The mandate to the Yaksa Duhsaha ||50||
1Markandeya said: – Afterwards from him thus meditating came forth objects born of his mind, with all the functions and senses produced from his body. 2From the limbs of him – the intelligent one, came out created souls; they, that is, who have already been described by me. 3All creatures beginning with the gods and ending with the inanimate objects, are said to be composed of the three qualities of Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. Like these are all creatures both animate and inanimate. 4When all these creatures of this Brahma – the intelligent one, did not increase, he then created others, sons born of his mind, and like his own-self.
5Namely: – Bhrigu, Pulasthya, Pulaha, Kratu, Angira, Maruchi, Daksha, Atri, and Bashishta, all born of his mind. 6-7These nine have been ascertained by the Puran to be the sons of Brahma. Afterwards Brahma again created Rudra, born of his angry self; as also Sankalpa and Dharma, which last was born before even the first born. 8-9Sananda and other who had been of old created by the self-created one, they being absorbed in meditation and listless to everything, did not attach themselves to this World. They were all possessed of the knowledge of that which is yet to come, and were devoid of attachment, and free from envy. 10On them, indifferent to the creation of progeny, came down the anger of the high-souled Brahma. Of this came forth a person of huge size whose body was half-man and half- woman, “Divide thyself into two” – having said this, he disappeared from that place. 11-12He, being thus addressed, differentiated his female nature from the male, and divided the male portion into eleven parts. The beautiful and the not-beautiful, the peaceful and the not- peaceful, in this way, he, the lord, the god, divided the male and the female into many according to colour and nature. 13-14Then the lord of creatures, the lord Brahma having created at first from himself, the self-begotten Manu, who was like himself, and Satarupa; this lord Manu, – the self-begotten one, took unto him as wife that woman whose sins had been washed by penance. 15By that person Satarupa had two sons both distinguished by their own works, Priyabrata and Uthanapada by name. 16Similarly she bore two daughters Riddhi and Prasuti. Then the father gave Prasuti to Daksha, and Riddhi to Ruchi, in those days. 17He, the lord of creatures, produced from them Jajna with Dakshina; and then, O thou highly fortunate one, joined this son and this woman as husband and wife. 18And on Dakshina were produced twelve sons of Jajna – they are the gods Yama of the age of the self-begotten Manu. 19-28They were the bright sons of Jajna born of Dakshina, similarly Daksha produced on Prashuti twenty-four daughters. Their names are here given each by each, Sradha, Lakshmi, Dhriti, Tushti, Pushti, Kriya, Medha, Budhi, Lajja, Bapu, Shanti, Shidhi, Keerti, these thirteen of Daksha’s daughters were married to Dharma, while the remaining and younger eleven daughters, namely, Khyati, Satya Sambhuti, Smriti, Preeti, Kshama, Shannati, Anishuya, Urjja, Shwaha, Shwadha were given in marriage to Bhrigu, Bhaba, Mareechi, Angira, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Bashista, Atri, Banhi and Pitara in order. Sradha gave birth to Kama, Sree to Darpa, Dhriti to Niyama, Tushti to Shantasha, Pushti to Lobha, Sruta was born of Medha, Kanda, Naya and Binya, of Kriya, Bodha of Budhi, Benoy and Bapu of Lajja, Byeboshaya and Kshema were born of Santi, Shukha of Shidhi, Yasha of Keerti. These were all sons of Dharma. Kama gave birth to Atimukha and Harsha. These were the grandsons of Dharma. 29-40Hansa was the wife of Adharma and Anrita was born of them Niriti was the daughter of Adharma. Of Niriti were born two sons, namely, Naraka and Bhaya who married Maya and Bedana. Maya bore desolating Mrityu. Of the marriage of Rourab and Bedana was born Dukha. It is said either Mrityu or Dukha gave birth to Byadhi, Jara, Shoka, Trishna, Krodha. All these are ungodly. They have neither wife nor children. Mrityu has got two other wives, namely, Niriti and Alakshmi. By Alakshmi he has fourteen sons who do his biddings and deal with men at the time of death. Hear all about them. They dwell in the ten senses of perception and action and in the mind of men to lead them to their respective objects. They attack the senses with the help of anger and attachment and lead men to ruin by diverting them from the path of virtue. Some of them live in the Ahankara or egotism and some in the understanding. Hence men are deluded and strive after ruining women. Certain of them live in the houses of men. Amongst them there is one, Dushaha by name, who has a voice much like that of a crow and is so ill-dressed with rags as to be almost naked. He is always hungry and his face is always down caste and his voice is like that of crow. And he, the riches of penance, was created by Brahma to devour everything, and as this hideous and all devouring Dushaha who is fearful to look was about to devour all, Brahma at the creator the changeless, the pure, all pervaded with Brahman, and the origin of men, said, – devour not this world, withhold thy rage and be calm.
41Brahma said: – This world is not fit to be eaten by thee. Forsake thy anger, be calm. Give up this Tamasa desire, and throw away that part of the quality of Rajas which is moving thee now.
42Dushaha said: – I am weak through hunger, O lord of the world, and am thirsty and feeble. How shall I gain satisfaction, how shall I become strong? What is my refuge, tell me, on what may I live in peace.
43-47Brahma said: – The house of men is thy refuge; the unrighteous man is thy strength; by the default of sacrifice thou shalt grow, my son. Useless words are thy garments, and I am assigning also proper food to thee. The wounded, that on which worms have grown, similarly that which has been bitten by dogs, that which is kept in broken vessels, that which has been subdued by breath of mouth, the remains of food, that which is not ripe, that which has not been cooked, that which is not worshipped by the strong, that which has not been sanctified, that which is eaten by persons sitting on broken seats, and during twilight with their face to the north, that which is eaten by one dancing or playing on any musical instrument or singing, that which has been stirred or polluted by women keeping time or eaten or seen by women keeping time, or whatever food or drink is decomposed, these and others shall I assign to thee for thy growth. 48-49Whatever is offered to the sacrificial fire without faith, or whatever is given with disrespect to persons whose caste and station are not known, as also whatever is given without due offering of water, or whatever is thrown away without any purpose or whatever shall be exposed simply to be thrown away, or given through excessive surprise, or whatever is given by one overcome by anger, such polluted object, O Jaksha, is thy portion. 50Or whatever sacrificial works are performed for purposes of the next world by a person born of a mother who had taken unto her a second husband, or whatever is done similarly by a woman born of a mother who has taken a second husband, that is assigned, O Jaksha, to thee for thy satisfaction. 51-52Or whatever works are undertaken for the attainment of wealth for paying the price of brides, and whatever sacrifices are performed in accordance with unauthoritative and untrue scriptures, or whatever is satisfied by mere wealth, and whatever is not studied guided by the spirit of truth, (according to a second reading whatever works relating to the next world are performed by men while weeping) all these are thy portion, I give them for thy satisfaction. 53-54Those that approach women in their family way, who do not perform the daily worship in proper time, and whatever is polluted by unscriptural works or words among men, O Dakshaha! always will these be subject to thy influence. 55In the division of rows while eatings, in the division of cooking, in vain-preparation of food, and in family desputes, will be thy permanent abode. 56When cows and horses &c are kept confined but not given proper food, and when the dwelling- house is not besprinkled with water of an evening, then shalt thou be the dread of men. 57Those who when overtaken by evil stars or when seeing the three kinds of omen – such as earthquake &c, shall not perform any sacrifice for obviating the evils due to them, shalt thou overtake and overthrow. 58-61Those men who fast without cause, those who are addicted to wine, women, and gambling, those who speak ill of their benefactors, those who adopt the vow of the cat (i.e. who are hypocritical), who study the Vedas without knowledge (of the rites) and the works of those who shall live in forests for purposes of penance but shall not be the master of their appetites, and shall seek vulgar enjoyments, and also the works of those Brahmanas, and Kshettriyas and Vaishyas and Sudras who have fallen from the duties of their station, and those works that have for their object the attainment of good in the world to come, and whatever are the fruits of those works, all these works, all these, Oh Jaksha! shall be thine. I shall tell you of other things also assigned for thy growth hear of them with attention. 62Whatever offerings shall be made to thee, uttering thy name, with the words, these are thine, – at the close of the sacrifice to the Vaishvya-deva shall be subject to thee.
63He who eats food duly sanctified, whose mind and body are pure, who is not greedy or avaricious, who is not subject to his wife, do thou avoid his house. 64Who worships the gods by offerings of ghee to the fire, and the manes similarly by offerings of cakes of rice &c -and who worships the sons of Yama, do thou, Oh Yaksha! avoid his house. 65The house where there is goodwill towards children, old men, women and men, and similarly towards friends and relations, that house too shalt thou avoid. 66The house to which the women are strongly attached and are not anxious to go out, and are full of modesty, always, Oh Yaksha, avoid that house. 67The house where seats and beddings are arranged in accordance to age and relation, that house is to be avoided by thee, O Yaksha, through my command. 68Where people are kind, and constantly engaged in good works, and satisfied with the commonplace necessaries of life, that house is to avoided by thee, Oh Yaksha! 69Where at the approach of the spiritual guide, the aged, and the Brahman those who are seated occupy their seats no longer (i.e. receive them with due respect, standing) that house is to be avoided by thee always, Oh Yaksha. 70The house the threshold of which is not overgrown with trees and herbs, or where the heart of men are not pierced with grief, that house is not proper for thee. 71Where the food of the owner of the house consists of what remains after offerings have been made to gods, the manes, the guests, and men (needing food), avoid thou that house. 72Avoid thou, O Yaksha, men who speak the truth, who are forbearing, not given to injuring others, who are remorseful, as well as those that are not envious. 73Avoid thou those women also who are devoted to the service of their husbands, who avoid the company of bad women, and who live on the food left after their relations and husband have had their fill. 74Avoid thou also those twice-born persons (Brahmanas) whose minds are attached to sacrifice and study and religious exercises and charity; and who are engaged in performing sacrifices for others and in teaching others, who live by what comes as gifts unasked and unsought. 75Avoid, Oh Dushaha! that Kshetriya also who is always after works of charity, and study, and sacrifices, and who earns his livelihood by collecting rightful taxes or by receiving pay using his weapons. 76Avoid also that sinless Vaishya who is joined with the three above-named virtues (namely charity, study, and sacrifice), who breeds cattle, and earns his livelihood by agriculture and commerce. 77Avoid, O Yaksha, that Sudra also who makes charity, and sacrifice and the service of the twice-born classes, the chief object of his existence, and who earns his livelihood by the service of the Brahmanas and others. 78-79The house where the house-holder earns his livelihood by works that do not go against the injunctions of the Vedas and the Law, and where his wife follows him in everything, and where the son worships the spiritual guide, the gods, and similarly his father; and where the wife worships the husband, how can there be any fear of Alakshmi (the goddess of poverty and misfortune) in that house? 80Where early in the morning and in the evening the house is besmeared and besprinkled with water, and where sacrificial offerings are adorned with flowers, that house thou canst not strike. 81Where the beddings are not seen by the sun, and where fire and water exists always, and where lights are presented to the sun, that house is loved by Lakshmi, the goddess of fortune. 82Where there are bull, and sandal-wood, and Vina, and mirror, honey and Ghee and the Kasha grass, as also where there are Brahmanas and vessels made of coper, that house is not be possessed by thee. 83Where the trees are thorny, where there is the Nishpaba creaper, where the wife is a widow who has taken a second husband, where there is an anthill, that, O Yaksha, is thy temple. 84The house where there are five men, three women, three cows, and where the fire is kindled in darkness, that house is thy abode. 85The house where there are one goat, two chamari deer, three cows, five buffaloes, six horses, seven elephants, that house, O Yaksha, do thou destroy soon. 86When shovels, and cutlases, and cooking utensils and plates and other vessels are thrown about everywhere, they shall give thee excellent shelter. 87When women sit on pestle and the grain grinding vessel, and similarly on the wooden bases of the door-frame, or on rubbish, and thus sitting they converse with one and other, these become, O Yaksha!, thy benefactor. 88The house where both ripe and unripe paddies are threshed, and similarly where the scriptures are overriden, there, O Dushaba, mayest thou move about at thy will. 89In the house of endless sin where fire is given on cooking utensils or on the lid thereof, or on spoons or on a cutlass or other weapon, there shalt thou find superior repose. 90The house where there are human-bones, or where the dead body remains for one day and night, there, O Yaksha, is thy abode, as also of other Rakshasas. 91Whoever take their food without first giving cakes and water to friends and relations, as also to those who are partakers of the funereal cakes and water, thou shalt at once possess those men. 92The house where lotus, large lotus, young women desiring conjugal felicity, and bull and white elephant exist avoid thou that house. 93The house where gods without weapons and with weapons but without war are established, do thou avoid that house. 94When the people perform the feasts celebrated of old, in their own house, as they used to be celebrated before, move not thou in that house. 95Those who bathe in currents of air produced by the winnowing fan, or in water contained in a pot, or in water dripping from wet clothes, or in that in which the ends of the nails have been dipped, go to them of evil-nature. 96Thou art not to keep the company of men who follow the ordinances of their class, perform Japa and Homa, and the auspicious worship of gods, according to the custom of the country, and in due forms prescribed for the particular time or Yuga to which they belong and who duly follow the rules of purity and tradition.
97Markandeya said: – Having told all this to Dushaha, Brahma at once disappeared, and the former also followed these injunctions as they were related by him who is born in the lotus.