Differences between Three Gunas and on Brahmadeha ||4||
1When the lord created the three Gunas, their composite form being Prakriti, there Fs rang up Lakshmi in her threefold form, viz., Sri, Bhu and Durga.
2Sri was characterized by sattva, Bhu by rajas and Durga by tamas. Thus, say the wise.
3O lord of birds, one should not recognize any difference among Sri, Bhu, Durga-the three forms of Lakshmi.
4Those who recognize difference among the three, by virtue of three distinct Gunas are thrown in the pitch-dark regions. Purusa assumed three forms: Vishnu, Brahma and Siva, each containing the respective Guna: Sattva, Rajas and Tamas.
5Vishnu pervaded the universe to sustain people with sattva Guna. He inspired Brahma to create beings with rajas Guna.
6Brahma created the universe with rajas Guna. Hence, Brahma is the first creator and not Vishnu. Vishnu inspired Rudra to annihilate the world with Tamo Guna.
7Vishnu, when he inspired Rudra, was called Rudra. But Rudra and Vishnu are not identical. Vishnu is not identifiable with Brahma either.
8Brahma and Rudra are pervaded by Vishnu. This very knowledge leads one to release. It is never otherwise.
9They should recognize the respective functions of the three; Brahma, Vishnu. and Rudra. Those who do not recognize the same go to terrific hells whence there is no return.
10The eternal lord Vishnu pervaded the gums and activated them for the purpose of creation.
11Mien the three Gunas were activated there was evolved Mahat out of the constituents of the three gums.
12Out of Mahat were evolved Brahma and Vayu. They were born twins after the lapse of a year since Mahat came into being.
13Mahat being activated by rajas, the creation was evolved out of the Gunas in the state of imbalance.
14Garuda said: -O son of Devaki, you have explained to me the nature of creation evolved out of the Gunas. I have gained by your grace the correct knowledge of the principle of Mahat in imbalance.
15-20O lord, now explain to me the significance of the Gunas in imbalance. Lord Krishna said: -O lord of birds, before I explain to you the Gunas in imbalance, I shall explain to you, first of all, what Gunas in equilibrium would signify and before I do that O lord of birds, I shall explain to you the portion of the Gunas in their material forms, ether, etc. With the aggregate of Tamas, O lord of birds, were joined the particles of Rajoguna twice in proportion. With the aggregate of Rajas, O son of Vinata, were joined the particles of Sattva Guna twice in proportion. The Gunas are evolved out of the primordial nature, they are not primary. Since forms of Prakriti are many and not categorizable, the Gunas are secondary, not primary.
21Tims I have explained to you, O lord of buds, the nature of the Gunas, their number and the way how they function.
22Of the three Gunas, the sattva alone is pure. O Garuda, it is not mixed with Rajas Guna or Tamas Guna.
23It is called Kevala Sattva, not that it is superior to other Gunas but because it was the only existing Guna at the beginning of Creation which got mixed with the rest at the time of dissolution.
24-25O lord of birds, the sattva remains pure at all times (except at dissolution). Those who think contrarily enter the lower regions of pitch darkness. O lord of birds, only the Rajas and lamas are mixed Gunas.
26O lord of birds, they are mixed at the beginning and at the end of creation. With the aggregate of Rajas, more than a hundred part of Sattva is mixed, O best of birds, it is not otherwise
27-28O son of Vina ta, of the aggregated hundred parts of Rajas one part is lamas. It is mixed with the aggregated part of Rajas.
29O dear, such is the position of the aggregated rajas mixed with lamas. In the aggregated lamas, there is mixed sattva, O son of Vinata.
30O Garuda, sattva is mixed with Tamas approximately more than the tenth part of Tamas.
31O son of Vinata, with the ten aggregated parts of tamas is mixed Rajas in one tenth part.
32O best of birds, this is the position of the aggregated tamas.
33-37Garuga said: -O lord of Satvatas, I have strong doubts in regard to that. In an aggregated Guna, whatever parts of another aggregated Guna are found in greater or smaller proportion, the Guna acquires that name, like the milk in water, how is that? O lord! On hearing the query of Garuda, the lord spoke with great affection, appreciating the query of his devotee. The Lord said: -O lord of birds, the aggregated sattva is greater than the aggregated rajas or aggregated tamas. Sattva is not minted either with rajas or with tamas. The learned declare the aggregated rajas or tamas by those very names and not by any other.
38Poison mixed with milk or sacrificial oblation is nothing but poison, the same is the position of Gunas, O bird.
39-43O lord of birds, I shall now tell you of the state of equilibrium of the Gunas. Whatever is the product of aggregated rajas, whatever has entered in the Mahat principle is also called Rajas. When the hour of dissolution comes, rajas remains in Mahat by twelve parts. In the aggregated Sattva it remains by ten parts; in the aggregated tamas by one part, O bird. A part of aggregated Rajas remains in Rajas by one part.
44Thus, O bird, the principle of Mahat is dissolved in the three Gunas.
45O lord of birds, when the gums are mined in equal proportion, the learned declare it to be the equilibrium of Gunas.
46Those who think otherwise, are placed ill the pitch-dark regions.
47O lord, tell me, in brief, how the aggregated Gunas stand in equilibrium, at the time of final dissolution (Pralaya).
48The Lord said: -The learned declare that the aggregated Gunas stand in equilibrium, being mixed together.
49-53O dear, now, I shall tell you about the imbalance of Gunas. The Rajas which remained mixed by ten parts with sattva, by one part with tamas, by one part with Rajas at the time of dissolution, remains mixed by ten parts with sattva, by one part with rajas and by one part with tamas. Thus, the twelve parts stand conjoined and constitute Mahat. O son of Vinata, there is another specialty in this context.
54In the principle of Mahat, one part is Tamas. Thus the Mahat principle is mixed with all Gunas.
55-56Garuda said: -O lord of Satvatas, I have heard, formerly from Brahma that the Mahat principle was evolved out of four components of guess, i.e. one part of tamas and three parts of Rajas.
57Thus, the principle of Mahat consists of four parts, being the form of Brahma himself which the learned declare to be due to the imbalance of Gunas.
58It is evolved out of thirteen parts, O fond of devotees and merciful one, please clear my doubts regarding this point.
59-62Sri Krishna said: -What Brahma had stated to you and what I have said just now is not open to doubt. Rajas is mixed with primary sattva by ten parts, the total is but one constituent. The second constituent consists of Rajas extent in the primary rajas. The third constituent consists of rajas present in the primary tamas. The fourth constituent consists of one part of Rajas present in the primary Tamas being designated as Tamas.
63Thus, the three parts of rajas and one part of Tamas constitute the body of Brahma due to the imbalance of guess.
64Garuda said: -Mahat consists of four parts, of which the three are Rajas, one is Tamas-this is what you have declared to me.
65O lord, it appears from your statement that the body of Brahma is constituted of Rajas.
66There is a doubt, O lord, on this point. The body of Brahma is constituted of pure sattva, they say. How could it be formed of Rajas.
67-68In the threefold Rajas of twelvefold aggregate there exists Sattva tenfold more in proportion to Rajas.
69In the threefold Rajas of twelvefold aggregate, there exists Sattva tenfold more, in proportion to Tamas. In the threefold Rajas of twelvefold aggregate there exists tamas eleven-fold more in proportion to Tamas.
70In the threefold Rajas of twelvefold aggregate there exists Rajas one-fold more in proportion to tamas. Now, I shall tell you about the mixed parts, hear, O Wise one.
71-72The material that constitutes Mahat, O lord of birds, consists of thirteen parts of Gunas of which Rajas contributes twelve portions ay tamas one. I shall tell you about their sub-division. First of all, I shall tell you about the parts of Gunas.
73Parts of Rajas: One part of Tamas, ten parts of Rajas, one part of Sattva-twelve parts in all.
74Parts of Tamas: One part of Rajas, eleven parts of Tamas.
75Parts of Sattva: Ten parts of Sattva. Such is the position of Sattva in the Mahat principle.
76Since Brahma is constituted of more sattva parts than any other deity, he is called Buddha Sattva i.e. consisting of pure Sattvika quality.
77I have thus told you about the constituents of Mahat, O son of Vinata, the knowledge whereof leads one to release from the cycle of birth.