The Prayascittas ||222||
1Brahma said: -Now I shall deal with the mode of practising the expiatory penances, which tend to extinguish all sins for which the Self of a man. is consigned to the pangs of hell. Flies, ants, drops of water, water that lies · accumulated on the surface of the earth, fire, cats, and ichneumons, are always pure.
2A twice born one, who, through inadvertence, eats anything, which has been defiled by the touch of the residue of a Sudra’s meal, shall fast for an entire day and night and regain his purity by taking Pancagavyam.
3A Brahmana, accidentally touched by another Brahmans, who has not washed his mouth after eating, or happening to touch the residue of the meal of another Brahmana, shall bathe and recite the Mantras, and take his meal at the close of the day.
4A Brahmana, happening to partake of a meal containing a tip of hair or a flee, shall regain his purity by vomiting out the ingested food. He, who takes a meal, held in the hollow of his palm, or on the tips of his fingers; or on his arms, shall regain his purity by fasting for an entire day and night.
5The residue of water, drunk with left-hand, is as impure as that which is contained in a leather bag, and hence, that should not be drunk.
6-7A Brahmanas, in whose house a Candala lies concealed without his knowledge, shall effect his purification by practising a Paraka, or a Candrayana penance, whereas a Siidra householder, under the circumstances, shall practise a Prajapatyam.
8He, who takes any cooked food in the house of a low caste, shall practise a half Kriccha penance. He, who eats meals belonging to these harbourers of law-castes in their houses, shall perform a quarter part of Kriccha Vrata.
9A twice-born one having taken the food cooked by a washer man, carpenter, cobbler, or of one who manufactures articles of bamboo, or food belonging to any of these people, shall practise a Candrayanam.
10A Bralunana, having unknowingly drunk water out of a Candala’s well-cup, shall practise a Santapanam. A Kshatriya and a Vaisya, under the circumstances, shall respectively practise a half and a quarter Santapanam.
11A Sudra, under the same circumstances, shall practise a quarter Candrayanam. Having unknowingly taken any food in the house of one of a vile caste, a Brahmana shall regain his purity by practising three Kriccha Vratas, while a Sudra, undel’ the circumstances, shall practise a Parakam penance.
12A Brahrnana having partaken of the residue of the meal of a member of vile caste shall regain his purity by practising a Candrayanam, while having drunk water in the house of low caste person a Brahrnana shall fast for six nights (Six Ratram.)
13A Kshatriya having unknowingly partaken of the food of a Candala shall practise a Santapanam, while a Vaisya and a Sudra, under the circumstances shall respectively practise the Sadratri and Triratri penances. A Brahmana having unknowingly eaten a fruit, while seated on a branch of the same tree with a Candala, shall regain his purity by fasting for an entire day and night.
14A Brahmana happening to touch a Candala, before washing his face, after eating a meal, shall repeat eight thousand times the Gayatri, or a hundred times the Drupada Mantra.
15Having eaten the food of a Candala or Svapaca, or that which has been defiled by the touch of excrets, a Brahmana shall practise a Triratram penance, the expiation for the members of other castes, under the circum-stances, being the performance of a Parka Vratam.
16Having wantonly visited a woman, a man shall practise a Parka penance by way of expiation. No expiation exists for one, sprung of a vile caste, under these circumstances.
17A Brahmana, having drunk water out of a cup which contained wine, shall regain his purity by practising a quarter Kriccha Vratam, and by getting himself reinitiated with the holy thread.
18-19Brahmanas, who having renounced the vows of Pravrjyam or Agnihotram wish to reenter the order of house-holders, shall regain their purity by practising three kriccha Vratas and three Candrayanas, and by again going through the-rites of Jata Karma, etc. This is the opinion of the holy Vasishtha.
20-21A woman having failed to completely practise a Prajapatyam shall regain her purity by feeding Brihmanas. A Brahmana, with his face unwashed after a naval, happening to be touched by a Sudra, similarly circumstanced as himself, or buy a dog, shall regain his purity by fasting for a night, and by taking the compound known as Pancagavyam. Touched by members of other castes, while circum-stanced as above a Brahmana shall regain his purity by fasting for five night.
22-23Undefiled is a current stream of water; pure ark the particles of dust blown about by the wind, women, infants, and old men are above all pollution; constantly pure is the face of a woman, pure are the fruits felled down by birds from their stems, pure is a calf after being delivered of its mother’s womb, pure is the mouth of a dog at the time of catching a game.
24Pure are the aquatic animals in water, pure are the land-animals on the surface of the earth, pure is the person that perform an Acamanam by resting his feet is water.
25Articles of Indian bell-metal, undefiled by the touch of wine, are purified by robing them with ashes; defiled by the touch of wide or urine, they should be purified by heating.
26Articles of Indian bell-metal, smelled by kind or defiled by the touch of the residue of a Sudra’s meal, or by the contact of a dog or a crow, are purified by being rubbed with the ten kinds of ashes.
27Having partaken his meal out of the saucer of a Sudra, a Brahmana shall regain his purity by fasting for a day, and by taking Pancagavyam as well.
28A Brahmana having touched a dog, a Sudra, or any other beast, or a woman in her menses, before washing his face after a meal, shall regain his purity by fasting for a day, and by taking Pancagavyam.
29In a waterless place, or on a road infested by thieves or tigers, a person is not polluted by voiding urine with an article of human use in his hand. He shall place it on the ground, and again take hold of the same, after having cleansed his person.
30Kanjikam (fermented rice or barley gruel) milkcurd, milk, whey, meat, honey and Krisara, may be accepted, without impunity, even from a Sudra.
31-32A Brahmana, who takes any kind of intoxicating liquor such as Gaudi, Paishti, or Madhvikam, shall expiate his sin by taking any flame-coloured wine, or by taking cow-dung and cow’s urine.
33On the occasion of-a birth or death in his family, a Brahmana remains unclean for ten days; a Kshatriya for twelve days; a Vaisya, for fifteen days; and a Sudra, for a month.
34Uncleanness, incidental to the death of one’s relation in battle, in a foreign country, boring the celebration of a religious sacrifice, or in execution of a capital sentence passed by the king, as well as that which results from the death of a cognate relation, below six months of age, expires with the very day of the occurrence of the death.
35Uncleanness incidental of the death of an unmarried girl, of a twice-born son not initiated with the Maunji, of a boy who has cut his teeth, or of a girl of three years of age, lasts for three nights only.
36Uncleanness, incidental to the abortion or miscarriage of a fetus, lasts for the same number ofd ays as that of the months of pregnancy in which the said abortion or miscarriage has occurred.
37Uncleanness in respect of the birth of a child, born before time, lasts for the same number of days as that of the months of gestation in which the birth has taken place. In times of famine or scarcity, during civic disturbances, birth or death-uncleanness does not affect a person, nor does it affect those who are in the habit of practising charities, every day, or those who are being initiated, or are practising vow, or penances, or are residing in any sanctuary.
38At the time of spiritual initiation, during the celebration of a marriage ceremony, at times when Brahmanas are feasted in one’s house, or while performing an act· previously deter-mined, a death or birth uncleanness does not affect.
39-40Similarly, a Brahmana becomes unclean by touching his justly parturient wife. Birth uncleanness does not affect a man in a place where oblations are cast in the sacred fire, or the Vedas are studied, or offerings are constantly offered unto the Visvedevas. A Sudra, consecrated with the sacred Mantra, regains his personal purity a fortnight after the occurrence of a (birth) uncleanness. Bramanas in jeopardised conditions remain unclean for a single day in connection with a birth uncleanness. A performer of Agnihotra sacrifices, a vowist and a reciter of any sacred Mantra are not affected by birth-uncleanness.
41-42A woman in her menses happened to be touched by a dog, or a Candalala or a Pukkasa shall fast till the day or her bath of purification, when she shall regain her purity by bathing. Any household work done by her, under the circumstances, should be regarded as an unsanctified act, where to sin is attached. A twice born one happening to take his meal in a house under uncleanness shall practise a Triratram Vratam by way of expiation. Brahmans, Kshatriyas and Vaisyas in their menses, happening to touch one another, shall respectively fast for three nights, two nights and one night, while Sudras shall be clean again only by taking ablutions. A Drona measure of cooked food or articles of fare, happened to be defiled by the touch of a dog or crow, should not be cast aside as impure; only the superficial stratum of such food should be rejected.
43-44The mode of purifying such food consists in sprinkling waters, in which bits of gold have been kept immersed, over its pile and in heating it again on fire. A Brahmana, a Ksatriya, and a Vaisya happening to drink the water of a well in whit the carcase of a dog, jackal, or monkey has been cast, shall regain their purity by respectively fasting for three nights, two nights and one night.
45In the event of a wellbeing defiled by the casting of bones, hair, or other excrementitious matter in its water, it shall be purified by dredging its bottom and casting Pancagavyam into it.
46It the event of a pond or tank being defiled by ashes, sixty pitcherfuls of water should be baled out of its bed, and Pancagavyam should be cast in its water.
47-48In the event of a tank being defiled by the washing of catamenila blood of a woman in its water, thiter, pitcherfuls, of its water should be baled out. Having visited a woman standing in interdicted relation to him, or used any forbidden article of food and drink such as beef, wine, etc., a Brahmana, or a Kshatriya is purified by practising a Prajapatyam penance; a Vaigya, by a Santapanam: and a Sudra, by a Pancaratram penance.
49-50aAfter practising an expiatory penance, one shall feed the worth Brahmanas and make gifts of kine to them. The use (wearing) of an indigo-dyed cloth by one in bed or at the time of visiting one’s wife is not sinful, otherwise an indigo-dyed cloth should not be touched and an indigo dyer goes to hell, after death.
50b-51A Brahmanicide, a wine drinker, a stealer of gold of more than eighty Ratis weight, he who defiles the bed of his own preceptor, as well as the one who keeps company of these mean, are absolved of their sin by paying visit to Setubandha. After return from his pilgrimage, any of these absolved sinners shall feed the pious Brahmanas and make gifts of kine of them.
52-53A Brahmanicide shall live for twelve years in a cottage in the forest; and carrying a human skull on his head he shall stroll out for alms. Thus, he shall live on alms for twelve years, whereby he will be absolved of his sin. On the other hand, he shall immolate his self in a “blazing fire or shall renounce his life for the good of a Brahmana, or shall dedicate all his possessions to use of a Brahmana. Similarly, a wine drinker shall immolate his self in a blazing fire. A gold stealer, falling under the category of a Steyin, shall expiate his sin by making gift of all his possessions to a Brahmana, well-versed in the Veda. He, who has defiled the bed of his preceptor, shall purchase his absolution by making gifts of a thousand bullocks of Brahmanas.
54-55aIf a cow dies, while penned in a shed or an enclosure, her owner shall practise a quarter part of the Krirccha pencance by way of expiation, in the case where the cow dies with fastenings or halter round her neck, the expiation is the practice of a half Kriccha penance, whereas in cases the cow is burnt down to death, or where the death occurs from its being led astray in the wilderness, her owner -shall practise a full Kriccha Vratam by way of expiation. The practice of a quarter Kirccha penance is the expiation in the case where the how dies from the effects of injudicious fastenings of bells round her neck.
55b-56aHaving accidentally broken the horn of a cow, or a bone in her body, or having broken her tail or injured her skin, one shall live, for a fortnight, on Javakam.
56b-57A member of any of the three twice born orders, having unknowingly taken wine or any excrementitious matter such as the stool or urine, should be re-initiated with the holy thread.
58Shaving of the head, carrying of staff, wearing of the grass girdle (Mekhala), begging of alms and observance of vows should be omitted in the rites of such second initiation of the twice born.
59-60Raw meat, clarified butter, honey and seed oils, kept in the vessel of a man of vile cast, become pure as soon as they are taken hout of it. The practice of a quarter-Kriccha penance consists in taking a night-meal on the first day, in living on what is obtained without asking on the second day, and in fasting on the third day of its term, while that of a half Kriccha Vratam is double of what is laid down in connection with a quarter-Kriccham.
61The practice of a Prajapatyam penance, which extinguishes all sin, consists in triply doing what is laid down in. respect of a quarter-Kriccham. A Kriccham penance, practised by fasting for seven days in succession, is called a Maha-Santapanam Vratam.
62Take only warm water on the first three days, only warm milk on the second three days, and only clarified butter on the third three days of the penance. This is called the sin-absolving Tapta-Kriccham-Vratam. The practice of a Paraka Vratam, which extinguishes all sin consists in fasting for twelve days in succession
63-66In this penance the penitent shall take one morsel of food (Pinch) on the first day of the light fortnight, and successively increase the number by one, each day till the day of the full moon, and thereafter go decreasing it by one, each day, till the day of the moon. The compound known as the Pancagavyam, the use of which fends to extinguish all sin, shall consist of the milk of a golden coloured cow, the dung of a white cow, the urine of a copper-coloured cow, the butter made out of the milk of a blue-coloured cow, the curdled milk of a black cow, and the washings of the blades of Kusa-grass, in the following proportions viz., eight Masas of cow’s urine, four Masas of cow dung, twelve Masas of cowmilk, ten Masas of curdled cow-milk, and five Masas of melted cow butter.