Discussion between Krishna and Garuda on Preta Kalpa and Sapindikarana ||26||
1Garuda said: -O foremost among deities, take pity on me and tell me truly when the sapi1J4a is performed both for man and woman.
2How do they attain their goal when Sapinda rite is performed? What happens when it is not performed? How can you say that Sapinda is performed both for man and woman.
3How can both husband and wife derive the benefit of Sapinda? It the husband is alive how can one perform Sapinda for a woman?
4O lord of deities, how in the heaven does she attain the region of her husband? When the sacred fire is lit how is sraddha performed along with Vrishotsarga on the same day?
5O lord, how could the water-jar be gifted, if the Sapinda rite is performed already? Please tell me, out of grace, since the welfare of the world is involved.
6The Lord said: -I shall tell you the truth how Sapinda should be performed. O foremost among birds, the dead man· is on the Great Highway for the period of a year (after death).
7Thereafter, he sojourns in the Pitrloka together with the manes. Hence, the Sapinda should be performed by the son to his father.
8When a year is complete, the son should perform Pinda-Pravesa duly on the anniversary of death.
9O Excellent bird, when the Sapinda is performed on the anniversary of death the dead man attains his cherished goal.
10After Sapindikarana, he abandons his identity and becomes one with the manes. The assimilation with grandfather is made within six months from the period the rite is completed.
11No joyous ceremony such as marriage, etc., can be performed if the householder dies and the Sapinda has not been performed. Even a mendicant will not take alms from that house unless the Sapinda is performed duly.
12As long as the Pindas are not merged, one remains impure. O lord of birds, the dead man gets a new appellation after this merge.
13The obligations of a family are many. Man’s life is being wasted every moment. Human body is not permanent. In view of this, the twelfth day after death is thought to be appropriate for the Sapinda rite.
14-15Whether one has maintained the sacrificial fire or not, one should perform the Sapinda on the twelfth day. He that is not possible, after three fortnights or after six months or on the anniversary day. The Sapinda rite is made obligatory by the sages who know the truth.
16After Sapinda rite Ekoddishta shall not be performed. If it is performed it shall be done for the three, avoiding Kshaya days.
17-18Ekodishta, if not performed for the three-father, grandfather, great grandfather Tanta mounts to a slaughter of Pitris. If one is unable to perform the three separate Sraddhas, one shall perform all the three on the same day which is not the Sraddha day of the grandfather. f the day or month of death is not known, Parvana and not Ekoddishta Sraddha is recommended.
19If the body has not yet been evolved no sraddha is enjoined for him together with the other manes. If the sixteen Sraddhas are performed he is released from Preta-hood, acquires the status of Pitris and rejoices in their company.
20If there be no son, Sapindikarana is not possible. There is no Sapindikarana for a low caste woman either, so long as she lives with her husband well and good, but there is no Sapindikarana for her after her death.
21The woman whose marriage this taken place according to the practice observed in the marriages, such as Brahma, etc., is entitled to rice ball and water libation which should be offered by the dynastic title of her husband.
22The woman who is married according to the custom followed in the marriages such as asura, etc. is also entitled to pinch and water which should be offered by the dynastic title of her father.
23-24The Sapindikarana for the deceased is always performed by the son alone. If the deceased has no son, it should be performed by his wife if no wife, by his elder brother; if no elder brother, by his younger brother, or by his younger brollier’s son; if no younger brother or his son, by a close relative or by a disciple. After Sapindikarana, he should perform Nandimukha.
25O lord, if a dead man is issueless, his younger brother or his wife can perform the Sapinda.
26According to Manu, if among many brothers in a family only one has a son that son is common to all brothers.
27The Sapinda of persons devoid of sons should be performed by the wife or Aviles or the family priest.
28A son whose tonsure ceremony has been held is entitled to perform his father’s Sraddha, but he shall not recite the Vedic mantras. He can very well say Svadha.
29A woman’s Sapinda can be performed by three persons, beginning with her husband (i.e. husband, son or husband’s brother).
30Either before a year, or after a year or on the anniversary day, the Sapinda rite can be performed. After that, all individual rites are forbidden.
31After Sapinda, all individual Sraddhas are avoided. He who gives separate Pinda virtually kills the Pitris.
32When Sapindikarana is performed a separate Sraddha for each mane is not enjoined. If a separate sraddha is performed, the Sapinda rite should be performed again.
33If after performing Sapinda anyone performs Ekoddista, he makes himself and the dead man victim of Yama’s wrath. Up to a year the rite for redemption from ghost hood should be performed under the specific name and gotra by the householder.
34The water-jar offering, feeding, gifts of lights, etc., after the Sapinda rite is over, should be made in a single unit ail.
35O bird, the Brahmin officiating in the first annual sraddha should be given the cost of water-pots and other articles (if water-pots and other articles are not given) after being fed.
36After the pinch offering has been made, he should gift as much of food-stuff to a Brahmin as would last fora year. A person for whom all due rites are performed shall obtain a divine body and will proceed in the divine aerial car fully contented, to the realm of Yama.
37If father is alive, no Sapinda rite is performed to the dead son. No Sapinda is performed to the woman whose husband is alive.
38If the chaste wife. ascends the pyre on the fourth day, the Vrishotsarga and other rites for her should be performed on the day when the same are due for her husband.
39An adopted daughter-shall subscribe to her husband’s gotra till the birth of a son. After the birth of her son she reverts to the Hotra another father.
40If the wife ascends the funeral pyre there is always the identity of rites for her husband and wife. The separate sraddha (Ekoddishta) shall be performed by the son on. the anniversary of his father’s death.
41If both husband and wife- die on one and the same day, without a child and are cremated in the same pyre, the kinsman should perform separate sraddha for each. The Sapinda is along with her husband.
42This is my sworn statement that if anyone offers separate Pindas to the deceased couple husband and wife is not affected by major sins at all.
43If both husband and wife die and are cremated in the same pyre, food is cooked for Pinda at the same time but Pindas are offered separately.
44This separate offering is enjoined only for a year. Vrishotsarga, Nava sraddha (the first annual offering on the day of death) and the sixteen separate sraddhas, the Pada-Dana, major gifts are offered separately for a year. The dead person will be satiated forever.
45If two persons, men or women, of the same gotra die on the same day, the altar for the ritual is common for both, but the offering of gifts is separate.
46The Sraddha performed on the eleventh day should consist of the same kind of cooked food m the case of husband and wife but not in the case of others.
47If Sraddhas are performed in holy centres, in the dark fortnight or during the period of solar or lunar eclipse; the same cooked food can be used for many Sraddhas.
48If a woman is burnt along with the corpse of the husband, the fire bums out the body. It cannot burn the soul.
49Just as the impurities of metals are removed when metals are melted in fire, so the woman shall remove her impurities in the fire that is on a par with nectar.
50-51Assuming a divine body in heaven both of them attain purity. Just as the oil in a metallic vessel can be heated but not burnt to ashes by fire, so also cremated along with her husbands he cannot be reduced to nothing. Her soul remains immortal though it is merged into the soul other husband.
52If she is separated from her husband and dies elsewhere she cannot attain the region of her husband till the day of final deluge.
53Leaving oil her mother, father and sons she will attain an everlasting happiness by following her dead husband.
54Calculating by the celestial calander she shall stay in heaven for thirty-five million years with the stars.
55At the end of that period she is born in a noble family, where she will be highly delighted in the company of her husband since she has remained chaste throughout.
56-57If a woman who is married duly according to religious rites does not associate herself with her husband she will remain miserable for seven births subsequent to this. She will be evil-conducted and repulsive in speech. The woman of such a despicable character who goes after another man, leaving her own husband shay be born as a lizard or an alligator or a leech.
58Hence, a woman shall endeavor to serve her husband in thought, word and action and follow him in life and death.
59A woman who commits sins against her husband alive or dead shall never get a husband in her re-birth. She will be the most unfortunate creature among women.
60By not thinking of anyone else and by serving her husband with devoted attention, a woman shall derive half the merit her husband achieves by the worship of God, propitiation of the manes and hospitality to guests.
61By doing her duty like this she will attain the region of her husband after death and shine liked celestial damsel in heaven as long as the sun and the moon shine in the firmament.
62If reborn they will be born in a flourishing family and will live together for a long time. a chaste lady will never suffer from the pangs of separation from her husband.
63O lord of birds, I have told you all. Now, I shall tell you some special things which yield happiness to the dead.
64The Sapinda rite is performed on the twelfth day or thereafter, in any case within a year. The Udakumbha and feeding rites are performed every month.
65A rite already done need not be repeated except the rites for the dead. If any one does it again the previous rite becomes fruitless.
66The rites for the dead, of course, can be repeated. O lord of birds, if any auspicious ceremonies (such as marriage etc.) are to be celebrated, the Sapinda rite should be completed before that.
67A son who performs Sapinda rite according to the rules shall offer monthly Pindas as well together with feeding and Udakumbha rites.