Vedanta and Sankhya ||236||
1Brahma said: -Hear me, O Narada, now discourse on the knowledge of Self (Atma-Jivnam). There are two kinds of Yogas, viz., the Advaita Yoga and the Sankhya Yoga, the absolute concentration of the mind being the essential factor in both these forms.
2Practisers of the Advaita Yoga become free from the shackles of existence. Past, present and future acts are destroyed through knowledge.
3He, who hews down the tree of existence with the axe of right discrimination and takes an ablution in the sacred pool of knowledge and apathy, comes by the bliss of Vishnu.
4The three states of wakening dream, and dreamless sleep are the three rods of Nescience, all are included within this Maya eternal is the second less Brahma.
5Without name, from and action is that supreme Self; He created this infinite universe and established himself therein.
6I am the knower, the embodiment of reality that transcends all illusion, I am He; it is this knowledge which serves as the only road to Emancipation.
7Practice of knowledge, meditation, hearing of Sastras, celebration of sacrifice, practice of charity and penitential austerities, sojourns to places of pilgrimage, and the study of the Vedas are of no avail as far as the working out of one’s salvation is concerned.
8Some acquire knowledge through renunciation; celebrations of religious rites, or performances of Pajas confer no real knowledge. Two kinds of injunctions are found in the Vedas on this subject, one is “do acts” (religious rites), and the other is “renounce acts.”
9Several authorities assert that seekers after Emancipation shall celebrate religious sacrifices for the purpose of purifying their thoughts. They cannot confer any other benefit.
10Those, who meditate upon deities, cannot be liberated, even with the aid of right knowledge, in the course of one existence. Unsuccessful Yogins are reborn as Brahmanas in the families of Yogins.
11It is his acts that bind an animal, liberation lies through knowledge; take recourse to the knowledge of self as otherwise Nescience will assail thee.
12Undoubtedly a person comes by immortality the moment the desires in his heart are annihilated.
13As the self is all-pervading, how can man go anywhere else, or where else shall he go, or who is he that goes?
14As the self is infinite, there is no space for it to move in, as it is disembodied, how can it have any locomotion? As it is without a second, it has no separate existence; as it is pure knowledge, how can it have any Nescience?
15It is like the firmament and hence its movement is like the movement of the firmament i.e. it is stationary. The tree states of waking, dreaming and slumbering are fancied through ignorance.
16The indivisible constituents of the individual soul are the very constituents of the universal soul. That is why each and every individual is attracted to his or her own soul.
17O Narada, that is why the mind of each, and every individual is inclined toward his or her own self.
18-19It is the soul, not intellect, that passes through the four states of consciousness. It is the soul, not intellect that being omniscient knows past, present and future.
20If there were no soul in the body of a person he would not feel the thrill of pleasure nor the pang of the pain in the different states of consciousness.
21-22It is the soul, the witness of all activities which is truth, intelligence, eternal principle, not distinct from intellect and which is bliss itself.
23-24By knowing Brahman one knows everything, just as on knowing a jar of clay on a knows all the jars or on knowing gold one knows all that is made of gold.
25-26Just as in darkness on a cannot cognize the rope, similarly through ignorance we cannot perceive the soul. We super-impose a snake on what is in fact a rope, we superimpose the elements, ether, etc. and what is in reality the soul.
27-28Even the evident reality assumes a different form. The rope becomes a snake; the mother-of-pearls becomes silver. A deer cannot quench its thirst in the mirage; similarly, a man cannot satisfy his desire by indulging in the false pleasures of the senses.
29-30So long a man has the sense of pleasure, he is called a possessor. But when possession is lost he remains his true self. The individual soul associated with Maya identifies himself with the body but when maya withdraws he realizes his reality as Brahman.
31Just as a noble person is not affected by the loss of possession, similarly, the withdrawal of Maya does not effect a person who has realized Self.
32Reality and illusion are both eternal. But Reality is an unassailable truth of his illusion is a mirage.
33-34Though declared to be unborn he passes through a series of birth and death. Though one, he becomes many in the form of husband, wife, pleasure, universe, etc.
35The three Gunas multiplied by twenty-eight become eighty-four and these contribute to the formation of bodies, male artd female and the universe with all-Us parts, names, forms, and actions from beginning less time to the endless one.
36-37The existence of forms, names, etc., is assumed and not real just as the chariot, etc., which exist in the state of dream are not real. Similarly, things. or object which exist in the state of wakefulness do not exist in reality.
38-39By his association with Maya. born of ignorance, Brahma appears to be dual, while by the withdrawal of Maya through knowledge lie remains non-dual.
40Thus the non-dual brahman is as the refulgent sun, Reality, Truth, Existence, Knowledge. It is eternal, complete, inward bliss. As external it is unborn, as non-doer it is nectar, as the light of an earthen lamp, it is an inward light. The realization that the individual soul is identical with the Supreme Soul leads one to release.