Discussion between Krishna and Garuda on Happiness and Sorrows of man and his Dharma and Adharma ||48||
1The people of all castes who live in this mortal world die at their own time and obtain different worlds according to the magnitude of their pious deeds.
2They go on different paths ordained by God. Through what virtue they obtain pleasure and through what merit they get family, strength and age? Tell me O lord.
3On hearing this, the lord said to Garuda, explaining in detail how the body functions, how it is bound by actions, how this world mobile and immobile-goes how it is created. and how and by whom it is administered.
4-6For those walking on the path of Yama, the four Vargas-Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha are secondary. Having entered the body measuring a thumb of his own hand and being held by the noose, he weeps again and again and cries: “I was having the body of a brahmin in the pious country of, Bharata, yet due to infatuation I did not worship lord lndra or perform rites for propitiating the manes and deities. I had no relations, no sons and no progeny. Due to fondness for my body, I did not act in right direction. I got the rare Brahmana-hood, yet I did not study the Vedas and Puranas. The gem that I got and which I hold in my palm was lost. 0 my soul, now suffer for whatever I have done in.
7The Kshatriya who has drunk blood from his forehead in the battle, has as well drunk Soma in die sacrifice; dead or alive he gets, release.
8Though he may have done many impious acts and drunk many undesirable drinks, if he takes weapons and faces the enemy in the war, he is released from sins immediately.
9-10One may be a Kshatriya or a Vaisya or a Sudra or one may belong to a low caste, if he kills in war the nobles of the cultured, children, women or old men, the poor or the ascetics or remains indifferent when these are in trouble, the deities become indifferent to him. The manes do not receive his libations of gingelly water and the fire does not receive his offering of oblation.
11Due to policy or fear, if a person does not face the foe in war, O bird, know it for certain that he is sure to die one day afterwards but before that his Kshatrya-hood goes in vain. If he donates gold or earth to a Brahmana, he is born in human form. in this world in a noble and illustrious family.
12He who dies in war is deemed to have given gifts during eclipse, to have bathed in a holy Place, to have gone to Gaya and offered rice-ball to the manes.
13A Kshatriya repents that in the battlefield, at the-time of his master’s murder or when the cows were seized or forcibly carried away by the foe, when women and children were killed or when his companions were in trouble, he did not use his sword.
14When a Vaisya is caught in the noose, he repents that he did not cherish truth in business transactions due to greed in support of his family.
15A Sudra repents that having obtained body he neither gave reputable gifts to the Brahmanas nor worshipped them nor built a tank on the earth.
16[The Jiva that has left the body thinks thus:] “I abandoned my Family profession. I lived in pride. I did not give up my ghost in a holy place. I did not earn virtue or worship God for release.”
17Such people are born as Mlecchas, outcastes, etc. Having given up their physical bodies they enter into airy bodies and become averse to religious activities.
18Whatever religious acts they have done keeping them in view and moving in the way, hear O bird, what they speak about among themselves.
19The three in the world are the best of all: Jambu-Dvipa among the Dvipas, the land of the bright among the countries of the world and human beings amongst all creatures on the earth.
20There are four castes: Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaisya and Sudra Among these the Brahmin caste is the best. People can derive pleasure from religion. When they start on the highway, leaving their bodies after death, they revive their previous associations.
21‘I stayed as worm and insect. I was a reptile. I was a mosquito. I was a quadruped. I was a wild boar.’
22Staying in the womb, he recollects everything. But coining out of the womb he forgets whatever he thought while he was in the womb. After birth he passes through three stages: childhood, youth and old age.
23Through infatuation the thoughts of the womb are soon forgotten but they revive when the body succumbs to death. When the body is destroyed, thoughts remain with the self. They revive when the self enters into the womb and takes up another body.
24When that is again destroyed, thoughts remain in the self. The process goes on till the eternal release is accomplished. “In my body I cheated others, gambling, cheating and stealing. I lived by transgressing religion.”
25“I struggled hard for earning money. I did not enjoy riches to my satiety. I did not offer betel, corn, milk to fire, deities, guests and relatives.”
26“Even during the solar or lunar eclipse I did not visit holy places. My body was full of waste and urine. Now, O soul, suffer for what you did in your previous body”.
27“I did not see nor bowed to nor worshipped lord Vishnu is on the earth. I also did not devoutly praise the lord of Prabhasa, Hence, O soul, suffer for what you did in your previous body.”
28“Having gone to the admirable land near a holy place, I did not put money in the scholar’s hand, nor gave it to a preceptor after taking ablution in the holy water. Hence, O soul, now suffer for what you did in your previous body.”
29“I did not worship the mother Goddess, nor Vishnu nor Sankara, nor Ganesa, nor Candi, nor the Sun with due rites by offering sandal paste, etc. Now, O soul suffer for what you did in your previous body.”
30“I obtained the title of deity even as a man. But due to infatuation I lost that glory. I was fool not to own my infirmities. O soul, now suffer for what you did in your previous body.”
31Having thought over these points, O bird, which grant virtue, wealth and fame, man obtains release perpetually.
32Being addressed thus by the messengers of Yama the dead are struck with clubs. They cry ‘O fate, 0 fate’ and curse themselves that the money earned by them was not gifted to the deserving brahmins.
33The emissaries of Yama tell again you neither gifted the earth nor cow nor water nor cloth nor fruit nor betel nor ointment in your life on this earth. Then why do you lament?
34Your father died, your grandfather died. She also died who bore you in her womb. Your relations also died. You saw them all dead.
35Your body has been burnt by fire. Your wealth and corn are taken over by your sons. Whatever good and virtuous actions. you did those only will go along with you.
36None who is dead can ever come back, may he be a king, a mendicant or a Brahmana. He who dies in the battlefield is also dead and he who survives is also dead.
37Thus speak those Ganas along with the kinnaras and he though sad at heart hears but patiently their strange utterances. Invested with an aerial body and sitting in the aerial car due to the influence of gifts, he gives out in speech his impassioned thought.
38Dharma is father, compassion is mother, speech is sweet-tongued wife, bath in a holy place is equal to relatives.
39Whatever good is done by hand the same is heaven. A religious person is a symbol of happiness and a sinner is all misery.
40That man on the earth deserves praise who is religious, who has conquered pride and anger, who is humble though learned, who does not trouble others in vain, who is satisfied with his wife and keeps away from unlawful sexual desire.
41He who offers sweets, he who performs Agnihotra, has studied Vedanta, has performed religious rites fasts for a month within a year and remains chaste-these six in this world are worthy of honour.
42A man of good conduct can also be put in this category. A Vapi (an oblong reservoir of water) a well, a tank, a cistern and temple of a deity in the heart of a devotee constitute.
43Feeding a Vedic scholar for a year, arranging the marriage of a Brahmin’s daughter, freeing a brahmin family from debt, tilling land and digging well to meet the need of a thirsty and hungry person constitutes a virtuous act.
44Whosoever with a pure mind hears or recites this chapter on the essence of virtue is considered to be noble and religious. He goes to the highest world after death.