On Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesvara and their Oneness ||2||
1Saunaka said: -please tell us how the lord created gods out of the constituents. O sage, I am not aware of the serial order of creation and their traits distinguishing one another.
2aThus spoken to by Saunaka, Suta said in reply.
2bSuta said: -O best of Brahmanic sages, you have put a pertinent question to me.
3abGaruda had put the same question to Vishnu. I shall tell you, O pious one, what Vishnu had proclaimed to Garuda.
3cGaruda said: -O blessed one, of the nature of existence, consciousness and bliss, please tell us how this universe came into being?
4When the process of creation is revealed, your excellence is manifested. I shall like to know the relative superiority of the gods, Brahma, Vishnu and others.
5What are the means whereby one can attain Moksha. Thus, questioned by Garuda lord Krishna spoke in reply.
6Sri Krishna said: -The eternal, indeclinable Vishnu is of the basic foray. Because he is all-pervasive, his incarnation as Krishna is known as complete.
7Manifested in multiform he becomes one at the time of dissolution.
8There too, there is a demarcating line. He, the supreme reality, should be known by all means.
9By knowing him as many, in different forms or many and-one or by observing his different traits, forms or components such as existence, consciousness and bliss, one is absolved of lamas immediately.
10-13When the hour of dissolution arrives, O best of birds, the forms of Vishnu that were manifest in different individuals assemble in the all-embracing body of Vishnu. O bird, they are united with the root. Vishnu becomes one with his reflection Jiva, then how can Jiva remain dependent on Vishnu.
14Thus they explain the meaning of Pratibimba. The difference between the two and reflection is obvious, therefore.
15Krishna, Rama and others of equal cadre are the emanations of basic reality. Though they manifest in different forms, they are not to be thought of as separate.
16-17Those who are in search. of reality should note a special point Jivas arc related to the root only partially. They stand as Jivas distinct from the root.
18The knowledge of the root is essential. Those who are not aware of the root are asuras. They think that by illusion, the nondual entity shows many forms as reflections in the mirror.
19But this sort of thinking takes them to the region of pitch darkness. The marks that distinguish Self from Supreme self are twofold: internal and external.
20The external marks disappear as the material dissolves. The internal difference remains seven in the state of release. If both the internal and external differences disappear (there being non-dual brahman in existence}, how can there be a difference due to reflection and the thing reflected?
21The distinguishing mark of the self-going to be released is consciousness or awareness (cit). The distinguishing mark of the Self to hell (region of darkness) is suffering.
22For the Jiva who is prone to migrate, the distinguishing mark is mixed (Cidrupa and Duhicharupa). The grass body is an external appendage for the seeker.
23As the evil-minded asuras of ten cause distress, Vishnu feels distressed on that account. Thus, the nature of the lord being none other than distress itself, the lord acquires nature of reflection.
24One should note the distinguishing mark of the lord’s reflection in the Daityas.
25Among the divine forms as that of Surya or of human forms as that of Sita, there is not in the least any difference internal or external.
26He who ponders over the difference goes to hell. The image of an object or a person reflected in the mirror is always akin to the object or person reflected.
27At the hour of dissolution, O best of birds, the was in the form of lord’s reflection do not merge into lord.
28Not even the slightest doubt be entertained, O son of Vinata, about the nondifference between reflection and the object reflected.
29-30When the hour of dissolution arrives the lord sleeps in the ocean keeping Jivas in his belly, also the released souls, Brahma, Maruts, etc., as well as those going to be liberated, those present in hell, those who are likely to fall, those who are stationary, those who rotate on the wheel of life and death, those who are wild beasts, bears, etc. Keeping all these in the belly the lord sleeps in waters for duration of a Kalpa.
31Lakshmi corresponds knowledge embodied in the Vedas, she is nourished by devotion to Vishnu. She exhibits devotion to Vishn by the movements of her body and offers homage to the lord.
32There was nothing but Vishnu and Laksmi as the creation came into being.
33The goddess Lakshmi served as a couch to the lord. She was her lord’s abode. Among the females she was the first who praised the lord us.
34In your excellence, you exceed all. None is comparable to you, none excels you. You alone are the non-dual Brahma. The term is applicable neither to Brahma nor to Lakshmi nor to Rudra nor to Brihaspati.
35The term is applicable primarily to Vishnu. It is secondarily applicable to Brahma, Rudra and others. Being the storehouse of endless merits Vishnu is caged Brahma.
36Other gods contain no fulness of merits, hence they are not called Brahma.
37-38They are non-eternal in relation to space or time. No problem could have arisen, were they found eternal in all respects. But the problem stands, for Brahma and other gods are not eternal due to the shortage of their merits. Though I am comparable to lord Vasudeva, in respect of eternality in relation to time and space, I am not equal to him in the fulness of merit. The Vedas declare your manifold merits which in all authoritative texts remain uncontradicted. Your merits are endless, some being manifest and some hidden.
39-43Therefore, we are unable to evaluate your merits. Neither I, nor Sarasvati; Siva, Rudra, Sati, the daughter of Daksha, Parvati the daughter of Menaka or Mena, lndra, Indrani, Agni, Yama, Narada, Bhrgu, Vasishtha, Ganesa, Bali, Virata, Bhuman, Sami, Kaseru, Kinnara, manes, gods Gandharvas, Tusyas, kings and their proteges can praise your Virtue. Brahma is inferior to me by crones of merits. Vayu being equal to Brahma is inferior to me by the same number. The two are equal to each other in the matter of detachment, in their devotion to Vishnu, in their courage, stability, life strength, restraint and intellect from the origin to the dissolution of the. universe. The two are inseparable in the exercise of their power or support.
44The Vedas equate Vishnu with Brahma in support of the universe. They declare Vayu as Jiva the life principle of the universe. Brahma cannot function as the creator without the support of Vayu.
45-46Vayu cannot function without the support of Brahma. They support each other in activating the universe. Their mutual superiority can very well be evaluated by taking recourse to time. When lord Brahma controlled the principle of intellect from activating material creation lying dormant in the universal egg, Vayu was unable to set it in motion. The evolution of the universe was the event of later date.
47The honourable Sarasvati was born after Brahma had completed his one year. When ten years were completed, the honourable Vayu came into being. In the material world, Vayu is inferior to Vishnu. But their coordination does not suffer by this inferiority.
48Sarasvati was born after Brahma completed a year. Sarasvati is therefore inferior to Vishnu in respect of time. Vayu is much more inferior in the same respect.
49After Vayu had completed a year Vak was born. As it was born after, it perished early.
50Sesha, the lord of snakes, Indra, and Rudra the three are equal in knowledge, strength and spirit. Still they are inferior to each other in respect of time. They last for two thousand divine years.
51Sesha, Rudra, Brahma and Vayu are of equal cadre and equal efficacy in the process of evolving the material creation. They are inferior to one another only in respect of time. But this inferiority should be totally ignored.
52Varuni, Parvati and Sauparna the three were born after ten years. They should be treated at par with Sarasvati and Bharati.
53Indra is superior to Rudrani (wife of Rudra). This knowledge is always gainful. Possessed of this knowledge one is called the knower. He alone has the knowledge of the Vedas.
54One who is ignorant of different traits of gods is not the knower of the Vedas. He is merely a Veda-Vadin, not a Veda-Pathaka.
55Whatever syllables of the Vedas are repeated by men of three castes, constitute the very names of Hari which are ever dear to him.
56Hari is my master. I am a life-long slave of Hari. Brahma and other gods are my life preceptors.
57The Vedas declare Hari as the lord of all. He who learns the Vedas with this knowledge is the best of the twice born.
58He alone is the knower of the Vedas. Other than him is only a Veda-Vadin who carries the burden of the Vedas on his shoulders.
59-60Men possessing knowledge of Brahman (Supreme reality) and that of the supreme text (viz., the Vedas) speak to each other thus Veda is water wherein abides Vishnu. Men of teaching and other professions incur countless sins which out of compassion, he condones if they utter his three names.
61The Supreme lord, when he observes that a guiltless person, with an honourable place in society, has committed a sinful deed, is extremely irritated and howls at him.
62O Govinda, you can be realized only by means of true knowledge, not by any other means. You are of the nature of bliss. Rise, O Kesava and be favourable to me. O lord, you have the power to create as well as dissolve the Universe.
63You generate Brahma and urge him to create the Universe. You generate Rudra and urge him to dissolve it. You observe god Brahma, Sesha and the rest who are worthy of approach.
64Rise up, O Hari, that are ever watchful. Deprived of true knowledge and engrossed in worldly affairs from Kalpa to Kalpa, I undergo tortuous pains of unbearable suffering, O lord.
65O Hari, you are of the nature of conscious-ness (Cit Sakti). You throw sinful Daityas and evil-minded persons in the dungeon full of intense darkness. They say you are of the nature of suffering, O Hari, since you are distressed by that act of yours.
66Rise, O Narayana, Vasudeva, Krishna, Acyuta, Madhava, Vaikuntha, lord of Lakshmi, of compassionate nature. Homage to you.
67Rise, O lord of Madhu, lord of Sarasvati, Lord of Rudra, lord of Ambika, lord of the moon, lord of Saci, lord of the Brahmins, lord of devotion, lord of cows. Rise, O lord.
68You that are fond of sastras, rise up. You that are fond of Rik hymns rise up. You that are fond of Yajus rise up. You that are a primary cause and fond of Saman, rise up. You that are the enemy of Mura and fond of Atharva lore, rise up.
69-70You that are of primeval form, you that are fond of prose, you that are of variegated form, you that are fond of praise, you that are lord of Lakshmi we please you with melodious song. Rise, O lord, rise immediately.