The Geography of Bharata ||57||
1-4Kraustuki said: -O Revered One, you have in detail described to me the Jambudwipa. This has been related by the revered one that leaving Bharata, actions that produce merit, or that lead to vice, do not exist anywhere else, it is from here that men attain heaven and salvation, both temporary and final; and in no other place on earth are works assigned to men; therefore O Brahman, describe this Bharata to me fully: – what are its divisions and what its limits, as also its exact position, and O thou tiger among the twice-born, tell me also what are its mountains.
5Markandeya said: – Of this Bharata there are nine divisions, of which hear from me with attention. They are to be known as existing between oceans, and unapproachable from one another. 6-7Indradwipa, Kasheruman, Stamrabarna, Gabhastiman, Nagadwipa, likewise Saumya, Gandharba, Baruna, and of them the ninth is this island surrounded by the ocean. This island is one thousand yojana in extent from south to north. 8Of that country, to the east are the habitations of the Kirata people, and to the west lie those of the Yabanas; while within it live Brahmans, Kshetriyas, Baishyas and Shudras, O thou twice-born one! 9They are purified by the performance of sacrifices and daily worships, and by trade and other works; and their conduct is also regulated by these works; 10and the attainment of heaven or of earthly good, of merit or demerit is also due to these works. The seven Kulachalas here are the Mahendra, the Malaya, the Sahya, the Suktiman, the mount Riksha, the Vindya and the Paripatra. 11Near them are another thousand mountains. 12-15They are of great extention and height, and their tablelands are large and pleasant. Their names are Kolahala, Baibhraja, Mandara, the mount Dardura, Bataswana, Baidyuta, Mainaka, Swarasa, Tungaprastha, Nagagiri, Rochana, and the mount Pandara, Puspa, the mount Dujjayanta, Raibata, and Arbuda, Rishyamukkha, Sagomanta, the mount Kuta, Kritasmara, and the mount Sri, and Kora, and hundreds of other mountains; and on them are interspersed habitations divided among the Aryas and the Mlechchas. 16-18Hear from me also of those excellent rivers, the waters of which are drunk by them – namely the Ganges, the Saraswati, the Indus, and likewise others, the Chandrabhaga (the Chenab) and the Jamuna, and the Shatadru, the Bitasta, (the Jhelum), the Irabti, (the Ravi), the Kuhu, the Gomati, the Dhutapapa, and the Bahuda and the Drishadbati, the Bipasha, (the Bewa), the Debika, the Raukshu, the Nirschira, the Gandaki, the Kaushiki, the Apaga, all these, O Brahman, that have proceeded from the foot of the Himalayas. 19-20The Bedasmriti, the Bedabati, the Britraghni, the Sindhura, the Benwa, the Sanandani, the Sadanira, and likewise the Mahi, the Para, the Charmanwati, the Tapi, the Bidisha, and also the Betrabati, and likewise the Shipra, and the Abarni, – all these are said to be dependents of the mount Paripatra. 21-23The Sone, the Mahanada, the Narmada, the Suratha, and the Adrija, the Mandakini, the Dasharna, and similarly another the Chitrakuta, the Chitrotpala, with the Tamasa, the Karamoda, the Pishachika, similarly others, the Pippali, the Srini, the Bipasha, and the river Bajjula, the Sumeruja, the Shukimati, the Shakuli, and the Tridiba, and the Akramu, and likewise many others of strong current have risen from the foot of mount Skandha, (another reading, the mount Riksha). 24-25The Shipra, the Payoshni, the Nirbindhya, the Tapi with the Nishadhabati, the Benwa, the Baitarani, and also the Sinibali, the Kumudbati, the Korotaya, the Mahagauri, the Durga, and likewise the Antashira, – all these rivers of pure water, and beautiful have proceeded from the foot of the Vindya mountains. 26-31The Godabari, the Bhimaratha, similarly another the Krishnabenwa, the Tungabhadra, the Suprayaga, the Bahya, the Kaberi, and likewise the Apaga, all these excellent rivers have also their sources at the foot of the Vindhya range. The Kritamala, the Tamraparni, the Pushpaja, with the Utpalabati, these rivers of cooling waters have proceeded from the mount Malaya. The Pitrikulya, Somakulya, Rishikulya, the Ikshuka and that which is the Tridiva, the Langolini, the Vamsakara; they are known to have taken their rise from the mountain Mahendra. The Rishikulya, the Kumari, the Mandaga, of gentle current, the Kripa, (second reading, the Krisha) the Palashini are known to have risen from the mountain Shuktimat. They are all sacred rivers like the Ganges, and flow into the ocean; they are all mothers of the world, and are all said to possess the power of taking away sins. And there are, O most excellent among twice-born persons, other thousands of small rivers, 32-33those that flow only during the rainy season, as well as those that flow during all seasons. Matsya, Aswakuta, Kulya, Kuntala, Kasi, Koshala, and Atharba, and Kalinga, Malaka with Brika, are generally spoken of as the provinces of the Madhyadesha or central division. 34That province which is situated on the north of mount Sahya, where the river Godabari flows, that is the most pleasant country in all the earth. 35-41The pleasant city, Gobardhana, of the high- souled Bhargaba, and Balhika, Batadhana, Abhira, Kalatoyaka, Aparanta, Sudra, Pallaba, Charmakhandika, Gandhar, Yabana, Sindhu, Saubira, Madraka, Satadruja, Kalinga, Parada, Harabhushika, Mathara, Bahubhadra, Kaikeya, Dashamalika, -all these the colonies of Kshetriyas, as also of Vaishyas and Sudras; – Kamboja, and Darada, Barbara, Harshabardhana, China, and Khara, Bahula peopled by men; and Atreya, Bharndvaja, Pushkala, and Kasheruka, Lampaka, Shulakara, Chulika, with the Jaguda, Aupadha, Anibhadra, belonging to the tribes of Kiratas; – Tamasa, Hansabharga, Kashmira, Tungana, Shulika, Kuhaka, Jarna, and likewise Darba. 42-44These are the province of the north, hear from me of the countries to the east. Adhraraka Mudakara, Antargirya, Bahirgirya, likewise Prabanga, Rangeya, Manada, Manabartika, Brahmottarya, Prabijaya, Bhargaba, Jneyamallaka Pragjyotisha, Madra, Videha, Tamraliptaka, Malla, Magadha-Gomanta, – these are known to be the eastern provinces. 45-52Then there are other provinces inhabited by the people of the Deccan: – Pundra, Kerala, and likewise, Golangula, Shailusha, Mushika, Kusuma, Basaka, Maharastra, Mahishaka, Kalinga, all these and Avira, with Baishikya, and Adakya, and Shabara, Punlinda, Bindhya, Mauleya, Bidarbha, with Dandaka, Paurika, Maulika, and Ashmaka, Bhogabardhana, Nashika, Kuntala, Andhra, Udbhida, Banadaraka; these are the provinces of the southern countries. Hear of the western countries from me. They are Suryaraka, Kalibala, Durga, Anikata, Pulinda, Sumina, Rupapa with Swapada, likewise Kurumina, Katakshara, Nasikyaba, and others that are on the north of the Narmada; Bhirukaccha, Samaheya with Saraswata, Kashmir, Surastra, Abanti with Arbuda – these are all the western provinces. Hear of the provinces on the Vindya range. 53-55Sharaja, Karosha, Kerala with Utkala, Uttamarna, Dasharna, Bhoja with Kiskindhaka, Toshala, Koshala, as well as Tripura, and, likewise Bidisha, Tumbura and Stumbula, Pataba, with Nishada; Annaja, Tushtikara, Birohotra, Abanti all these provinces are on the back of the Vindya hills. 56-58I shall next relate to you the mountainous countries; viz. -Nihara, Hansamarga Kuraba, Gurguna, Khasha, Kunta, Prabarana, Urna, Darba, Sakritraka, Trigartha, Malaba, with Kirata and Tamasa. In these places the Yugas, Treta &c, and the laws of these are well established. This is the Bharatabarsha, which has countries on all its four quarters. 59In the south, the west, and the east of it is the great ocean, while the Himalaya stands to the north of it like the string of a bow. 60-64This is that Bharatabarsha, O thou excellent among twice-born persons, which contains the seed of all that exist. It is here, O Brahman, that according to the fruits of people’s action the state of Brahman, of the lord of the immortals, of the gods, the state of Maruta similarly, and likewise the births of deer, beasts, Apsaras and of all reptiles, and that of the inanimate objects, are attainable. This is the field of Karma such as exists nowhere else. Oh thou wise among Brahmans, it is the heart’s desire even of the gods to be deprived of their state as gods to come to earth as men (born in Bharatabarsha). Man here does that which even the gods and the Asuras are not able to do. People here are bound by the chains of Karma and are anxious to finish that Karma; they do no works moved by the least happiness.