Discussion between Krishna and Garuda on Urdhvadeha ||34||
1O Tarkshya, history to the precise traits of virtue and sin. The merit and demerit go ahead of men.
2In the Krita age they extol penance; in the Treta they extol knowledge, in the Dvapara sacrifices and charities. and in the Kali only gifts are extolled.
3Those who recite the mantras mentioned in the Smritis and perform Ishtapurta and other.
4Men who grow trees by the roadside and who dig tanks and lakes, go along this highway very happily.
5He who gives fuels (here on the earth) is never tortured by snowfall, ice or dullness in the abode of Yama. He finds his way warm and pleasant.
6By giving gifts of plots of land men go along that road fully satisfied, decorated and richly adorned by fragrant flowers. All their wishes are fulfilled. He who has gifted plots of land IS deemed to have gifted gold, gems, pearls, jewels and clothes.
7The gifts that men make in the world stand in good stead in their pathway leading to Yama’s palace.
8Different sorts of dishes and foodstuff’s which the sons offer serve the purpose of the Pitris.
9It is the same atman that is known as son. It is the son who comes to the succour of his father in the abode of Yama. It is he who saves father from hell. He is therefore called Putra (son).
10Hence, a son should perform Sraddha till his death. The dead man, moving about in his subtle body, will derive enjoyments thereby.
11At the time of cremation in the funeral pyre if water libations are offered, by the descendent, the dead man goes to Yama’s abode in all pleasure.
12In an earthen vessel which is not baked, milk should be given for three days for propitiating the dead. Three pieces of things should be tied with a string and dropped on the crossway.
13O bird, the dead man in his aerial form in the sky will be drinking the milk on the first, second and third day.
14Or the fourth day, the bones should be collected by the son along with his nearest relatives. After that, he should give water-libation to the deceased.
15The water-libation should be made in the first three-hour period, not later in the forenoon nor at midday nor in the afternoon nor during dawn or dusk.
16The first water-libation should be performed by the son along with the members of the clan and kinsmen. It can be performed by the members of the same caste or even by those of other castes.
17No Brahmin should offer water libation to a Sudra. Jn that case, he will be violating the sacred code of conduct.
18At the death of a Sudra if a Brahmin takes firewood to the funeral pyre or follows the corpse, he becomes impure for three days.
19After three days he should take bath in the river that joins the sea, perform hundred Pranayamas and drink ghee in order to regain purity.
20A Sudra can offer water-libation to the member of any caste; a Vaisya to the member of three castes. A Kshatriya to the member of two castes; but a Brahmin to the member of his own caste.
21If they go to offer water-libation, the members of the clan should eschew the use of tooth-pick twigs for nine days, O son of Kasyapa.
22-23O foremost among birds, if a person joins the funeral either on the way to the cemetery or in the house of mourning, he should leave the party after cremation only at the same place or in the house itself. This is what is laid down by the learned. The women go ahead, and the men follow. They should sit on a rock and perform Acamana.
24There must be sufficient water in the vessel to cover up the mustard seeds and the Durva grass should be strewn on the top. Those who took part in the cremation rites should chew Mrigosa leaves and take oil bath.
25Members should cook food for the party, outside the house. They should not eat meals prepared inside the house. They should take food in earthen vessels, avoiding shallow vessels.
26They should remember the virtue of the dead and recite Yama-Gatha. They should realize that the auspicious and inauspicious is brought about by the actions alone.
27Even when he enters the new body the dead man is associated with the residual merits and demerits.
28After the ten days’ rites are completed, the dead man’s soul enters the new body. When the Nava Sraddhas together with the sixteen others are performed, a new body is created for the soul.
29The descendants help to shape a body for the soul, either with the gingelly seeds or the holy grass and put up the five jewels in the mouth for the body to grow.
30If there is no menstruation, no conception takes place. Therefore, the descendant should be careful not to eschew the rite of strewing the gingelly seeds and the Darbha grass on the earth.
31He may be born among the cattle or among the stable. Wherever he is born the sraddha reaches him.
32Just as the arrow discharged by the archer reaches the goal, so the Sraddha reaches the person for whom it is performed.
33No sraddha can propitiate the soul so long it does not enter the body. H the soul is not propitiated duly during the ten days (after it leaves the body) it will have to -wander m the ether without food, agitated by hunger.
34The soul (of the deceased) stays in the water for three days, in the fire for three days and in the ether for three days. For one day, it stays in Indra’s heaven.
35When the body has been burnt in fire, the descendent should offer water libation to the departed soul. The mourners should take bath and feed upon the cake or the ricemeal.
36They should perform the Nauaka sraddha on odd days, viz., the first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth and the eleventh.
37Whether at the threshold of the house or at the cremation ground or in a holy place or in a temple, wherever the first day’s rites are performed, the concluding rites too should be performed there.
38The Sraddha on the eleventh day is common to all castes. There is a ceremonial ablution for purification.
39-40After performing the eleventh day sraddha they become free from impurity accruing from death. After the ceremonial bath, they should gift a bed to the brahmana. This releases the dead from Preta-hood. If there is no member of the same clan for the performance of the rite, another man can perform the same.
41Of whatever eatable the Pinda is made on the first day as prescribed, the same should be used for the entire Sraddha.
42The Sraddha should be performed for ten days, pronouncing the name and gotra of the dead but without mantras. Whosoever per-forms the sraddha should enter the house discording the clothes he wore at the Sraddha.
43Whether of the same-lineage or of a different clan, a man or a woman, whosoever performs the first day’s rites shall perform the concluding rites on the tenth day as well.
44With the offering of ten Pindas by the descendant the soul acquires a new body just as the foetus does in the ten months in the womb.
45The rite of Pinda and water-libation shall continue as long as there is impurity accruing from death. This is applicable to the members of all castes.
46-47When impurity is far three nights, three Pindas should be given on the first day, four on the second and three on the third day. Milk and water should be given in separate cups. Ekoddista should be done on the fourth day.
48By the Pinda of the first day, the head is formed. Eyes, ears and nose are formed on the second day.
49Cheeks, mouth and neck are formed on the third day. Heart, sides and stomach are formed on the fourth day.
50Waist, back and anus are formed on the fifth day. Thighs are formed on the sixth and ankles are formed on the seventh.
51The calves are formed on the eighth day, O lord. Feet are formed on the ninth and hunger on the tenth.
52On the eleventh day, the Pinda is offered to the dead man along with meat. Bread and cooked rice together with milk should be offered to a Brahmana after washing his feet.
53The sixteen sraddhas to be performed on the eleventh day are in anticipation of the twelve monthly sraddhas the eleventh day Sraddha, the Tripaksha, the six weekly sraddha and the two six monthly Sraddhas, O bird.
54The day on which the death has occurred is the basis for all monthly and annual sraddhas That month is the nest one when the eleven days are completed.
55That is the first sraddha which is performed by the hand of the dead at the spot of death. or at the seat of the Brahmana. Eleven days should be counted from this date.
56For all monthly sraddhas the Tithi falling on the day of death is the base. During the Rikta days and Tripaksha, Tithi is not reckoned by scholars.
57-58If the man dies on the full moon day, the fourth day is deficient for him. If the man dies on the fourth or the ninth day, the fourteenth day is deficient for him. The deficient days are called Riktas by the experts.
59The food that is cooked on the eleventh day with the dead man in view should be discarded on··the cross-roads and the performer should bathe again.
60Since the eleventh day, a potful of corn with water should be gifted to a worthy Brahmana every day for a year.
61The bones in human body number three hundred and sixty.
62These bones are nurtured by gifting the water-pots. When the water-pot is gifted.
63If a person dies in the forest or at an odd place, cremation may take place on any day but impurity will be counted from the day of death.
64-65By gifting a vessel full of gingelly seeds, incense etc. the Brahmin is purified on the eleventh day, the Kshatriya on the twelfth, Vaisya on the fifteenth and Sudra in one month from the day of death. The same period holds good in case of birth as well.
66Three nights in three months, two fortnights in six months, the day before the year is complete, water-oblations should be made with the dead in view. By acting in this way, the caste men obtain purity.
67Since the eleventh day from the date of death, the Pinda should be given every day for a year after worshipping Vasudeva.
68As the rays of the sun cover the stars, so does the Pinda cover the Pitris. Never one becomes a ghost, if the Pinda is given by the descendent.
69O foremost among birds, the deities extol the gift of a bed. Man’s existence on the earth is not permanent There is no guarantee that after death the descendent would gift the bed.
70The relationship of ordinary kinsmen or even of father lasts as long as the man lives. After death seeing the cult in between, love ceases to operate in a trice.
71The self alone is the kinsman or the enemy. Even as he lives one shall think of this and perform his duty piously.
72After my death who will be there to gift a bed of silk cloth. Thinking thus, he should gift things with his own hand while he is alive.
73-78The bed stead should be of good wood, ornamentally inlaid and engraved. The bolts and crossbars should be golden. It should be covered with red velvet cloth. The pillow should be nice and exquisite. It shall be fumigated. with incense and scents. A golden idol of Lord Vishnu and Lakshmi should be put on the sides. A vessel full of ghee, betel leaves, saffron powder, camphor, sandal paste should be placed nearby. A lamp, a pair of sandal, umbrella chowries, seat, vessel and the seven kinds of grass should be kept near the bed. Other requisites of man going to sleep, such as drinking pot, mirror, etc., should be kept ready.
The cot should be embellished with a covering of five colours. The bed should be gifted to a Brahmin after duly worshipping him. This gift of bed will bestow pleasures of heaven upon the giver. The Brahmanas should be honoured duly and provided with five clothes.
79They should be given ornaments for ears, neck, fingers and arms and vessels necessary for domestic use.
80-81They should be given water for washing feet or sipping and five gems along with raw rice grains. While making the gift the giver should pronounce: O Krishna, just as your bed in the milk ocean is never without Lakshmi, so also let my bed be never empty in all births I take.
82With this prayer to lord Krishna the bed should be given to the Brahmin. The same procedure is prescribed even when the gift is made on the eleventh day.
83Even if a kinsman makes this gift, the dead man will be happy in the other world, nourished by the articles of gift. O lord of birds, a special thing to be noted I mention now.
84-86Whatever had been regularly used by the deceased formerly, the garments, vessels or vehicles, whatever had been liked by him before should be made over as gifts. Among the gifts, the gift of bed makes the dead man extremely happy in the city of Indra or Yama.
87The wry-faced attendants of Yama will not torment him. He will never be oppressed by excessive heat or cold.
88-89As a sequel to the gift of bed he will be free from the bondage of actions. Even if he had been a sinner, he is sure to go to heaven, seated in a splendid aerial chariot and attended by celestial damsels. The dead man shall stay in heaven till the final deluge when all living beings are destroyed.
90The woman who performs nine or sixteen sraddhas and the regular monthly. rites for the whole of year and also makes the gift of bed for her husband will have an everlasting welfare.
91While alive she will be of some benefit to her husband. Adhering strictly to truth, she will lift up her husband from hell.
92For favour of the dead woman, a golden doll, saffron powder, collyrium, clothes, ornaments or bed can be gifted in the following manner.
93-94What is useful to women, ornaments, etc., the garments worn by the dead woman should all be collected and placed properly. Then the guardians of the quarters, the deifies of planets, the images of Vinayaka, should be worshipped.
95Then the performer of rites wears a white cloth after the ceremonial bath and takes a handful of flowers. He stands in front of the Brahmin repeating the following mantra.
96“This is the idol of the dead (woman) with all the necessary requisites and gems. 0 Brahmin, this is gifted to you.
97The Self itself is Sambhu, the auspicious Gauri and Indra together with all the deifies. Hence, the bed is being gifted. May her soul be gratified.”
98The gift of bed should be made to the preceptor or to a Btahmin burdened with a big family. After accepting the bed, the Brahmin shall exclaim with pleasure “Ha! who has given me this.”
99Then after bowing to the Brahmin and circumambulating him he should be allowed to go. Thus, 0 bird, the gifts are made to the Brahmin.
100Gifts of cow, house, bed or virgin should not be made to many simultaneously. If gifts are divided among Brahmins they bring about the downfall of the giver.
101O Tarkshya, listen to the benefit that accrues to one who makes a gift thus. For a hundred divine years or more he is honoured in heaven.
102-104As a result of the gift of a bed he acquires more benefit than he would by performing holy rites in Vyatipata or Kartika month or at the confluence of two Ayanas or eclipses of sun and moon at the holy city of Dvaraka, Prayaga, Naimi$a. Kurukshetra or Arbuda or on the Ganges or at the confluence of Sindhu with the ocean.
105-107He will be born in the world of mortals, on the destruction of his Karman, as a comely man, very rich, comprehending virtue, and a master of all sacred literature. Again, after dying, he will go to Vaikunta seated in a divine aerial chariot, surrounded by celestial damsels. He then deserves the Kavya and kavya offerings and rejoices in the company of the piles.
108-109Whether performed on the Ashtakas, on the new-moon day, on Magha and on other Pitri-days, hear, O Tarkshya, the sraddha, if the dead are turned in ghosts, is rendered ineffective without Sapindikarana.
110Sapindikarana should be done at the end of the year after death. Sodasi should be per-formed for the purification of the corpse.
111For the purification of the mane’s lineage fifty (?) should be added. Further action may be taken by adding more. For the Sudra, the same is done at will.
112Presently, Sapindana should be done within the period of twelve days accompanied by sacrifice. Until it is done the ghost hovers round the fire. Hence, Sapindana with fire shall be done within twelve days.
113Gaya sraddha or Amavasya sraddha should not be done in the middle of the year without Sapndikarana.
114If there be many co-wives of and if only one has a son, all of them shall be deemed to have a son, by that son alone.
115A Sapinda son should not perform mane’s rites in fire. If he does so, he will incur the sin of slaying his father.
116If a woman discards her life, after the death of her husband, her Sapindikarana should be done along with that of her husband.
117Whosoever may be the father’s wife-Vaisya or Kshatriya, the son is entitled to perform Sapindana for her.
118If a Brahmana has married a Sudra, then the son should perform Ekoddishta sraddha for her (but not Sapindana).
119The sons born in four castes should be united with their respective mothers by the Sapindana rite.
120When a sraddha is done in Anvashtakya, when a Sraddha is meant for prosperity, then during Sapindanana separate Pinda should be done for the father as well as mother.
121The Sapindana of the mother should be done with the grandmother and of father with the grandfather. This is what I think, to be proper, O Tarkshya.
122If a woman dies sonless, the husband should perform Sapindana and the should be duty united with three mothers.
123If a woman has neither son, nor husband, then her Sapindana should be done by her brother or husband’s brother or in their absence by a successor.
124If the woman has neither husband nor son nor a clansman nor the husband’s brother, then her brother should perform Ekoddista.
125If Sapindana is left out by negligence or due to some other obstruction then Nevaka Shodasa and annual Sraddha should be performed.
126A wise man will do all this after the cremation has taken place but not otherwise. (If the man has died unknown and hence not cremated) the descendants should make an effigy of grass and burn the same in fire.
127It is the son who should do the Sapindana of his father not the father of the son. Due to affection the Sapindana of the son, should not be done by the father.
128If there be many sons, only the elder should perform the obsequial rite. Navaka Sraddha, Sapindana, Shodasa Sraddhas should be done by one only.
129Even when the property is undivided, the sages have stated that only one son can perform the funeral rites.
130If divided the others too can perform the rites separately, each of the sons doing the same rite himself.
131If the sixteen sraddhas are not performed for the deceased his ghost hood becomes permanent, even if hundreds of sraddhas are performed in his favour.
132For a sonless person, his brother, brother’s son Sapinda, or disciple may do Sapindana.
133For all sonless persons, the daughter can perform sapk.t4ana through Rtvij or a Putohita.
134If after the death of father, an eclipse takes place within a year, the sons should neither do Parvana nor Nandimukha.
135Similarly, during great calamities within the year, Tirtha Sraddha, or Gaya sraddha or any other Sraddha for the manes should not be done at all.
136No Pinda should be offered to the manes if their Sapindana has not taken place.
137According to some, gifts for the Yajnapurusa and for the deities can be made even if the year is not complete.
138Whatever is given to the manes except Arghya and Pinda all that should be done according to the prescribed method.
139The manes of the deities are deities; the manes of the manes are sages; the manes of the sages are deities; fathers through them.
140The lord of sacrifice is the lord of all manes, deities and men. Whatever is given to him, is given to all.
141If the son performs the sraddha of his father within the year of his (father’s) death he is absolved of the fruits of his sinful acts performed in several brittles previously.
142If no Pinda is gifted and no water libation is made the deceased obtains ghost hood and moves in air oppressed by hunger and thirst.
143If father obtains ghost hood, rites due to the manes of no avail. If mother obtains ghost hood, the manes rites for the father do not cease to be.
144If mother is dead, father is alive, the Sapindana should be done with the grand mother if she is already dead.
145-146O bird, hear. I tell you the truth: For those dead persons whose pinch has not been united, no sraddha and no water-libation is fruitful even if offered a thousand times.