed in the night, after voiding stool or urine. Men in health must unfailingly observe these rules of purification; while sick folks shall observe them as far as they are capable of observing.
35-37Fat, semen, hood, marrow, saliva, stool and urine, and waxy deposits in the ears, as well as mucous, tears, and perspiration are called the excrements of the human body. A man shall try to purify his person as long as he does not think himself pure; the extent of purification cannot be precisely laid down for each individual case. There are two kinds of purification viz., external and internal the first consists in cleansing the body, with clay, water, etc., the second is the purification of one’s thoughts and ideas.
38-40First, thrice sip water in the manner of the rite of Acamanam, then twice rinse the mouth with water, and after that, thrice sip water with the ball of the thumb. Then repeatedly touch your eyes and ears with the tips of the thumb and the index finger joined together. The navel should be touched with the tips of the thumb and the small finger joined together; and the region of the heart, with the palm of the hand.
41The head should be touched with all the fingers united together, and the back of the arms should be touched with the tips of fingers by rounding the hand. A Brahmana shall thrice sip water in the manner of Acamanam for propitiating the three Vedas, viz., the Rk, the Yajus and the Saman.
42Similarly, by twice rubbing the lips he shall propitiate the Atharva Aitgirasa, as well as the Itihasas., Purai:ias, and Vedangas in succession.
43He shall touch the principle of either in his mouth; the principle of air, in his nostrils; the sun, in his sight; the quarters of the skies, in the chord of vitality in his umbilicus; and the supreme Brahma, at his heart.
44-45The god Rudra is pleased by one touching one’s head, while the Rishis are propitiated by one touching the tuft of hair one one’s crown, at the time of performing an Acamanam. The lord of death, Indra, Varuna, Kubera, the Earth-goddess and the fire-god are pleased by one touching one’s anus, at the afore said time. He shall feel die contact of Vishnu and Indra by touching the soles of his feet and that of Vishnu alone by touching his arms. O thou twice born one, the the celestial serpents Vasuki etc., are propitiated by the water that one might cast on the ground at the time of performing Acamanam, and the drops of water that he mught cast around tend to propitiate the hosts of spirits. The deities, Agni, Vayu, Surya and lndra are situated in the phalanges of one’s fingers. The moon-god, with all the sacred pools and sanctuaries, are situated in the palm of one’s (right) hand; hence, the (right) hand is always pure.
46-47The sacred streams and river such as, the Ganges etc., are situated in the lines, that run across the palm of one’s (right) hand. At the approach of dawn, one shall attend to the calls of nature, and cleanse his person; then having cleansed his teeth with a twig, bitten down in ‘the shape of a toothbrush, he shall take an ablution.
48-49A person remains impure, even after clean sing his teeth, after the expiry of the previous night; hence one shall eat the tooth-twig bitten and smashed in the shape of a toothbrush), each morning. Twigs of Kadamba, Vilva, Khadira, Karavira, Vata, Atjuna, Yathi, Vrhad, Jati, Karnja, Arka, Atimukta, Jambu, Madhuka, Apamarga, Sirisa, Audumbara, Asana.
50Ksiri, and Kruitaki trees and plants are recommended for the purpose of being used as toothbrushes. Twigs of pungent, bitter, and astringent flavours, used for the purpose of cleansing the teeth, bring health and happiness to the cleanser.
51Then having washed the tooth-twig and cleansed his teeth, he shall wash his face, while seated in a pure site. Tooth-twigs should not be-used of days, marked by the new moon, as well as on the first, sixth or ninth day of the moon’s wane.
52Similarly, the use of tooth-twigs is prohibited on Sundays. In the absence of any tooth-twig, as well as on days in which its use is prohibited, one shall gargle one’s mouth with twelve handfuls of water.
53-54A morning ablution, either before or after the appearance of the sun on the horizon, is recommended as wholesome; a pure-should, and pure-bodied morning-bather becomes competent to practise all religious gets of Japa etc.
55-58The human body, extremely fully within and provided with nine apertures or external ducts, day and night, exudes impure and unclean secretions, and a morning ablution is the means of bringing about its purification, each day. An ablution in the Ganges imparts a cheerfulness to the mind, and health and a beautiful complexion to the-body. It dissipates grief and misery. “For the extinction of the ten classes of sin, severally committed by receiving what has not been formally given, by doing forbidden acts, by huting or killing any creature, by carnally knowing another man’s wife, by using abusive language to, or hurting the feelings of any, by speaking falsehood, by practising niggardliness, by improper speaking, by coveting other man’s riches, by wishing evil to others. I take this ablution in the Ganges.”
59House-holders and forest-dwelling hermits (Vanaprasthas) are only competent to bathe twice a day, viz., at morning and mid-day; while Yatis are privileged to bathe three times, each day. A Brahmacarin shall bathe only once a day.
60-61Having performed the rite of Acamanam, and invoked the sacred pools therein, one shall take a bath in the river. Thirty million is the number of the malignant spirits, called Mandehas, who manifest a desire of devouring the sun at daybreak.
62He, who does not attend to his Sandhya rite at the meetings of the day and night, verily kills the sun, inasmuch as the libations of consecrated water (offered unto the sun-god in the course of a Sandhya) tends to consume these monsters (Mandehas) like streams of liquid fire.
63The unions or metings (Sandhya) of the day and the night, which are called Sandhyas, last for the period of two Nadikas till the sun or the stars appear in the sky.
64After the performance, of hits Sandhya rite, a person shall personally do the Homa. The merit of personally performing the Homa is greater than that of getting it done by another.
65A Homa performed by one’s ~ttvik (priest) son, preceptor, brother, or sister’s son ls regarded as one done by one’s self.
66The house-holder fire (Garhapatyijgni) is identical, with Brahma, Dakshiagni is same as the three-eyed deity (Siva), Ahavamya fire is one with the deity Vishnu while Truth is the god, Kumara.
67After performing the Homa, one shall repeat the Mantra, sacred to give to the Sun according of others. After that, self-controlled, he shall recite the Pranava and the Savitri Mantras.
68He; who daily recite the Savitri Mantra, coupled with the seven Vyiahritis as well as the Tripada, has no reqson to be afraid gf anything in this world.
69He, who recites the Gayatri every morning, on leaving his bed, is not attached to sin, as water lies not attached to a lotus leaf.
70The presiding deity of the Gayatri is described as a white-complexioned goddess, clad in silken raiments, seated on a full-blown lotus-flower, and carrying a rosary of Aksha seeds in her hand.
71The goddess should be invoked by reciting the Yajus Mantra running as, thou art the light etc.
72The gods, wishing, of your, to see the goddess residing in the Brahmaloka in the disc of the Sun invoked her with the selfsame Mantra. The goddess should be bid adieu, after the worship, with steta of obeisance.
73The deities should be worshiped in the forepart of the day. There is no higher god than the Supreme Vishnu; hence, he should be constantly worshipped.
74-75An intelligent person shall not think Brahma, Vishnu and Siva as different divinities, but as all one and the same Brahmanas, kine, fire, gold, clarified butter, the Sun God, water, king, the eight in the list, are always auspicious in this world. Hence, Mt should constantly view, worship and circumambulate these eight holy Ones.
76-77The cultivation of Vedic knowledge consists in constantly studying their contents, in constantly committing them to memory, in meditating upon the imports of the Vedic Mantras, and in giving lessons in the Vedas to one’s pupils He, who makes gifts of the Vedas, by getting them transcribed by paid writers, goes to the region of the Veda.
78He, who makes similar gifts of works on Itihasas, Puranas, etc., acquire twice as much merit as that of making Brahmadanam (making gifts of vedic texts).
79-81The third part of the day should be devoted to works connected with the maintenance of one’s dependants (Poi,yas, lit, those who are to. be supported) One’s own parents, preceptor brother, poor dependents, Atithis; the sacred fire and guests form the list of one’s dependents (Poshjya-vargas. Support of those whom it is one’s duty to sustain, leads to heaven; hence, one should make his best endeavors to maintam one, Poiyas. He, on whom many depend for their subsistence, truly lives.
82He, who is concerned only with the pampering of his own belly, is dead in life; even dogs are found to secure their food and appease their appetite.
83From accumulated wealth and augmented opulence proceed all acts, as rivers spring up from elevated mountains.
84This earth in whose bowels all gems are inetted (land), food grains, animals and women are called money (Artha), because they are invariably connected with the gratifications of desires (Arthas).
85A means of live hood, which is absolutely in hostile to others, or is slightly hostile to a (microscopic) minority; should be adapted by a Brahmana in times of peace.
86There are three kinds of wealth, while, brown, and black, which may be again divided into seven classes.
87Possessions of all orders of society may be grouped under three heads such as-heriditary, obtained as presents of love or affection, and obtained as dowry with a wife.
88The three specific spruces of wealth, in the case of a Brahmana, are fees obtained for teaching and officiating as a priest at religious sacrifices, as well as gifts received from the pure and the holy persons.
89The ileus specific kinds of wealth (possessions) in respect of a Kshetrya are money obtained ln the shape of revenue, fines realized from persons convicted in law courts, and that obtained by conquest.
90The three specific sources of wealth in respect of a Vaiasya are cattle-rearing, agriculture and trade. Favour obtained by service is the only source of income of a Sudra.
91In time of danger, a Brahma, by pursuing agriculture, trade, or interest, does not commit any sin.
92The Rishis have described a large concourse of means of livelihood, but usury thrives; the best of them all.
93Unnatural seasons of drought, political disturbances, rats and other pests are the impediments to the successful practice of agriculture, but usury is bereft of them all.
94The thriving in usury does not cease in day or in night, in dark or light fortnight, nor in summer, winter or rains.
95The profit, which artisans and traders of different guilds do by so journeying to foreign climes, the money-lender does by remaining is his native country.
96Having made a good profit in the business of money lending, one. should propitiate the gods, Brahmanas and one’s departed manes with a portion thereof.
97-101The gods, etc., thus propitiated, absolve the sin incidental to the practice of usury. Learning, art, service, cattle-rearing, trade, agriculture and alms taking etc., are the ten means of livelihood. By accepting gifts, a Brahmana shall acquire wealth, a Kshatriya shall acquire wealth by conquest, a Vaisya shall acquire money by plying any lawful trade, whereas a Sudra shall earn money by serving others.
102-103A full-bodied river, Sakas (vegetables, Samidha, Kusa-grass, fire, leaves and Omkara are the best possessions of Brahmanas. There is no demerit in accepting gifts, offered without asking or seeking, the gods call such articles (gifts) as ambrosia; hence, they should not be rejected.
104-106One seeking to propitiate the Gods and Ati this may accept from one’s servants and preceptor, for these purposes one may accept gift from any person whomsoever, but one must not appropriate articles of such gifts gf one own use. A Brahmana, possessed of good qualifications and having very little blemishes in his conduct, is alone competent to receive gifts; a bad or illiterate Brahmana degrades his Self-lowest by taking any gift. The foremost of Brahmanas, obliged to earn his livelihood by penmanship, shall subsequently practise a penance by way of expiation.
107In the first quarter of the day, a Brahmana shall collect sesame, flowers, Kusa-grass, and earth for rubbing his body with, while bathing; a bath in a natural stream of water is recommended.
108-109Ablutions may be divided into six classes such as, the Nityam (daily obligatory bath, nonperformance where of is sinful), Naimittlkam (spedfic or occasional), Kamyam (that made for the fruition of any definite object), Kriyigam (which forms the part of, or sequel to, any religious rite), Malakarshanam (that made for the purpose of cleansing the body) and Krlya (bath which in itself forms a religious rite). Without bathing a man does not become competent to perform his daily rite of Homa, Japa, etc., hence, he shall bathe early in the morning, each day.
110An ablution, which in made under specific circumstances such one, the one made for the purpose of purifying one’s self, after touching excreta or a Candala or a woman inher menses, it called a Naimittika Snanam.
111Bathing under the influence of any auspicious, asterism such as the Pushya etc., and made in accordance with the direction of astrologers is called Kamya Snanam. He who as not the fruition of any definite object in his heart must not bathe under such circumstances.
112An ablution, made with the express object of worshipping any divinity, or of studying any sacred Vedic Mantra, is called a Kriya Snanam.
113-115A bath, taken for the purpose of removing the impurities of the body, and for no other object, is called a Makapkarshanam Snanam. An ablution in a sacred pool, or in a natural reservoir of water, when it forms in itself a religious rite, is called a Kriya Snanam. A mere touch of the water of a sacred pool leads to the purification of the bodily limbs; religious merit is obtained by taking a bath therein. By rubbing the body while reciting the Varuna Mantra one is immediately absolved of all sin.
116-117In the absence of a sacred pool (Tirtha) all ablutions should be made in boiled water. Water, that lies on the surface of the earth, is more purifying than what has been collected and carried away; waters of springs or fountains are more purifying than terrestrial waters. Lake water is more purifying than fountain water; river- water is more purifying than lake water; the water of a sacred pool is more purifying than river water, while the water of the Ganges is the purest of the pure. Gange water extinguishes the sin of a man which he might have committed from his birth to death.
118Of the water that are to be found in the sanctuaries at Gaya or Kurukshetra, the Ganges water is the most purifying of them all. The counsels or discourses of the erudite are more purifying in their effect than ablutions in any sacred pool whatsoever; and in conferences of virtue and religion most sanctifying is the Brahmana, who lives in· conformity with the injunctions of the holy Vyasa.
119Baths on the occasion of the birth of one’s own son, or in the event of the sun passing over to another zodiacal sign, or under the auspices of any blissful astral combination are recommended in the night, if these events take place in the night.
120Nocturnal baths, under the auspices of lunar eclipses, are also recommended, otherwise baths in the night are prohibited.
121A bath in the river, taken in early morning, each day, and just after the appearance of the sun on the horizon, equals a Prajapatyam in merit, and tends to extinguish the Mahapatakas.
122-123By bathing, each morning for a year, with a devotional spirit, one acquires the same merit, which is ordinarily by practising the Ptaja patyam penance, for twelve years in succession. He, who desires for the objects of enjoyment, effulgent as the sun and the moon, and wishes to possess an absolutely sound health, shall bathe, each morning, for the two months in year, viz., Magha 0anuary, February) and Phalguna (February March). By living on Havishya food and observing the vow of Sat-Tilam during the month of Magha, a morning bather is absolved of all sin.
124-126aThe mother, father, brother friend or preceptor of a bather, by mentioning whose name he might dive into the water, takes. one-twelfth part of the merit of the ablution. The god Vishnu becomes especially fond of Amalakam (Embilc Myrobalans) under the auspices of the eleventh day of the moon’s wane or increase; hence, one, wishing personal beauty, shall bathe. with Amalakas on his person.
126b-127Bereavement, infamy, ill-health, etc., reside in the stone of an Amalakam. By anointing one’s person a man acquires health, beauty and all things he might set his heart upon. The goddess of fortune remains so long satisfied with a vowiest, after he has got his hair clipped by a barber, as he does not touch oil.
128-129Having bathed in the manner above described, one shall propitiate the gods and one’s departed manes, as well as per form the rite of Tarpaitam unto the canonized men. Standing in navel-deep water, he shall meditate upon the Selves of his deceased ancestors as sented in the air, and invoke their presence by saying, “come, O my departed manes, pleased with the libations of water I have just now offered unto you”
130-133By reciting this invocation he shall offer libations of water unto each of them in the southern quarter of the heaven. Then having put on dry clothes and seated on cushions of Kusa blades, the performers of Tarpat).as, duly conversant with the rules of offering libations of water unto the gods and their departed manes, shall offer the on blades of Kusa grass, and never in ·any vessel. “May whatever is impure in this water, may whatever is cruel or unquiet in this water, may that all be removed.” By reciting this Mantra and taking a libation of water in his left hand, he shall cast that in the south-west quarter of the sky for the purpose of warding off the advent of malignant spirits, during the performance of the rite.
134-135“May Indra, Varuna and Brihaspati, Bhaga, Savita and the Rishis such as Sanaka, etc., extinguish all the sin, which I might have committed by eating forbidden food, or by accepting gifts from sinful and degraded persons, as well as that which I might have committed by word, thought or deed. May all creatures from the lowest animalculum to the highest Brahman be propitiated with this libation of water.”
136-137Saying this, one shall offer three libations of water. Thus, I have briefly described the mode of performing Tarpattam. Bereft of pride and humble in spirit, one shall worship the gods, by reciting the Mantras sacred to Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Savitri or Varuna, as the case may be. Each deity should be worshipped by reciting the Mantras sacred to him.
138-140Then having made obeisance to it, flowers should be offered of it by appending the term Nama}:l to the names to the deity. The god Vishnu, who is not only full of the energies of all the divinities, but their grand refuge, as well as the sun god, should be worshipped, and offerings of flowers and libations of water should be made to him by reciting the Purushyajna Sukta. The god Vishnu may be worshipped by reciting the Mantra, which runs as, “By him all this visible universe the been created and arranged in systems.” or by reciting any other Tantrik Mantra.
141-142First, the Arghya offering should be made to the deity then scented pastes such as sandal etc., should be offered, after that offerings of flowers, should be made, and lighted lamps should be waived before the deity.
143-144Brahmanas, Kshatriyas and Vaisyas should bathe by reciting the Mantras, while Sudras should silently bathe. The performance of a Brahma-yajna consists in teaching the Veda, that of a Pitri-yajna consists in offering oblations and libations of water to one’s departed manes; casting of oblations in the sacred fire (Homa) is called Daiva-yajna; offering of oblations unto the animals is called Bhuta-yajna, and the feeding of Atithis is called Atithi-yajna.
145-146The rite of Japa (mental recitation of a Mantra) done in the house, bears ordinary merit; trade on the banks of a river it gives double merit; made in a cowshed it bears fruit ten times greater; made in a chamber of the consecrated fire it bears fruit, a hundred times greater; made at a sanctuary or in a divine temple it produces a thousand times greater merit; made near the image of Vishnu it bears a hundred millions of times greater merit.
147Of the five parts of food prepared in a household, each day, four should be respectively allotted to the use of the Pitris, Devas, then and the insects etc.
148He, who takes his daily meals, after giving food (boiled rice) to his friends, relations and Brahmanas, ascends to the regions of heaven after death, through the merit of making gifts of food.
149Articles of sweet flavour should be eaten at the fore part of a meal; things of acid and saline tastes, at it its middle; and those of bitter, pungent and astringent flavours, at its close.
150Water should be taken after eating a meal. One should never take edibles of a single taste in exclusion of those of all others.
151-153aVerily the boiled rice of a Brahmana is like unto ambrosia; that of a Kshatriya is like unto milk; that of a Vaisya is a wholesome food, and that of a Sudra is like unto blood. Beauty and opulence reside in the person of him, who observes a fast on the day of the new moon.
153b-154The Garhapatya fire is located in the belly of a man; the Dakshina fire, in his dorsal region; the Ahavaniya fire, in his mouth; and the Satyagni in his hear-He, who is cognizant of the locations of these five fires in his body, is called an Ahitagni one.
155The body, the water, the albumen or the fluid constituents of the body and the various kinds of foodstuff are called Annam, while Purana, Agni (fire heat) and Aditya (the sun) a re one and the same enjoy the aforesaid Annam.
156Food contributes to the invigoration of the principles of earth, water, fire and air contained in my body, and the essence of food, after being properly digested, and assimilated in my organism, brings about a pleasurable condition of my ego.
157Prepared betel leaves (Tambulas) should be smashed with the hands, and then chewed, after eating.
158After gating one’s (midday) meal, one shall hear the narration of histories and Puranas during the sixth and seventh parts of the day. After that, one shall again bathe and attend to the performance of one’s Evening Sandhya.
159O thou twice born one, thus I have described the daily routine of acts to be followed by householders. The erudite one, who hears these rules of conduct narrated, or follows them in earnest spirit, goes to heaven after death. The god Kesava is the narrator of these rules of purity, duty and virtue and the god Hari is the goal of all expiatory penances and is the last refuge of the celestials and celestial regions.