Origin of mixed castes-the five great Yajnas, Sandhya-rites, duties of householders and members of different castes ||96||

1Yajnavalkya said: -Now I shall enumerate the names of the mixed castes, the offsprings of clandestine intercourse and un sacramental marriage, and describe the functions which the members of these hybrid communities, are expected to perform in the social economy. A son begotten by a Brahmana father on a Kshatriya mother, is called Murdhabhishikta, while a. son by him on Vaisya woman, is called an Amvashta.
2A son by a Brahmana father on a Sudra woman, is called either a Nishada or a Parvata. O you, the best of erudite ones, a son begotten by a Kshatriya father on a Vaisya mother, is called a Mahisha, or Mlecchas.
3Son born of a Sudra mother by a member of the trading community (Vaisya) is called a Karana. A son born of a Brahmana mother by a Kshatriya father is called a Suta, while a son begotten by a Vaisya father on a Brahmana woman, is called as Vaidehka.
4A son born of a Brahmana mother by a Sudra father, is called a Candala the most abject of all social orders. A son born of a Kshatriya mother by a Vaisya father, is called a Magadha, while a son begotten by a Sudra father on a Khatrya mother is called a Ksetrabama.
5son begotten by a Sudra father on a Vaisya woman, is called an Ayogava. A son born o f a Karana mother by a Mahishya father, is called a Rathakara.
6-7aThese hybrid castes, whether begotten by members of the twice-born castes on Sudra mothers, or the contrary (Pratilornaja and Anulomaja) are all unsanctified races without any right to the sacramental rites or knowledge. The twice-born castes occupy the foremost place of all other social orders, as regards the glory of descent and sanctity, and a member, belonging to any of them, acquires the full privilege of his order at the fifth or at the seventh year of his age through his second birth in spirit.
7b-8aA householder shall daily perform the rites laid down in the Smritis with the help of the sacred fire, first lighted on the occasion of his marriage, and all Vedic rites should be performed in the same, save and except on the occasion of making gifts.
8b-9A member of the twice-born order shall leave his bed early in the morning, attend to the calls of nature, then wash and cleanse himself, specially cleansing the teeth with a crushed twig of any of the medicinal plants, and shall thereafter perform the rite of his daily Sandhya (worship). Then having cast libations of clarified fire in the sacred fire, he shall mentally repeat, in an unruffled spirit, the Mantras sacred to the Sun-God.
10Then having discoursed on the teachings of the Vedas and discussed several topics of the kindred branches of study, a householder shall resort to his god with the object of attaining divine beatitude through the practice of Yoga.
11Then having bathed, he shall propitiate the gods and his Pitris with libations of water and Worship them with the most heartfelt devotion. After that, he shall read several portions of the Vedas and the sacred Puranas.
12-13For the successful termination of his daily Japa-Yajna (divine meditation), he shall mentally recite the Adhyatmiki Vidyam. Offering of oblations to the created beings, to the gods, to the Pitris, and Brahma, casting of libations of clarified butter in the sacrificial fire, reading of the Vedic verses, and practice of hospitality to chance-comers, are the great daily religious sacrifices of all human beings.
14Libations of clarified butter should be cast in the sacred fire for the propitiating of the gods, and oblations of food stuff should be offered to the beasts (lit. created beings). Boiled rice should be offered in the open, and on the bare, ground for the use of the crows and the Candalas and similar oblations of cooked food (lit. rice) and libations of cold water should be daily offered to the gods and the Pitri.
15A (twice-born) householder shall daily read his Vedas and shall not cause any food to be cooked for his own exclusive use. He shall take his -meal with is wife, after having fed all the infants, old men, invalids, and girls in the family and all chance-comers to his house.
16-17He shall eat his meals without reading any fault with it, and after having per formed the rite of Homa to his vital (intestinal) fires. He shall first feed the boys and infants in the house and observe moderation in eating. A householder is hereby enjoined only to take that sort of food which is wholesome m its digestionary reaction (Vipakam).
18A member of the twice-born order shall convert his meal into ambrosia by performing the rite of Amritikaranam (transformation into ambrosia) and shall partake of the same m a covered place, screened from the view of the public. He shall distribute food to the chance corners to his house, and to the members of the remaining social order, as his means would admit of.
19-20He shall not look upon a chance comer to his house as an unwelcome intruder, nor try to identify him with another person, come on a previous occasion. Charities should be doled out to beggars and to men of commendable vows, and the Srotriyas, and all comers should be treated with a sumptuous repast. The Snatakas (performers of ceremonial ablutions). Acaryyas and the prince; should be feasted each year.
21A chance-comer, worn out with the fatigues af a long pedestrial journey, is called on Atithi, while a Brahmana, well-versed in the knowledge of the holy Vedas, is called a Srotriya.
22A householder shall revere the Srotriyas and the Atithis with a view to ascend to the region of Brahma after death. A householder of the twice-born order shall feel no inclination for a food, cooked and prepared by another, nor shall be make any reflections on another man’s conduct, except while deliberating a question of public interest in a council or meeting convened for the purpose.
23He shall not dangle his legs, nor listlessly move his arms, nor be hasty in his speech, and under no circumstance shall he indulge in the vice of over-eating. He shall escort a Srotriya or an Atithi to the border of his land or village, after having fed him well in his own house.
24-25He shall pass the closing part of the day in friendly gossips with his trusted and well-meaning friends. A householder shall leave his bed early in the morning and propitiate the gods and the Brahmanas with precious gifts. It is incumbent on a householder to ponder well over a matter be fore executing it (Vriddha Pantha), to be godly and devoted to the service of the deity, like a man in disease (Arta-Riti), and not to,suffer any delay in the execution of a work, when once he has chosen his line of action, like a load-carrier briskly running with his load in the way (Bharavahi Riti).
26-27The worldly duties of a Vaisya, or of a Kshatrya consist in the celebration of religious sacrifices, and in the study and practice of charities, while performance of religious rites, study of the Vedas, acceptance of gifts, practice of charities, teaching and officiating at the religious sacrifices of others in the capacity of a priest, are morally obligatory to a Brahrnana, living the life of a householder. The one and imperative duty of a Kshatriya is the protect the people from foreign invasions and civic or internal disturbances.
28Banking, merchandise, and rearing of large herds of cattle, are the functions which a member of the Vaisya (trading) community, is born to perform, while the sole duty of a Sudra is to render personal service to the fore most of the twice born castes.
29Truthfulness, annihilation’ of all killing or hostile propensities, non-stealing, personal cleanliness, and self-control, are the virtues, the practice whereof is equally obligatory on all human beings, irrespective of castes or functions in life.
30One should earn his livelihood by means proper to, and specifically enjoined in the Sastras for the ponticular community one would belong to, which should never be crooked or deceitful.
31He who is in the habit of taking rice, matured for more than three years, is alone fit to drink the holy Soma, while the person whose daily meals consist of boiled rice, not more than one year old, should perform the proper and necessary religious sacrifices before taking it.
32A householder shall duly celebrate, each Year, the Vedic sacrifices known as Soma, Pasupratyayanam, Grahaneshti, and Caturmasyam, in the failure whereof the one known as Vaisvanari, should be performed. A religious sacrifice should not be celebrated with a number of articles or offerings, less than that laid down in the Sastras in that behalf.
33By celebrating a religious sacrifice with money or articles begged of a Sudra, a Brahmana is sure to reincarnate as a Candala in his next existence.
34-35By stealing anything collected for the celebration of a religious sacrifice, the stealer becomes a crow or a Bhasa (bird) in his next birth. Of the four persons whose granary is filled with grains, who has got enough grain stored in his house to last him for three days, who has got sufficient only for a day’s use, and the person who lives by picking up grains from the stubbles (Unca-Vrtti), the each preceding one is happier and lives in greater comfort than the one immediately succeeding him in the order of enumeration.
36A Brahmana is prohibited from adopting a profession which is calculated to interfere with his studies and divine contemplation, and who, in want of the barest necessaries of life, may be allowed to beg of a pupil, of a king, or of a fellow Brahmana. Any dishonest means of livelihood or maintaining himself by passing off as a false prophet, or a false ascetic, is equally nefarious and criminal. It is sin for a Brahmana to earn money in pursuits of vanity.
37A householder shall put on clean clothes, shave himself and pare off his fingernails every day, and in short, must be cleanly in his habits. A man is enjoined not to sit down to his meals in the presence of his wife, and nor without being decently wrapped in his upper garment.
38A Brahmana should be always humble, and constantly wear his holy thread, nor shall he speak harsh to anybody.
39Micturation in a river-bed, in a shade, over ashes, in a pasturage, in water, or in the road, is forbidden, it being sinful for a man to pass urine while looking at the sun, or at the moon, or at the gloom of the evening, or at a woman, or at a Brahmana.
40One should not look at the blaze of fire, nor at any naked woman, nor at one sharing the bed of her husband, nor at any excreted matter, nor sleep with his head towards the west.
41-42It is forbidden to spit or throw blood, or poison, or any sort of excreta into water. It is injurious to bask one’s soles in the glare of fire, or to leap over a blazing fire, or to drink of the blended palms of one’s own hands, or to rouse up a sleeping person, or to play with any dishonest gambler, or to live in contact with any diseased person.
43Exposure to the smoke and vapours of a cremation ground, and residence on a riverbank, should be avoided as harmful. One should not stand over tom hairs, husks of grains, and ashes, nor upon particles of any human cranium.
44A cow should not be disturbed while drinking, nor a chamber should be entered into by any passage other than its proper door. Money or any pecuniary help should not be asked of a greedy king, nor of a person who does not live according to the injunctions of the Sastras.
45-46A rite of Upakarma (study of the Vedas after performing certain religious rites), should not be performed under the auspices of the full moon, of Sravana, or of the asterism of Sravana and Hasta, nor on the fifth day of the moon’s wane in the month of Sravana, nor on a day marked by the asterism of Rohini or Pushya, nor on the occasion of an Ashtaka. The stool, urine and other excreta should be put and deposited at a distance from one’s dwelling-house.
47-48The study of the Vedas should be discontinued for three successive days on the occasion of the death of one’s disciple, priest, spiritual preceptor, or a male cognate relation. Cessation of Vedic study should be enjoined on the happening of an earthquake, or meteor fall, or thunderclap, or on the death of a Srotriya Brahmana, and after finishing the recitation of a Veda and its allied Aranyakam by a student or pupil, duly initiated.
49-50A study of the Vedas is forbidden on days of the full and the new moon, as well as on the eighth or the fourteenth day of the moon’s wane or increase, on the occasion of a lunar eclipse, after eating, at the meeting of two seasons, after taking any gift, at any Sraddha ceremony, and on the passion of a snake, hog, mongoose, dog, or cat between the pupil and the preceptor at the time of study.
51A study of the Vedas should be discontinued just as the reader would hear the bark, or howl, or braying or screeching, or crying, or moaning of a dog, or a jackal or an ass, or an owl, or an infant or a sick person, as well as on the near approach of a dead body, or a Sudra, or any morally degraded person.
52-53aOne should refrain from studying the Vedas at an unholy place, in the road, on hearing a thunder clap, after dinner, in wet palms, in water, at the dead of night; in storm, on the appearance of meteoric flashes in the sky, in dust storm, at evening and during snowfall.
53b-54The Vedas should not be studied from a preceptor in motion, and be stopped on the advent of a holy person in the house, or while the disciple is riding elephant, a horse or a camel, or in a carriage, or climbing a tree or a hill, or crossing a river; these thirty seven occasions of non-study of the Vedas should be regarded as contingent on the happening of particular events, and as limited by the period of their respective durations.
55Acts enjoined in the Vedas, as well as the commands of a king or a preceptor, should be executed without questioning. The wife of another person, should never be polluted, and the shadow ( of a person) as well as all excreted matter, and oils and cosmetics for human use, should never be leapt over and crossed.
56It is a sin to make light of a king or of a brahmana, or of a snake, or of a disease lurking in the system. The refuges of tables and all sorts of excreta should be shunned from a distance as impure.
57One shall not repent after executing any act approved of the Srutis or the Srastras, nor question its propriety or ethical fairness. A son or a disciple should be flogged, at times, for the purpose of discipline.
58Virtue should be perpetually practised and by all means, and voice should be repressed and refrained from. One should not angrily dispute with one’s parents and’ guests (lit. chance comers at one’s house), even in the existence of a right cause for the same.
59One should not bathe in another’s tank before lifting five handful of clay from its bed, which rule does not hold good in respect of lakes, springs and other natural reservoirs of water.
60The bed of one should never be used by another and the food prepared by one’s own enemy, or by a Brahmana who is not a keeper of the sacred fire (Niragni), might be partaken of only in severe distress.
61-64A bad food, or the one prepared by a professional musician (lit. lute-player), or by a defiler of another man’s bed, or by a person who lives by making breaches among friends and relations (Varddhusika), or by Brahmana who is the spiritual preceptor of prostitutes, or by a professional physician, or by a professional actor, or by a dishonest and furious person, or by a member of any of the twice-born castes, not formally invested with the holy thread (Vratya), or by an arrogant braggart, or by one who eats the refuges of others men’s or by one who lives by selling knowledge, or by an uxorious husband, or by a village priest, or by a cruel king, or by a traitor, or by a public executioner or by a malicious. person, or by an utterer of falsehood, or by a wine-seller, or by a bard (Vandi), or by a goldsmith, should never be taken. The flesh of an animal not sacrificed to a god, or boiled rice infested with worms and hairs, should never be partaken of.
65-66aAn article of food, such as boiled rice etc., prepared on a previous day or night, or partaken of by another, or touched by a dog, or sprinkled over with water by a morally degraded person, or polluted by the touch of a woman in her menses, or squeezed by another, or smelled by a cow, or eaten by a bird, or trampled” down with foot, should be shunned, as impure and unwholesome.
66b-67A food (including boiled” rice), prepared by a Sudra, should be unconditionally rejected with the exception of one made by a Dasa, Copa, Kulamitra, Ardhasiri, Napita, or a Sudra, who has surrendered himself to a Brahmana, which may be eaten without any prejudice.
68Boiled rice, prepared on a previous day and kept soaked with clarified butter, may be, safely taken without any unwholesome effect. Articles made of wheat and barley, and without any admixture of clarified butter, should be rejected as food. The milk of a she-camel, or of any female animal with unbifurcated hoofs, should not be used.
69-71The flesh of any carnivorous bird or of a Dyatuha, as well as that of a dog, should never be eaten. The sin, conseguent on eating the flesh of a Sarasa, Harhsa (Ekasapha), Balaka, Baka or Tittibha, as well as the one originating from the use of l(rsra, Pupa, Sankull, etc., without dedicating them to one’s guest, or from that of the flesh of a swan, Kurura, Bhasa, Khanjana, or Suka, may be expiated by a three days fast.
72The use of garlic or onion in food, should be atoned by performing a Candrayana penance. The use of any cooked meat on the occasion of Sraddha ceremony, and after dedicating it ‘to one’s departed manes (Pitris) does not entail any sin.
73The soul of the person, who want only kills any animal in this life, lives for as many numbers of years in hell after death, as there are hairs on the body of that slaughtered animal, and who may be only rescued, if the god Hari kindly listens. to his constant prayers for expiation on the condition of his never killing any animal in his next re-birth.