Discussion between Krishna and Garuda on Yamaloka ||5||
1Sri Krishna said: -Thus having burnt the corpse, having taken bath and offered sesame water, they should return home, with woman-folk proceeding ahead.
2In the way, they should consume leaves of Margosa tree and rinse their mouths while sitting on stone.
3Then having entered the house, the sons and relatives of the deceased should observe Asauca for ten nights.
4-5Having brought food from the market, they should take meals. During the days of impurity, they should not take saline and pungent food. They should take bath thrice a day and abstain from taking meat. The couples should observe celibacy and sleep on the ground separately without. touching each other. They should abstain from study as well charity.
6-7They should wear dirty clothes, move with downward faces and avoid all pleasures. They should leave shampooing of body, hair, etc. They should eat in earthen pots or in those made of dry leaves. They should observe fast on the cremation day or for more number of days during impurity.
8Garuda said: -Sir, you have just stated that they should observe Asauca. Now please tell us what is this Asauca? What is its period?
9-10Sri Krishna said: -The ten-day-period of Asauca is prescribed for the relatives of the deceased on the father’s side. This commences from the hour of birth, also with a view to obtain purity.
11Since the time of birth, purity can be had after three nights. After death, purity is attained after three days.
12After teething immediately, after caula overnight, after Vriatadesa for three nights, and for ten nights in other cases.
13Thus I have told you about Asauca. Now I shall tell you in brief how purity is achievable. Water in the open and milk in an earthen pot should be kept for three days.
14Bathe here, drink here’, this mantra should be recited, O Kasyapa. The sticks bound with a string should be placed on the crossroads in the night in order to propitiate the dead person.
15Bones should be gathered on the first, third, seventh or the ninth day by the relatives.
16The relatives should touch the body of one another as prescribed, perform actions as far as they can and share in the common water-offerings.
17Preta-Pinda (an offering to the mane) should be given outside, leaving aside grass. Care should be given in the north-eastern direction, after bath and with calm mind.
18For the non-purified on the ground, for the purified on the kusa grass; he should offer nine Pindas in nine days i.e. one Pinda on each day.
19After giving the tenth Pinda, one becomes pure after the night expires. One may be Asagotra (indirect relation), Sagotra (direct relation), man or woman.
20That which is given on the fiist day should be continued for ten days. It may be rice, Saktu or Saka.
21So far as there is Asauca, a gift of one Anjali should be made, i.e. so much of gift as joined hands can contain.
22Or else, the number should be equal to the number of days on which the gift is given, O bird, and the number on the last day should be fifty-five.
23Or these doubled shall be hundred Anjahs. When there is Asauca for three days Anjalis shall be ten.
24These shall be three on the first day, four on the second day and three on the third day.
25If one hundred Anjalis are given, then thirty should be given on the first day, forty on the second day and thirty on the third day.
26O bird, thus the water-offering is divided. For performing the rites, of the manes, the son. is the proper person.
27Pinda-Praseka shall be done in silence and with flowers, incense, etc. On the tenth day, bath should be taken outside the village.
28-29Then they should leave their old clothes, hair, beard and nails. Brahmana is purified by, touching water, Kshatriya by touching Vehicle, Vaisya by touching a goad (or a whip) or reins, and Sudra by touching stick after performing the rites: The relatives, younger in age, should undergo shave.
30Sodasi should be performed by offering sixteen Pindas.
31O bird, the Pindas given for ten days one Pinda on each day regularly, by sons, etc. are divided, each one into four.
32Two parts for the body, the third one for Yama’s servants and by the fourth he lives.
33During nine days and nights, the body is formed. By offering the first Pinda, the head of the Preta is formed.
34By the second, ears, eyes and nose. By the third, neck, shoulder, arms and chest.
35By the fourth Pinda, navel and private parts. By the fifth thighs calves.
36By the sixth all vital organs, by the seventh reserves, by the eighth teeth and hair, by the ninth semen.
37By the tenth fulness is achieved, hunger is satisfied. Now, I shall tell you, O Garuda, about Madhya-Shodasi.
38The eleven beginning with Vishnu and ending with Vishnu. Then five sraddhas for the deities. This is called Madhya-Sodagi, O bird.
39If Narayana-Bali is to be performed for the atonement of bad death, it should be done on the eleventh day. Vrishogsarga rite is also prescribed for such a deceased.
40If the bull is not released on the eleventh day in favour of the deceased he remains ghost eternally, even if hundred Sraddhas are performed for his sake.
41If the rite of Pinda-Pulana is done without Vrishotasarga then all rites will go in vain.
42No rite is superior to Vrishotsarga. It is prescribed for the deceased and performed by his son, wife grandson, father or daughter.
43Vrishotsarga is performed only after death. If the bull is released along with four, she-calves duly decorated the deceased does not tum into ghost.
44If the actual bull is not available on the eleventh day, a bull of Darbhas and Pista should be made.
45-46If that too is not available, a bull made of mud and grass should be released- If an alive bull is desired to be released, it should be done on the eleventh day.
47They should give bed, cow, etc. to the Brahmanas in favour of the deceased. Brmmanas should be fed to satisfy the hunger of the departed soul.
48Now, O Vainateya, I shall tell you about the third Sodasi, Twelve for the twelve months and the half yearly one, and Sapindikarana. These are called third Sodsi.
49On the twelfth day for the three fortnights, half-yearly, monthly and yearly.
50This too is called third sodas! according to another opinion. If these sixteen Preta are not given.
51Then his ghost hood becomes permanent, even if hundred sraddhas are performed for his benefit.
52-53Sraddhas are performed on the eleventh or twelfth day, at the beginning of the month, every month, on the date of death, one day or three days, O son of Vinata, every month, every six months, yearly, or on three fortnights. The rite of Sapinda is performed after a year or six months.
54Or after three fortnights, at the rise of a planet or within twelve days, for, the family traditions are many and human life is short.
55Human life is transitory. It is better therefore to perform the rite of Sapinda within twelve days. O bird, now, I shall tell you about the method of Sapindikarana.
56O Kasyapa, it should be done by the process of Ekoddishta. Four vessels should be made-ready along with sesame, incense and water.
57Out of these one is the vessel for the Preta; the other three are for the manes. O bird, the performer should sprinkle the three Pitripatras with the water from the Pretapatra.
58Then four Pindas should be offered and libations be made. Thereafter, the Preta becomes one with the manes.
59Then, O bird, when the Preta has become one with the manes, the manes should be worshipped along with him.
60If the woman ascends the pyre of her husband on the same day, then no separate Sapindya is prescribed for her.
61If husband and wife are cremated together, there is one Paka, one Kala and one Kartri O bird, you need not entertain any doubt in this.
62If she ascends the pyre on a different date, she should be offered a separate Pinda on the separate date of death.
63Every year, nine sraddhas should be performed together.
64If the Sapindikarana is done before a year has passed, then a monthly offering of a water jar should be made for one year.
65Nine sraddhas, Sapindikarana and sixteen sraddha should be done by the eldest son, even though the inheritor? have divided property.
66Women’s Sapindya may be done with the paternal grandmother, or maternal grand-mother or with husband, according to the tradition prevailing in different regions.
67Now, I shall tell you about the time of nine Sraddhas. O Kasyapa bird. The first Sraddha should be performed on the day of death near the corpse.
68The second on the same date on the way to cemetery where the mourners take rest; the third on the day at the place when or where they collect the bones.
69The rest of the sraddhas on the fifth, seventh, eighth ninth, tenth and eleventh day. These are nine sraddhas, O bird.
70The third one is called Shodasi wherein the procedure is the same as in Ekoddista.
71The six Sraddhas are performed on the first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth and eleventh day.
72These six are told but they may be nine by addition. I have stated six according to different traditions of the sages.
73I have preferred tradition but practice is not altogether ruled out. On each of the first and second days a sacred thread should be gifted.
74So, when the Brahmanas are feasting, Pinda should be offered to the Preta. Then the host and the Brahmana should indulge in question answer dialogue.
75When the same is completed then “such and such (N. of the Preta) should become perennial” is to be uttered. The Ekoddishta is perennial, please note.
76The sixteen sraddhas after Sapindikarana shculd be Ekoddista except those performed on festival days.
77He who performs them annually should perform them in that manner. The Preta eats twice in a day on the eleventh and the twelfth day.
78To each-husband and wife a Pinda should be offered. Once Sapindya is completed, the Preta-hood ends.
79For one year, a lamp should be kept burning at the door of the house. Food, lamp, water, cloth, or whatever else is given, the same gives satisfaction to the Preta.
80In brief, I have told you the period of Sapindikaranas one year.
81-82Now, I shall tell you how people go to Yama’s abode. On (the thirteenth day, after Sravana-Krama, he is captured by Yama’s attendants, just as you capture the serpents by neck, O Garuda. He is led in the way like the caught-up monkey.
83The body attains a form like air. Born out of Pinda it assumes a shape different from the one born from the womb of the mother.
84-89According to age, state, etc., it differs. Eighty-six thousand yojanas long is the distance between the mortal’s and Yama’s worlds. Two hundred and a half yojanas and forty-seven Krosas he covers daily. So, in forty-eight and thirty days he reaches Yama’s city, being dragged by Yama’s servants. Thus, when the way is being covered by the sinner, what happens then, you hear, O Garuda. For thirteen days, he is tied with fierce nooses, by Yama’s servants with goad in hand, with looks kowning and the hand engaged in striking with sticks. Thus, he is dragged towards the south.
90There, on the fierce way, full of thorny grass, thorns, anthills, sharp stones, which contains burning fires as well as hundreds of charms.
91Which is heated by a burning sun, is infested by dogs or flies, which echoes with the howling sounds of jackals, he is dragged by Yamas messengers.
92The sinner perishes when his body is burnt in Yama’s abode.
93Thus, as his body is eaten, tom asunder, pierced, he suffers immensely.
94On account of his own deeds, though he is dead. There are sixteen cities in this way. Now hear about them.
95Yamya, Sauripura, Nagendrabhavana, Gandharva, Sailagama Kraunca, Krurapura, Vicitra-Bhavana, Bahvapada, Duikhada, Nana-Krandapura, Sutaptabhavana, Raudra, Payovarsana, Sitadhya, and Bahubhiti these are the sixteen cities not seen by you.
96Then he goes to Yamya saying, O son, O son, he cries painfully remembering his own misdeeds.
97He reaches that city on the eighteenth day, O Tarkhya. There is Pushpabhadra river and a good-looking tree.
98He wants to take rest there but Yama’s servants do-not bid him do so.
99Here, on the earth, whatever is given by his sons every month, rice-ball, etc. due to affection or kindness he eats the same and then he goes to Sauripura. As he goes, he cries being beaten with clubs.
100“I did not construct a tank for satiating thirsty people, beasts and birds. I did riot make a pasture for satisfying cattle. Now, O body, suffer for whatever you have done”.
101King Jangama rules in that city who can assume any shape at will. Out of fear of that king’s frowns he eats the rice-ball.
102Whatever is offered to him in the three fortnights together with the oblation of water, he eats and drinks. He is then struck with clubs.
103Neither daily gifts were given nor pastures made, nor the sacred books such as the Vedas and Dharama-Sastras offered in charity nor Puranas heard. Now, O body, you suffer for your acts of omission.
104Having reached Nagendra Nagar and having eaten, the rice-balls offered by the relatives in the second month, he moves further.
105As he goes onward, he laments being struck with the sword. A fool that I am, I have lost everything to otters.
106I obtained manhood by virtue of accumulated merit”. Then he reaches Gandha-Madana in the third month.
107There he eats the rice-ball. Then he goes further. As he goes further, he laments being beaten by Yama’s emissary.
108I neither gave gifts nor poured oblations into fire nor undertook penance in the caves of the Himalayas nor bathed into Ganga’s water. Hence, O body, suffer for whatever you have done.
109He reaches Sailagama in the fourth month. There atones rain upon him continuously, O bird.
110Having eaten the fourth monthly oblation he moves. As he moves, he is struck again with the stones by the messengers.
111I followed neither Jnanamarga nor Yogamarga nor Karmamarga nor Bhaktimarga. Nor did I remain in the company of saints. O body, now suffer for whatever you have done.”
112Then m the fifth month, he goes to Krurapura, O Kasyapa. Having eaten the rice ball and drunk water by his relatives he goes to Krurapura.
113As he goes, he laments, being struck with spears. O mother, O father, O brother, O sons, O my wives.
114I was not advised by you. I have reached this state. As he laments thus Yama’s messengers say to him.
115“Where is the mother? Where the father? O fool, where is the wife? Where the sons? Where the friends? O fool. Now suffer the results of your evil activities. All sinners go by this ancient path”.
116As you know, the provisions are the only strength of the traveler. So, none without provision can venture to travel over this path. For the path is such where no selling and purchasing system exists.
117In less than six months he reaches Kraunca and having eaten the rice-ball and drunk water he rests there for a while and then leaves for Vicitranagara.
118As he goes, he laments being struck off with spearheads by Yama’s emissaries.
119“Were do I go, O my life, a dead man cannot revive again. Thus, lamenting he goes in the way, his body being captured by tortures”.
120Vicitranagara is ruled by king Vicitra. Being satiated with the six-monthly rice-ball he moves further.
121As he goes, he laments being struck with the club.
122Do my brother, son, parents or anyone exist who may take out a sinner like me falling in the ocean of distress.
123As he goes, there in the way is Vaitarani hundred yojanas long, full of pus and blood.
124There are seen boatmen, fishermen. They say, if he has gifted Vaitarani cow, he can get into the boat and cross the river.
125But if he has not gifted the cow he is brushed aside by the boatmen.
126He is bit by the birds with sharp beaks like crows, cranes, ants, etc., O bird, the gift of cow at the time of death serves for the relief of the deceased.
127The gift of cow destroys all sins and affords all facilities. The deceased goes to Bhavapada in the seventh month.
128After partaking the seventh monthly offering made by the relatives he reaches Bahva-Pada, where hutments being struck with the iron club.
129Neither you offered gifts nor gave oblations nor performed penance nor undertook bath nor rendered a good act. So, O foolish creature, now suffer for whatever act you have done.
130In the eighth month, after eating the rice ball and drunk water, he goes to Nanakrandapura, O Tarkhya.
131-132Being struck with pebbles there, he says: “Where are those sweet dishes offered with sweet Tit-Tat by my wife, and where this beating. with. the pestles”. In the ninth month, he eats his rice-ball in Nanakrandapura.
133Then he laments in many ways. In the tenth month he reaches Sutaptabhavana.
134-135Thus moving, he laments in the way being struck with ploughs. Where the massaging of my feet by my sons and where the dragging of my legs by the thundered hands of messengers. He then eats the rice- given in the tenth month together with the offerings of water oblation.
136At the end of the eleventh month he goes to, Raudrapura. As he goes to Raudrapura he laments being struck in the back.
137“Where the cotton-bed I used to roll in and where this rigid place where I am beaten by the messengers”.
138There he eats the rice-ball etc., given by his relatives and then he goes to the city called Payo-Varshana.
139While going he laments, as he is struck at the head. Where the servants who with soft hands used to massage oil in my head.
140Where my head being struck by Yama’s servants. At the end of the year he eats the annual sraddha offered by his relatives.
141Then at the end of the year he goes to Srotriya. He weeps while his tongue is cut out with the knife.
142Where that sweet feeling of rasa and where this cutting of my tongue with the knife.
143Havirig partaken of the annual Sraddha there, he goes to Bahubhuti. He has assumed by this time a body composed of the essence of his merit accruing from the gift of rice.
144The sinner abuses his own self. He also abuses his wife and thus laments in the way.
145Then he reaches the city of Yama nearby. It is forty yojanas in measurement.
146There are fourteen doorkeepers called Sravanas. They are pleased with the Sravana karma performed by his relatives or else they get angry.
147-149There very soon among Death, Time, etc. he sees Yama with red eyes, looking fierce and dark like a heap of collyrium, with fierce jaws and frowning fiercely, chosen as their lord by many ugly, fierce-faced hundreds of diseases, possessing an iron-rod in his hand and also a noose. The creature goes either to good or to bad state as directed by him.
150A sinner goes-to bad state, as I have told you before.
151Those who give umbrella, shoes and shelter sec Yama as gentle-faced with earrings and a shining crest.
152In the Sraddha of the eleventh or twelfth month many Brahmanas should be feasted because then the deceased is very hungry.
153He who does not perform the needful while alive being instructed by sons, wife and others suffers afterwards.
154Thus I have told you how one goes to Yama’s abode; what shall be done in his favour for one year by his relatives. Do you wish to ask anything more.