The Creation from Prakriti and the Vikaras ||47||
1Kraustuki said: – Tell me in detail the manner in which the lord, the lord of creation, the first creator Brahma created all creatures.
2Markandeya said: – I shall relate to you, O Brahmana, how the author of this universe created all the mobile and immobile objects – he, who is possessed of the six qualities or powers, -the Bhagas, and is everlasting. 3At the close of the Mahakalpa called Padma, – when the world existed in a state of dissolution, having awakened from his nightly slumber or inactivity, the lord looked on the universe moved by the quality of Sattva and saw it a void. 4Here is mentioned this verse which has been applied to Narayana – who is of the nature of Brahmana and is the cause of the growth and destruction of this world. 5I have heard it said that, Nara is the name of water. And he sleeps on that water, therefore he is called Narayana, – (he whose shelter is water). 6On awaking from this sleep, he inferred that the world had gone down into that water, and then he became desirous of recovering the earth.
7As of old, at the commencement of the previous Kalpas he had assumed the bodies of fish and tortoise, similarly now he assumed another body – that of the boar. 8-9The all-pervading deity of whom are made all the sacrifices of the Vedas, the author of all, he who has entered into all, – the lord of the world – the object of meditation of the sacred souls inhabiting the Janaloka – having assumed the luminous form composed of Vedic sacrifices, – entered into the waters, and recovering the earth from the nether regions posited it upon the waters. 10On that collection of water the earth stood like an immense boat and owing to the extendedness of its body it did not sink. 11Then having levelled the earth, on the earth he set forth mountains. As the previous creation had been burnt by the heat of dissolution, the mountains all over the world were found shrivelled up by that same heat. 12These mountains had been sunk in the universal deluge, beaten by the wind; and now they came up and became stationary in the very places where they had sunk. 13Having divided the universe, adorned with the seven islands, he thought of the creation of the four worlds as before. 14Meditating on the creation of this universe, as in the previous Kalpas, the un- premeditated creation, composed of the quality of Tamas, came into existence from it. 15Tamas, or inertion, Moha, or ignorance, Mahamoha, or infinite ignorance, Tamisra or darkness, Andhatamisra or blinding darkness and Avidya or non-discrimination, these five, as before, came into being from the high-souled Brahma. 16Proceeding from him thus meditating, the unconscious creation, both the internal and external of which were un- illumined, where the spirit lay concealed, and which was composed purely of mountains, became stationed in five different quarters. 17Because the principal mountains came to light in this creation, therefore it is called the main creation. Having seen this creation fruitless, he meditated again on a fresh creation. 18From him thus meditating another creation, that of oblique currents, came forth. Because from this have originated all indirect and oblique movements therefore it is called an oblique current. 19The lower animals are known to belong to this creation; they are almost inert, without reason, followers of evil ways, and though devoid of wisdom yet have the conceit of it. 20They are proud and self-conceited and are of twenty-eight kinds or classes; they have a little light within themselves, but are covered from one another. 21Finding this creation also as useless, he meditated; and from that meditation another creation came forth. It is the creation of an upward current, the third creation, of the quality of Sattva, and it moves upwards. 22The creatures born of this upward current are full of love and happiness; their inner and outer natures are both uncovered and illumined. 23This third creation which gave satisfaction to his soul, he named as the bright creation. Then, on the accomplishment of this creation, Brahma became pleased. 24-27After this he, at that time, began to meditate for the creation of another creation that should be useful and good. From him, the Unimanifest one, thus meditating, whose meditation is ever true, came forth the creation of a lower current fitted to serve his purpose. These creatures, though largely enlightened, are yet moved by Tamas or ignorance, and have an excess of the quality of Rajas; therefore they are largely subject to pain, and are repeatedly born; both their inner and outer natures are illumined; they are men, fitted to serve the purpose of Brahma. 28The fifth is the creation of favour, it is posited in four classes, by division into Biparyaya, Siddha, Shanta and Tushta. 29The creatures of this creation know both the past and the present object of all the creatures commencing with the elements. This is called the sixth creation. 30The creatures of this creation are all the recipients of sacrifices, and are also engaged in dividing these; they are the inspirer of all, they are known as the origin of elements. 31Of these creations of Brahma, the first is to be known as that of Mahat or Primordial Nature; the second is the creation of the measures of Primordial elements – it is called the elemental creation. 32The third is the creation of degeneration and is called the sensual creation; this is the natural creation made through premeditation. 33The main-creation is the fourth; the main creatures here are the mountains; that which I have stated as the oblique current, that is the fifth creation, inhabited by birds and insects. 34The next, higher current, is the sixth, it is called the creation of the bright ones; the next is the seventh, and is composed of human beings. 35-36The eighth creation is that called Anugraha, it is composed of both the qualities of Sattva and Tamas. Of these, five are creations of degeneration and three are natural creations. 37Besides these natural and degenerate creations, the ninth creation is called Kaumara. These are the nine creations of the lord of creatures, described here by me.