The Offspring of Duhsaha ||51||
1Markandeya said: -Dushaha had a wife known by the name of Nirmasti, who has born of the wife of Kali, who had seen a Candala while keeping time. 2Of these two were born sixteen issues extending over all the world, eight of whom were sons and eight daughters and all of them exceedingly fearful beings. 3Dantakrista, and Ukti, while another was Paribarta, Angadhuk, Shakuni, Gandaprantarati, Garbhaha, and another Shashyaha, -they are the sons of these two. 4There were also others, daughters, similarly eight in number, hear also as their names from me. 5-6The first is Niyojika, similarly another is Birodhini, Swayamharika, as also Bhramani, and Rituharika; Smritihara and Bijahara, these are two other daughters of this pair who are very cruel and the eighth is Bidveshini, she who causes dread to men. 7I shall relate to you the works of these, and how the evil caused by them may be averted; and also hear, oh thou superior Brahman the works of the eight sons (of Duhshaha and Nirmasti).
8Dantakristi living in the teeth of the new born babes, being exultant, tries to open the way for the coming of Dushaha. 9The means of averting his evil is to throw white mustard seed on the bed as also on the teeth of the sleeping child. 10By bathing in the water containing white herbs, similarly by the chanting of right scriptures, by wearing ushtra-kantaka and the bone of the rhinocerus, and silk dresses, (is the evil caused by Dantakristi averted). 11The other son, similarly exists, who says again and again, this is good, and thus impels men to evil, therefore is he called Tathokti there is no doubt about it. 12Therefore to avert the evil caused by him, the unseen good is always to be described by the learned, and the name of Janardana is to be chanted, or that of Brahma the preceptor of the whole world both that moves, that moves not; or that of the family god. 13He who changes the foetus of the womb of one woman into that of another and changes the speech of the speaker into something contrary to what he means is the son called Paribarthaka. 14The evil caused by him is also to be averted be white mustard; and by repeating mystic formulas, do the learned save themselves from him. 15Angadhuk like fire cause the evil of irruptions on the limbs (of men), he is to be averted with the Kusa grass. 16Living in crows and other birds as well as entering into dogs and jackals, the other son, it is said, direct men’s good and evil. 17Therefore has the lord of creatures said this that in evil things delay as also an absolute giving up of all endeavours is proper, while in matters that are good men should work with despatch. 18The other son living within men’s mouth, O most superior of twice-born persons! in half a second, eats up all the works of men and destroys their good name and good-will. 19-20By hearing instructions from Brahmanas, by the adoration of gods, and also by drawing out certain specific herbs by the root, O twice-born one! and by bathing in water containing the urine of the cow and white mustard, by worshipping the natal star of the person, and also by the worship of other stars, as also by seeing weapons which are used for the support of righteousness, and by disregard of this world is the Gandaban propitiated. 21Similarly the other, Garbaha by residing in the womb of pregnant women destroy their fruit. The safety of the foetus against him is always to be secured by perpetual observance of purity, 22by writing wellknown mantras, by wearing garlands &c, as are usually used, and by living in purified and clean houses, O thou twice-born one, and by not overexerting one’s self -is the evil produced by Garbaha averted. 23Similarly another the Shashyaha who destroys the growth of grains; his evil is to be averted by putting on worn-out shoes. 24Likewise is his evil averted by walking southwards, by the entrance of a Chandala into the field, and by offerings given outside the field, and by chanting hymns dedicated to the moon and the clouds. 25The daughter who directs men and other beings to rob other’s wife and wealth she is Niyojika. 26By reading pure scriptures by giving up anger and greed, &c, “she directs me to these” thus thinking and by giving up all conflicts, is the evil caused by her averted. 27When attacked by others or driven by others the wise should not be subject to feelings of retaliation, thinking that it is this Niyojika who thus impels me to it. 28“This Niyojika is leading me, to have connections with other’s wives” the wise shall think also this wise. 29-30She, the other one, Birodhini creates discord among husbands and wives who ought to love each other as also between friends and friends and relations and relations, between father and son, and between people of the same caste; from her, safety should be attained by sacrificial offerings, by forbearance even when abused, and by observing the ordinances of the scriptures. 31-32The daughter (of Dushaha) who eats paddy from the barn or from the house, robs milk from the cows, and similarly robs butter from the curd, and robs the value of things having value, she is called Swayamharika, always engaged in spiriting away things. From the cookroom she robs half-boiled rice, as also rice that is preserved in the place where rice is kept, 33as also rice that has been put out on the plates, and she eats with those engaged in rating, and this Durhara also robs the food left after eating by men. 34From the place where paddy is stored or boiled, she robs boiled paddy, Oh thou twice born one! and robs milk from the breasts of women and cows, she is therefore always the robber of milk. 35She robs butter from curd, oil from jinjily, and similarly from the place reserved for storing away wines, she robs wine, as also the colour from kusum and other flowers, arid the fibres from cotton. 36-38She, this Swayamharika, O thou twice born one, incessantly robs things. For protection against her, a pair of peacocks or artificial women should be made; and the vessels for milk and ghee &c, should be cleansed by the ashes of Homa performed in honour of the gods, or by those of incense burnt to them. These are said to be charms against her. 39Another causes disturbance to men living stationed in one place, and that daughter is called Bhramani. 40Protection against her is secured by strewing white mustard on the seat, the bed, and on the ground where that man lives. 41And that man shall also meditate thus – “this evil minded (girl) leading me from one place to another,” and shall again and again repeat the Bhu-Sutka of the Rigveda, with all-absorbing concentration of the mind.
42Another daughter of Dushaha is engaged in robbing the flower (generative power) of the women, she is to be known as Rituharika. 43For averting the evils caused by her the woman should be made to bathe in holy places sacred to the gods, in places of worship (or in Maths of the Buddhists), on table-lands, at the junction of two or more rivers, and in canals, 44and should be treated with superior medicine prescribed, by a twice-born person wellversed in the treatment of diseases, and who knows the Mantras and the esoteric meaning of actions. 45She is another daughter (of Dushaha) who runs away with the memory of women, she is Smritihara; by living in solitude is the evil caused by her averted.
46There is another, a most dreadful girl, who destroys the seed of both women and men. By eating sacrificial food and by bath is the evil caused by her averted. 47-48The eighth daughter is by name Dbeshini, – the source of dread to men and women, the object of people’s malice. For the cure of her evil Homa should be performed by jinjily soaked in honey and milk and ghee, and similarly by performing the sacrifice called Mitrabinda is the evil caused by her averted. 49Of those sons and daughters, O thou most superior among the twice-born; there are thirty-eight offsprings, hear their names from me. 50-51Of Dantakrista there was a daughter Bijalpa as also Kalaha. Bijalpa chatters always disdainful words, and lies, and evil expressions. For her cure the wise shall meditate even on her, and the householder shall exercise self-restraint. Kalaha creates quarrels in the houses of men incessantly. 52She is the cause of the destruction of one’s own relations. Hear the means of her cure. It consists in making sacrificial offerings of grass-blades soaked in honey, ghee, and milk. 53-54These should be thrown into the fire and thus the Homa performed as well as the following hymn should be chanted: – For the satisfaction of the boys – with the mothers of creatures, for the satisfaction of all knowledge and penance, and self-restraint and discipline, for agriculture and the attainment of commercial prosperity, may they all grant me peace. 55May they be worshipped as laid down in the sacred books, and find entire satisfaction the pumpkins, and the yatu grain and other vegetables called ganah. 56Through pleasure of the Mahadeva or the great god, according to the will of the great god, may all these rest satisfied with men. 57Being satisfied may they dispel all the evil deeds and evil ceremonies as also that give rise to mortal sins, as also that cause other evils. 58Through their favour may all our evils and obstacles be destroyed during marriages and all ceremonies concerning the manes. 59During virtuous rites and during the worship of the guru and the gods, as also during the sacrifice called yapayajna as also during occasions of leaving the house on journeys 60may they grant peace and health and enjoyment of my body, as also happiness, and charity and wealth to the old, the young and the infirm, – of my family. 61-62The moon, the sun, the fire, the wind and the oceans may they all grant me peace. Of Ukti similarly, the son was Kalijibha, whose abode is in the palm-tree. Whose mother he possesses that vicious person he kills. The sons of Paribarta were two, O thou twice-born one! Birupa and Bikrita. 63They two lived on the top of trees, on walls and ditches and lakes, – and on the trees etc., change the foetus of the pregnant women. 64-65Therefore O Kraustiki, women in the family way shall not walk among trees, or in mountains, on walls or travel on expanses of water nor on ditches. Angadhuk got a son known by the name of Pishuna. 66-68He eats up the strength of the bones and nerves of the men who have not conquered themselves. Shakuni had five sons, the eagle, the crow, the dove, the vulture and the owl, – the Suras and the Asuras took them. The eagle was taken by Death, Time took the crow, Niriti took the dreadful owl. Disease took the vulture, while his lord Yama himself took the dove. 69These are said to be their instruments in working evil. Therefore, O thou most superior among the twice-born people! he on whose head, eagles and others alight or in whose dwelling they enter, by them should sufficient sacrifices and propitiatory rites be performed for purposes of self-preservation. 70The house where they breed, similarly where they build their nests, that house shall man forsake, as also that the top of which is attacked by the doves. 71On the entrance of the eagle, the dove, the vulture, the crow, and the owl, O thou twice-born one, into a house, the days of the dwellers of that house are said to be numbered. 72Such a house shall the learned quit, and perform propitiatory rites, the sight of a dove even in dream is not considered as auspicious. 73Similarly of Gandaprantarati the issues are said to be six. They live in the courses of women, hear from me of their time also. 74Four days and nights before, and another the thirteenth, and similarly another the eleventh day after the courses, – these are his son’s. 75These days, as also others, namely, the day when offerings are made to the manes, as also other days when there are any festivals, by the wise are these avoided for that reason. 76Of Garbaha the son was Nighna and daughter Mohini. Entering into the womb of the pregnant woman, one eats up the seed, and another having eaten the flesh of the woman hypnotises her. 77Through her charm frogs and tortoises and reptiles or again mere phoeces are born of her. 78-79In this way they eat the flesh of the pregnant woman for six months with out any restraint. The woman who lives in the shade of trees during night, or at the junction of three or four roads, or sleeps on the ground where the dead are cremated, or goes about without a second covering, or cries out at night, this (Mohini) possesses that woman. 80Similarly of Shashyaba there was one son known by the name of Kshudraka. He always on finding an opening, destroys the strength and value of the harvests. Hear from me all about him. 81Whoever sows the grain seeds on an inauspicious day, with a dissatisfied heart, into his field, whose end is near, he enters. 82Therefore on a day recognized as fit for the purpose, having worshipped the moon, with a gladdened and satisfied heart, and taking due help from others should the work of sowing the seed be undertaken. 83Of that daughter of Dushaha, of whom I have spoken as going by the name of Niyojika, was born a daughter by name Prochodika. Of her there were four daughters. 84They are Motta, Unmotta, Pramatta, and Naba. These women always enter into men for their destruction and move them to most cruel acts. 85-86They present unrighteousness as righteousness, lust as not lust, evil as good, and bondage as salvation, to men, who are proud and have no purity of mind and body; and driven by these eight maidens men incessantly stray away from the highest object of human existence. 87Their entrance into the house is during even-tide, when the offerings are not made in proper time to Dhata and Bidhata. 88Those are contaminated by the entrance of these, among whom men and women eat and drink together. 89Of Virodhini were three sons, Chodaka, Grahaka and another Tamaprachadaka. Hear from me all about their characteristics. 90-92Where the pestle, the mortar, shoes, seats, and women are polluted by coming in contact with lamp-oil; where the windowing fan and the cutlass, &c, are drawn by the feet, and sat upon, and where people move about in the house without having adored it by besmearing it with water, &c.; where fire is collected or taken from one place to another on the spoon, the sons of Birodhini, inspired by their mother, spread themselves there. 93Of these one given to lies and falsehood, entering into the tongue of men and women, causes malice and ill-will in the house, he is called by the name of Chodaka. 94Another with great attention resides in the ear, he is Grahaka, of exceedingly evil nature, who runs away with the words of men. 95Another of evil nature, who having drawn people’s mind forcibly towards him and having covered it with ignorance, creates anger; he is Tamapraschadaka. 96Of Shwavamharika were born three sons by Chaurya, – namely Sarbahari, and Ardhahari, and similarly Biryahari. 97-98In the houses where the inmates do not wash their mouth before and after meals, in the houses where evil ways prevail, where the inmates enter the cook-house with unwashed feet; in the household where, whether in the ground used for threshing corn, or in the field where the cattle graze, there are constant quarrells, in those houses they all move about and enjoy themselves as of right. 99Of Bhramani there was only one son, known as Kakajangha, those that are possessed by him find no pleasure whatever in their him. 100Whoever sings while eating; sings and laughs while attending calls of nature, and the man who meets his wife just at the junction of the day and night, in such a man, O thou twice-born one, does he enter. 101The girl called Rituharini, gave birth to three daughters.
102One girl is Kuchahara, another is Byanjanaharika, while the third daughter is named Jataharini. 103Of the woman whose marriage rites are not duly performed, or performed after the proper period of life, the one, Kuchahara, robs the two breasts of such a person.
104The girl who is given in marriage without due offerings have been made to the manes or without due worship of her mother, similarly the other, the Byanjanaharika, robs her of the marks of womanhood. 105-106Entering into the confinement room which is devoid of fire, and water, and incense, and light and iron, and mortar and mustard seed, and collirium, she robs the baby just born of her mother, of its life and even there, O thou twice-born one, leaves the carcase. 107She whose name is Jataharini is exceedingly cruel, and she eats the meat of the new-born babe, therefore the confinement room should be protected with great care.
108Her son Prachanda by name living in works mischief to the memory of those persons who do not live empty houses according to the law. 109From his grandsons were born a hundred thousand Likas, and the eight kinds born of Chandala women, all exceedingly dreadful through always going about with staves and ropes. 110The Likas then and those begotten of Chandala women, possessed by hunger, ran after one another, desirous of eating up one another. 111Those Likas and those offsprings of Chandala women being restrained by Prachanda, in time, settled down. The manner in which they did so hear thou that from me. 112Henceforth whoever shall give quarters to the Likas, there is no doubt about it that on him I shall inflict immeasurable punishment. 113And the Lika that will give birth to a child in the house of any offspring of Chandala women, all her children and she herself shall meet with destruction that selfsame day. 114The girl Bijaharini, who robs both men and women of their seed, gave birth to two daughters, -Batarupa and Arupa, these two are her weapons. 115The man and wife on whom the Batarupa throws her child, get certain diseases of the reproductive organs. 116Similarly by Arupa is the man robbed of his reproductive power, who eats without bathing or has connections with low caste women. 117That girl Bidbeshini by name whose face is made crooked through frowns, has two sons, one, who works men evil, and the other who leads them to trumpets forth their own good deeds. 118The man or woman who disregards the rules of purification, who is given to malice, who is avaricious, and who drinks foul water, lose the reproductive power. 119-121They two exist attacking the man who is moved by malice. The man who is the object of the ill-will of mother, brother, similarly of friends and relatives and well-wishers and enemies meet with destruction both in his religious and his worldly life. One of these, the worker of iniquity, leads one to publish one’s own virtues among men, the other destroys the qualities of friendship among men. Thus, these are all the progeny of Yaksha and Dushaha; they are noted for their iniquities, and by them is the whole world covered.