Discussion between Krishna and Garuda on Death in Pancaka ||4||
1Sri Krishna said: -Whatever sin a man commits consciously or unconsciously stands in need of purification by means of atonement.
2The wise one should first perform ten types of baths beginning with Bhasma. These should be observed, as far as possible for six years repeatedly.
3Or half of that or half of that or half of the half of that. Then as far as he can he should donate ten gifts. Now hear about them.
4Cow, earth, gingelly seeds, gold, butter, cloth, grains, sugar, silver and salt-these are known as ten gifts.
5-6He should make these gifts to those who have come during atonement. Then to cross the river Vaitarani full of pus and blood, at Yama’s door he should donate the Vaitarani cow. A black cow with black udders is called Vaitarani.
7-8Gingelly seeds, iron, gold, cotton, salt, seven grains, earth and cow, these are all pure. These eight precious gifts should be given to a learned Brahmana by the dying person. I shall now tell you about the form of Pada.
9Umbrella, shoes, clothes, ring, gourd, seat, vessel and food-these are the eight kinds of Pada.
10A vessel full of gingelly seeds or butter arid a bed with all its equipment should be gifted or all those articles which are liked by the donor.
11Horse, chariot, she-buffalo, fan and cloth all these should be given to the brahmanas.
12-14O Lord, these gift and others should be given as far as possible. He who has done atonement, given ten gifts on this earth, or the gift of Vaitarani cow or eight gifts or the gifts of a vessel full of gingelly seeds or clarified butter or the gift of bed or of pada, as prescribed in the Sastras does not go hell. The wise have prescribed the gift of salt to be given freely.
15The salt is produced from the body of Vishnu. When the soul of the dying person does not leave the body but lingers on, the salt should be gifted as it opens the door of the heaven.
16Whatever gifts a man has given himself they all stand in his favour (at the hour of death).
17O bird, the man who has completed atonement in all its parts is placed in heaven, after all his sins are washed away.
18O noble bird, since the cow’s milk is nectar whosoever gifts a cow attains immortality.
19Whosoever gives the- eight gifts lives in the abode of the Gandharvas.
20He gets shelter even in the tortuous hell named. Raudra where the sinners are burnt. If he gifts an umbrella, he encounters the comforting shade in the way.
21So also he passes comfortably through the fierce Asipatravana. If he gifts shoes, he moves there too mounting a horse.
22If he gifts food and seat he eats sitting comfortably in the way. If he gifts a water jar he feels comfortable even. in the waterless region.
23He who gifts clothes and ornaments liberally is not tortured by the fierce messengers of Yama who are black and yellow in colour.
24O bird, if a· vessel full of gingelly seeds is donated to a Brahmana it destroys all the three types of sins born out of his voice, body and mind.
25-26If he gifts a vessel full of clarified butter he stays. in Rudraloka. If he gifts abed along with all its equipment, he rides an aerial car in the company of fairies and enjoys in the abode of lndra for sixty-thousand years.
27-28After falling down from Indraloka he becomes am on arch in this world. He who gifts a young faultless horse along with all equipment to a Brahmana lives in heaven, O bird, for years, equal to the number of hair on the body of a horse.
29-30If he gifts a chariot drawn by four horses along with the contiguous equipment to a learned Brahmana he reaps, the benefit of performing a Rajasuya.
31If he donates to a Brahmana a milk yielding buffalo with her plump hind parts, and a golden ornament on her preached accompanied by her satiated calf, what wonder is there that he attains heaven.
32If he donates a fan (Talavrita), he is fanned by air in the way. If he donates doth he becomes full of lustre, wealth and prosperity.
33If he donates a horse along with salt, food and other ingredients to a Brahmana, his family does not suffer a break and he goes to heaven after death.
34O bird, there is a difference in result according to faith and gifts.
35The who donates water and salt gets enjoyment in distress.
36He who donates food with a heart purified by faith is satiated even without food.
37If he accepts Samnyasa as prescribed in the sacred texts he is not reborn but is merged into Brahma itself.
38If he dies at a sacred place he attains Moksha (release from re-birth) after dying there. If he dies in the way, each and every step he has taken m reaching this place procures for him the fruits of performing a sacrifice. There is no doubts in this.
39If he undertakes a fast unto death he does not return to this world, O bird.
40I have given the answer to your queries about gifts. Now, I shall tell you about the obsequies and the funeral rites of the deceased.
41When it is ascertained that life has gone out of the body, the son should bathe and wash the corpse with pure water without delay.
42Having clothed it afresh they should smear the body with the sandal-paste. The son or the successor should perform the Ekoddista rite afterwards.
43Then the arrangement for cremating the corpse should be made as far as the means allow.
44The following four should not be undertaken in the cremation rite: Avahana, Arcana, Patralambha and Avagahana.
45Let there be Sankalpa for each gift and let there be a Pindadana. The five art ides common to every Sacrifice should not be there. The libation of water should be given but not the trio.
46Svadha-Vacana Asisha and Titaka, O bird. A vessel full of mustard should be given. Iron should also be gifted.
47The Pinda-calana rite is followed but not the following three, Pracchadana, visarga and Svastivacana.
48-49Procedure has been laid down for six sraddhas, at six places; at the place of death, at the door, at the crossroads, at the place of rest, on the woodpile and at the collection rite. The dead body is called lava at the place of death. The deity Earth is pleased thereby.
50It is called Pantha at the door; the deity Vastu is pleased. It is called Khecara at the crossroads; the deity Bhuta is pleased.
51It is called Bhuta in the resting place. The ten quarters are satisfied thereby. It is called Sadhaka on the pyre and Preta at the collection rite.
52Holding gingelly seeds, Darbha, clarified butter, the sons and other relatives go round the pyre reciting Gatha or the Sukta of Yama.
53Taking cow, horse, man and bull everyday Yama is not satiated just as a wicked person is not satiated with wine.
54They should recite the Gatha or the hymn Apeta in the way. The relatives accompany the corpse to a forest in the southern direction.
55O bird, in the aforesaid manner the two sraddhas should be performed in the way.
56Then the corpse should be laid lightly on the earth with its head to the south and the aforesaid sraddha should be performed. The sons should fetch dry grass, dry pieces of wood and gingelly seeds.
57If these are fetched by a Kdra each and every act done in favour of the deceased would go futile. The performer of the funeral rite should wear the sacred thread over the right shoulder and should sit, along with the mourners, facing the south.
58O bird, an altar should be made there as prescribed. The cloth for the corpse should be tom into twofold pieces and the corpse should be covered with the one-half.
59The other half should be spread over the earth. The Pinda should be kept in the hand of the deceased as stated before.
60The corpse should be anointed with the clarified butter. Now hear about the Pitra-vidhi for the deceased prior to his cremation.
61By virtue of the aforesaid five Pindas, the departed soul attains fitness for becoming a mane (Pitar). Or else, it attains the form of a demon.
62Having cleansed and smeared the ground at the altar, the fire should be lit as prescribed.
63-64Having worshipped the deify named Kravyad with flowers and grains of rice, the wise man should lighten fire according to the Vedic rites, but avoid Candala, Cita or Patita fires.
65You are the creator of creatures, the birthplace of the world, the protector of the people. Please therefore, consume the corpse and carry the soul to the heaven”- having thus worshipped the deity Kravyada the meat devouring fire god, he should set fire to the corpse.
66-68When the body is half-burnt, a quantity of clarified butter should be poured over it with the mantra: Thou are born from it, you be born again. Let this be for heaven, Svaha He should recite this mantra announcing the name of the deceased and pour forth butter along with the gingelly seeds while the relatives weep loudly.
This gives comfort to the departed soul (still wandering in the air). After cremating the corpse, the rite of collection should be done there.
69-70O bird, Preta-Pinda is given in order to comfort the deceased. Then having circumambulated the pyre and casting a mournful look at it, the mourners should go for bath muttering the hymn, with the youth marching ahead.
71Then having reached water and washed cloth, they should wear the same saying for the deceased, -we are taking bath.
72-73Then they all, each wearing one cloth only, with shaven heads, wearing the sacred thread over the right shoulder should enter water silently.
74-76The bathers should not agitate Water. Then coming out of the water to the bank, tying their Sikha (knot of hair in the centre of the head) they should take in their right hand kusas and water with the gingelly seeds and offer the same in the southern direction, pouring it from the Paitrika-tirtha over the earth silently once, thrice or ten times.
77Be gratified, be gratified with this Pinda. O Preta of such and such gotra. Let this water reach you; reciting this formula he should let the water go down.
78After giving the water offerings he should cleanse his teeth, O bird. The water offering shall be done regularly for nine days by all his kith and kin.
79Then coming out of water, they wear the same clothes as before, while they rinse the bathing dress which they spread over the clean earth (for drying).
80They should abstain from shedding tears while giving the water-offerings after cremation. But if they shed tears and vomit cough, the departed spirit consumes the same helplessly.
81Hence, they should neither weep nor cough. The entire ritual should be performed according to the means.
82-85And when they have sat quietly, a learned person well versed in the Purana should alleviate the sorrow discoursing on the temporality o time and the unsubstantial nature of the universe. He should tell the: about the hollow-ness of life and if anybody searches substance inside the human body resembling the trunk of a banana plant, he is a perfect fool; for it is like the water bubble. The body is constituted of five elements and if it goes back to the elements by virtue of bodily actions wats is there to be lamented for? The earth, ocean and even deities are bound to be destroyed. The same fate awaits the universe which has arisen like a bubble. How it can escape destruction? Thus, he should speak to them about the transient nature of life, while they ail sit on the soft grass in the courtyard of the cremation ground.
86-87Having heard this, the mourners should return home with the youngsters walking in front. At the door of their house they should chew the Margosa leaves, rinse their mouths with water and touching cow dung, gingelly seeds, Durva grass, coral, bull or any other auspicious thing and keeping their feet lightly on the stone should enter the house.
88-90Ahitagni should kindle the sacred fire according to the Vedic rites. He should not dig up the earth for less than two years. The water-offering should be made (on return to the house). A woman who has been chaste and faithful to her husband should mount on the pyre after bowing to her (deceased) husband before the funeral rites start. One who gets away from the pyre due to fainting should observe the vow named Prajapatya.
91One who ascends the pyre and follows up her husband stays in heaven for a period equal to the number of hairs on the body, three and a half Crore.
92Just as the snake-charmer takes out the snake from the hole so also, she takes out her husband from hell and enjoys with him in paradise.
93She who ascends the pyre goes to heaven. She is praised by the celestial nymphs and enjoys with her husband so long as the fourteen Indras rule in heaven successively.
94Even if the man has killed a Brahmana or a friend or any other person of noble conduct, he is purified of sins by his wife who ascends his pyre.
95A woman who enters fire after the death of her husband prospers in the heaven like Arundhati.
96Until and unless the woman bums herself after her husband’s death, she is never released from the bond other sex.
97A woman who follows her husband purifies the three families on her mother’s side, the three families on her father’s side and the three families on her husband’s side.
98-100That woman is chaste who is sad when her husband is sad, who is glad when her husband is glad and who pines when he is out of station and dies when he is dead. Common rites are enjoined for all women right from Brahman! to Candali except for those who are pregnant or who have young children.
101O bird, I have told you in general about the method of cremating the corpse. Do you want to hear something more with reference to it.
102Garuda said: -If a man dies out of station and his bones too are destroyed, then how should the rite of cremation be performed. Tell me, O lord of the world!
103Sri Krishna said: -If the bones of a person who died abroad are not available, I shall tell you about the procedure of rites of his death.
104-109O Garuda hear. I shall now tell you the great secret about the rite of death of those who die through serpent, tiger, toothed, head breaking homed animals, disease, stone, water, Brahmana, dog, nails, iron; those who die of hunger, poison, fire and cholera; those who are killed by a bull, a thief, a Candala, a woman in her menses, Sunaki, Sudra, washer man; those who commit suicide or die by fall from a tree, hill, wall or precipice; those who die in water, on cot, in firmament, in bondage.
110-112All these deaths are known as bad deaths where norite of Aurdhvadehika or Pinda is performed. If the same is done by mistake it is all destroyed in the air.
113But desiring welfare of the deceased and out of fear of the people’s reproach his sons or grandsons or Sapindas should perform Narayana Bali, O bird.
114By that the relatives of the deceased are purified. This is stated by Yama. There are no other means. When Narayana Bali is performed, they become fit for Aurdhvadehika.
115-116Except Narayana Bali, there is no rite for their purification. The Narayana Bali should be performed in some holy place, through the Brahmanas, preferably in the temple of lord Krishna for the sake of purification. At first, water-offering should be made by the Brahmanas well versed-in the Veda and the Parana.
117This should be done for lord Vishnu with herbs and Aksatas mingled with water by reciting the Purusa-Sukta or the mantras of Vishnu, facing south and remembering Vishnu as well as the deceased.
118Vishnu should be thought of as beginning less fearing conch, discus and mace, who is immortal, who has eyes as lovely as a lotus and who renders Moksa to the Preta.
119At the end of water-offering he should remain calm, desireless and free from envy.
120Having controlled his sense-organs and mind and being full of devotion he should devoutly perform the eleven Sraddhas.
121Performing all rites with concentrated mind he should give water, rice, barley, wheat and long pepper.
122He should give ablation, coins, umbrella, turban, milk with honey.
123Eight types of pada should also be given along with clothes and shoes. They should be given essentially for all sins without break.
124The Pindas should be placed on the earth together with incense, flowers and Akshata and be gifted to Brahmanas as prescribed for the ritual.
125Water-offering should, be made by conch, sword, or copper, by each separately.
126He should meditate while kneeling on the earth on Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Yama and the deceased who is the-fifth.
127Then in separate pitchers he should keep five jewels, cloth, sacred thread of Mudga.
128Five sraddhas should be done for deities as prescribed in the ritual. Then on each Pinda, separately, water should be poured.
129In conch or in a vessel of copper and if that is not available, in an earthen pitcher he should keep water full of gingelly seeds and containing specified herbs.
130The copper-vessel with gold and Dakshina should be given to a learned Brahmana. For Yama iron with gingelly seeds should be given together with Dakshina.
131-132Thus by giving Vishnu-Bali according to the procedure and his means he can secure the release of the deceased very quickly. There is no doubt in this. If a person dies of snakebite, there is a specific rite to be performed for him.
133A serpent made of gold and a milk cow should be given to a Brahmana in the prescribed way. Thereby he becomes free from the debt which he-owes to the manes.
134By giving snake-ablation thus, he becomes free from Sarpadosha.
135Then he should make an effigy of the deceased out of Oshadhis and the stalks of Palasa. O bird, I shall now tell you about the details. Black deerskin should be spread and the effigy should be made of grass.
136Three hundred and sixty stalks should be spread over his limbs separately.
137Forty represent the bones on the head, ten on neck, twenty on chest, twenty on stomach.
138A hundred on both the hands, twenty on waist, a hundred on both thighs, three hundred on both shanks.
139Four on the generating organ, six on both scrotums, ten on the toes.
140Coconut on the head, Tumba for palate, five jewels for mouth and plantain for tongue.
141Nalika for intestine, Valuka for nose, earth for marrow, so for all Haritala and Manahi-sila.
142Mercury for semen, brass for the waist, Manahi-sila for all limbs, Tilapakva for the joints.
143Yava-pista for meat, honey for blood, Jata Jusha for hair and deerskin for skin.
144-146Talapatra for ears, Gunjas for breasts, Satapatra for nose, lotus for navel, Brinjala for scrotums, Grinjana for penis, clarified butter for the navel and Trapu for Kaupina, pearls (Mauktika) for the breasts, saffron, camphor, aguru, incense for the forehead and scented garlands for the neck.
147-148Thus the garment and the silk-thread on the chest, Riddhi-Vriddhi for the arms, Kapardikas for eyes, seeds of pomegranate for teeth, Campaka for fingers, Sindhura for eye-comers and Tambula for the gift.
149Thus the effigy of the deceased should be made of Oshadhis. Worship should be performed as prescribed, before the sacrificial fire with the sacrificial vessels if the deceased person kept fire in the house.
150Reciting the mantra Sriyahi Punantu Me Sirahi or Imam Me Varuna he should sprinkle water made pure by contact with the Salagrama gild. He should gift a gentle milk cow to a Brahmana for the propitiation of god Vishnu.
151-152Gingelly seeds, iron, gold, cotton, salt, seven grains, earth, all these are called purificatory. Then a vessel full of gingelly seeds should be given as also the gift of Pada.
153A Vaishnava Sraddha should be performed for the release of the deceased from Pretahood. Thus thinking about Vishnu in the heart one can get the deceased released immediately from Pretahood.
154Having made the effigy of the deceased in this way, he should bum the same in the prescribed way. As for the purification of the deceased he should observe atonement.
155Three Kricchras should be performed, or six, or twelve, or fifteen, for the sake of atonement as prescribed for a Brahmana.
156If one cannot do so; one should donate a milk cow or gold. If he cannot do that, he should perform a sort of purification.
157That which is performed without purification, does not stay. It is all destroyed in the air.
158-161After purification the rite of Aurdhvadehika should be performed for the deceased. If a person performs obsequies without doing atonement consciously or unconsciously in favour of the deceased, he incurs sin. I shall now tell you how he can eliminate the sins of omission and commission. If one has set fire to the corpse or taken bath in water, touched or carried the corpse, cut the-ropes binding the corpse, or shed tears. after cremation or delivered funeral ovation, he is purified by Taptakricchra. Anyone of those who carry the corpse or cremate the dead may do Katodaka-Kriya and perform Kricchra Santapana. A little should be done if the cause be small and much should be done if the cause be big.
162Garuda said: -O lord observing good vows, please explain to me the details of Kricchra, Tapta-Kricchra and Santapana.
163-164Sri Krishna said: -O bird, hear. If he eats for three days in the morning and for three days in the evening and observes fast for three days, the Vrata is called Kricchra. If he drinks hot milk, clarified butter and once water in a day and observes fast for one night, the Vrata is called Taptalkricchra.
165For one day, each one should take cow’s urine, cow-dung, milk, curd, clarified butter and w&ter purified by the holy grass and observe fast the next day, the Vrata is called Kricchra Santapana.
166O bird, thus I have told you the rites to be performed for Durmrita. He is known Mrita if they perform for him the rite of Dipa.
167Then they should perform cremation and observe impurity for three days. Then for ten days the rite of Garta-Pinda should be performed for the deceased.
168All these rites should be performed for the person who died abroad. However, if the person concerned returns home, after his effigy has been burnt thinking him to his dead.
169Then the person thought to be dead should take bath in the Ghritakunda and go through all the rites from Jatakaraman onward.
170-171He should marry his wife again, O bird. If one remains out of station for fifteen or twelve years and his whereabouts remain unknown, his effigy should be burnt. Now hear specially about the death of Rajasvala and Sutika.
172When a Sutika is dead, the performers of obsequy do thus: Water is taken in the pitcher. So also Pancagavya.
173Then water is purified by reciting Punyaha mantras. Then the bathing is done by the water cooled by hundred winnowing fans.
174When the bathing is done they should start the rite of cremation, O lord of birds. The deceased Rajasvala is bathed by Pancagavya.
175Her worn clothes are changed for the fresh ones and the cremation is done as prescribed. Now hear, I shall tell you about the rites to be performed for those who die during the Pancaka.
176-177The five constellations from Dhanishta to Revati are always inauspicious. Cremation should not be done on these days. It is tortuous to all creatures. Water-offering should also be avoided, for it is inauspicious on these days.
178All rites should be performed after the Pancaka is over. If done otherwise, sons or close relatives are affected thereby.
179If one dies during, these constellations and his cremation is performed during this period his family suffers tremendously.
180Cremation is harmless during the period if the following injunctions are observed strictly. Brahmanas should perform sacrifice along with Ahuti mantras.
181-182Close to the place of corpse, four effigies made of grass should be raised and then thrown into the pyre while the Brahmanas recite the mantras of constellations. Then after completing the days of impurity, the rite Santikapaushtika should be performed by the sons of the deceased.
183For the deceased to obtain heaven, cow, gold, butter and gingelly seeds should be gifted.
184To the Brahmanas should be given gifts to quell all obstacles. Food, shoes, umbrella, gold-coin and clothes should be given as gifts to get release from sin.
185Thus I have told you all about the rites for the deceased, how the dead goes to Yama’s abode and what are the post-death rites over a year for him.