Discussion between Krishna and Garuda on Funeral ceremony of a child ||25||
1-2The Lord said: -Hereafter, I shall explain precisely certain factors concerning men and women. A child after the age of five is established as such. He is able to know the various sense organs and differentiate colours.
3Death or bondage of living beings is a result of their previous actions. It is the sin that causes death.
4If there is miscarriage, there is no obsequial rite. Milk is distributed when infants die. Due to mishaps to children, if death occurs, water-pots, milk puddings etc. are made over as gifts.
5The rites in the event of the death of a child are the same as for the older people except that the rites of Vrishotsarga and Mahadana are performed for the older people on the eleventh and twelfth days.
6Infants and older children of the neighborhood are fed and clothed. Water-pots are gifted whether the deceased is a boy, young man or old.
7Till the second year, the dead body is merely buried. Thereafter, O foremost among birds, the body is cremated.
8A child is called infant till the teeth are cut; till the tonsure ceremony he is called a child; a boy till the Kusa girdle is put. This is in accordance with all sacred texts.
9-10From the time of conception till he is sixteen months old he is called infant; from sixteen months to twenty-seven he is called a boy; from twenty-seven months to five years he is called Kumara; from five to nine years he is called Pauganda. He is known as Kisora till the sixteenth year. After the sixteenth year he attains maturity.
11A boy’s death occurring at the fifth year whether normally or due to accident, all rites as mentioned above, should be carried out including the ten Pindas.
12Since the rites are not many, since contact with the worldly objects is of short duration and since body too is of small stature, the obsequies also arc not elaborate.
13If a child dies before the fifth year, the articles of diet and daily necessaries to which it is accustomed can be made over as gifts.
14-15Sons evolved out of the semen of Brahmins are favourites of Divine sages. In the same way, whether they are in the age group of children, young men or old men, both Yama and his emissaries too certainly consider. The all-pervasive soul experiences both pleasure and pain.
16-17Forsaking the body like the serpent casting off its slough, the subtle soul of the size of the thumb roams about in its aerial form oppressed by hunger.
18Therefore, certainly, gifts should be made. From the birth to the fifth year, uncooked things should be gifted to the Brahmana.
19If there is accidental death after the fifth year, Vrishotsarga and other rites are performed but the rite of Sapindi-Karana is not necessary.
20Itis on the eleventh· day that sons usually perform the sixteen Sraddhas and make the Udakumbha and other similar gifts.
21In the case of all per-sans beyond the age of five at death Brahmins should be fed and major gifts offered according to capacity. The gift of earthen lamp should also be made.
22O foremost among birds, ghosts should be propitiated by due performance of rites. If the person does not perform the rite, he himself will become a ghost.
23-24Therefore, before other rites are accomplished, he· should perform Ekoddishta for the mane for appeasing his hunger, put the rice-ball over Darbhas while wearing the sacred thread over the right shoulder. When this is done, the obsequial rites are completed.
25Thereby a son yields all pleasure to his parents. If dead early he is born again in the family.
26-28Just as the same single sky, moon or sun are reflected in different water-pots, so also the Atman is reflected in different sons (and daughters) and roams about. The mentality of the progenitor at the time of sexual intercourse when the semen and the menstrual blood mingle is reflected in the child born of that union. Hence, we can say that the boy takes after the father.
29-30It is possible that the child may differ in qualities but not in, features. We have never seen a blind man procreating a blind child, a mute procreating a mute child, a deaf procreating a deaf child or an idiot procreating an idiot.
32-33aGaruda said: -There are ten kinds of sons: Aurasa (legitimate), Kshetranja (procreated in one’s wife by another man) and others. There is a son Sangrhitri (adopted) or Dasiputra (son of a slave girl). How do these sons perform rites for their fathers? What is the goal they attain? If anyone has only daughters and no son or grandson, who should perform sraddha rites for him? What are the rules regarding the same?
33bThe Lord said: -A man is released from his debt to the manes on seeing his son’s face.
34A man is released from three types of debts on seeing his grandson. On seeing his son, grandson, and great grandson he attains eternal or celestial worlds.
35The Kshetraja and other sons contribute to his worldly welfare. The Aurasa (legitimate) son performs Parvana duly.
36The other nine types of sofa perform Ekoddishta sraddha, not Parvana. The Brahmin son takes one upward, but the adopted son causes his downfall. If the latter were to perform the annual sraddha it will result only in his falling into hell.
37O bird, the Sangrhitiri son may very well make gifts excluding cooked food-stuff. He shall perform only Ekoddishta and not Parvana.
38-41If he proceeds, in this manner, every year, there is no harm. If he forsakes Ekoddishta and performs Parvana lie makes himself and the manes victims of Yama’s wrath. The Sangrhitri, Dasiputra and other sons should perform sraddha with uncooked foodstuff in holy centers. If the Sangrhitri son performs sraddha with cooked rice his sraddha becomes fruitless like the food offered by a Sudra to a Brahmin. The grandfather and the other manes do not accept anything offered by him. 0 foremost among birds, knowing all these things, one shall avoid procreating sons in lower caste women.
42-43Apravrajita and a Sudra procreating son even in Brahmin women procreate only Candalas. O lord of birds, one shall marry legitimately a woman of his own caste and procreate sons.
44If they are of good nature lie will be happy. If they are of bad nature he will go to hell. Even sons of lower caste people, if good-natured, cause happiness.
45A single son, free from the sins of Kali is honoured by the siddhas and fanned by celestial damsels with divine chowries. He will be able to lift hundreds of manes, kinsmen, sons, grandsons and great-grandsons fallen inter the abysmal depths of Inferno.