First Brahmana

1In the morning they brought to Manu water for washing, just as now also they (are wont to) bring (water) for washing the hands. When he was washing himself, a fish came into his hands.
2It spake to him the word, ‘Rear me, I will save thee!’ ‘Where from wilt thou save me?’ ‘A flood will carry away all these creatures: from that I will save thee!’ ‘How am I to rear thee?’
3It said, ‘As long as we are small, there is great destruction for us: fish devours fish. Thou wilt first keep me in a jar. When I outgrow that, thou wilt dig a pit and keep me in it. When I outgrow that, thou wilt take me down to the sea, for then I shall be beyond destruction.’
4It soon became a ghasha (a large fish); for that grows largest (of all fish) . Thereupon it said, ‘In such and such a year that flood will come. Thou shalt then attend to me (i.e. to my advice) by preparing a ship ; and when the flood has risen thou shalt enter into the ship, and I will save thee from it.’
5After he had reared it in this way, he took it down to the sea. And in the same year which the fish had indicated to him, he attended to (the advice of the fish) by preparing a ship; and when the flood had risen, he entered into the ship. The fish then swam up to him, and to its horn he tied the rope of the ship, and by that means he passed swiftly up to yonder northern mountain.
6It then said, ‘I have saved thee. Fasten the ship to a tree; but let not the water cut thee off , whilst thou art on the mountain. As the water subsides, thou mayest gradually descend!’ Accordingly he gradually descended, and hence that (slope) of the northern mountain is called ‘Alarm’s descent .’ The flood then swept away all these creatures, and Manu alone remained here.
7Being desirous of offspring, he engaged in worshipping and austerities. During this time he also performed a pâka-sacrifice: he offered up in the waters clarified butter, sour milk, whey, and curds. Thence a woman was produced in a year: becoming quite solid she rose; clarified butter gathered in her footprint. Mitra and Varuna met her.
8They said to her, ‘Who art thou?’ ‘Manu’s daughter,’ she replied. ‘Say (thou art) ours,’ they said. ‘No,’ she said, ‘I am (the daughter) of him who begat me.’ They desired to have a share in her. She either agreed or did not agree , but passed by them. She came to Manu.
9Manu said to her, ‘Who art thou?’ ‘Thy daughter,’ she replied. ‘How, illustrious one, (art thou) my daughter?’ he asked. She replied, ‘Those offerings (of) clarified butter, sour milk, whey, and curds, which thou madest in the waters, with them thou hast begotten me. I am the blessing (benediction): make use of me at the sacrifice! If thou wilt make use of me at the sacrifice, thou wilt become rich in offspring and cattle. Whatever blessing thou shalt invoke through me, all that shall be granted to thee!’ He accordingly made use of her (as the benediction) in the middle of the sacrifice; for what is intermediate between the fore-offerings and the after-offerings, is the middle of the sacrifice.
10With her he went on worshipping and performing austerities, wishing for offspring. Through her he generated this race, which is this race of Manu; and whatever blessing he invoked through her, all that was granted to him.
11Now this (daughter of Manu) is essentially the same as the Idâ; and whosoever, knowing this, performs with (the) Idâ , he propagates this race which Manu generated; and whatever blessing he invokes through it (or her), all that is granted to him.
12It (the idâ) consists of a fivefold cutting; for the idâ, doubtless, means cattle, and cattle consist of five parts : for this reason it (the idâ) consists of a fivefold cutting.
13When he (the Adhvaryu) has cut off the idâ piece by piece , and broken off the fore-part of the cake (for the sacrificer’s portion), he puts it (the latter) down (on the barhis) before the dhruvâ-spoon. Having then handed over the former (the idâ) to the Hotri , he passes by him towards the south.
14He anoints the Hotri here (with clarified butter taken from the idâ); and with it the Hotri anoints his lips, with the text, ‘Of thee, offered by the lord of the mind, I eat for sap, for out-breathing!’
15He then anoints the Hotri here ; and with it the Hotri anoints his lips, with the text, ‘Of thee, offered by the lord of speech, I eat for strength, for in-breathing!’
16At that time, namely, Manu became apprehensive (thinking), ‘This (part) of my sacrifice that is, this idâ representing the domestic offering is certainly the weakest: the Rakshas must not injure my sacrifice at this place.’ Accordingly by that (butter, taken from the idâ, and smeared on his lips) he promoted it (the idâ to a safe place, thinking), ‘Before the Rakshas (come)! before the Rakshas (come)!’ And in like manner this one also thereby promotes (the idâ to a safe place, thinking), ‘Before the Rakshas (come)! before the Rakshas (come)!’ And though he does not (at present) eat (the idâ) visibly, lest he should eat it before it is invoked, he nevertheless promotes it (to a safe place), when he smears the (butter) on his lips.
17He now cuts off piece by piece (the avântaredâ) in (or, into) the Hotri’s hand. That which is cut up piece by piece he thus makes visibly enter the Hotri; and through that which has entered (or is cooked in) his own self, the Hotri invokes a blessing on the sacrificer: for this reason he cuts it off piece by piece in the Hotri’s hand .
18He now calls (the idâ) in a low voice. At that time, namely, Manu became apprehensive (thinking), ‘This (part) of my sacrifice that is, this idâ representing the domestic offerings is certainly the weakest: the Rakshas must not injure my sacrifice at this place.’ He accordingly called it to him in a low voice (thinking), ‘Before the Rakshas (come)! before the Rakshas (come)!’ And in like manner this one (the Hotri) thereby calls it (thinking), ‘Before the Rakshas (come)! before the Rakshas (come)!’
19He calls thus (in a low voice), ‘Hither is called the Rathantara (chant), together with the earth: may the Rathantara, together with the earth, call me ! Hither is called the Vâmadevya (chant), together with the atmosphere: may the Vâmadevya, together with the atmosphere, call me! Hither is called the Brihat (chant), together with the sky: may the Brihat, together with the sky, call me!’ In thus calling her (the Idâ) to him, he calls to him both these (three) worlds and those chants .
20‘Hither are called the cows , together with the bull!’ the idâ, assuredly, means cattle: hence it is her he thereby calls in an indirect (mystic) way; (and in saying), ‘together with the bull,’ he calls her together with her mate.
21‘Hither is called (Idâ) by that (sacrifice) which is performed by the seven Hotris!’ he thereby calls her by the Soma-sacrifice performed by the seven Hotris .
22‘Hither is called Idâ, the conquering!’ he thereby calls her directly. ‘Conquering’ he says, because she overcomes evil, and for that reason he calls her ‘the conquering.’
23‘Hither is called the friend, the food !’ the friend, the food, doubtless, means breath: hence he thereby calls hither the breath. ‘Hither is called the Hek!’ he thereby calls hither the (body of idâ), he thereby calls hither the entire (idâ).
24He now intones (in a loud voice): ‘Idâ is called hither! Hither (thither) is called Idâ! May Idâ also call us to her!’ In saying, ‘Idâ is called hither,’ he, in a direct way, calls her, who is thereby called hither, as being what she really was: a cow, assuredly, she was, and a cow is four-footed; and therefore he calls her four times .
25But in calling her four times, he calls her in different ways, in order to avoid repetition (of sacrificial performance); for, if he were to call, ‘Idâ is called hither! Idâ is called hither!’ or ‘Hither is called Ida! hither is called Idâ!’ he would indeed commit the (fault of) repetition. By saying, ‘Idâ is called hither!’ he calls her hitherwards; and by ‘Hither (or thither, lit. called to somebody) is called Idâ!’ he calls her thitherwards. By saying, ‘May Idâ also call us to her,’ he does not omit himself, and, besides, it (the formula) is changed. By (the second), ‘Idâ is called hither!’ he again calls her hitherwards; so that he thereby (and by the second, ‘Hither is called Idâ,’ again) calls her hitherwards and thitherwards.
26‘Manu’s daughter, the butter-pathed (ghritapadî);’ Manu, indeed, begat her of old: for this reason he says, ‘Manu’s daughter.’ ‘The butter-pathed’ he says, because butter gathered in her footprint: therefore he calls her ‘butter-pathed.’
27And further, ‘She who belongs to Mitra and Varuna;’ this ‘Maitrâvaruna nature’ (is hers), because she met Mitra and Varuna. ’She, the god-fashioned one, is called hither as the Brahman; for she, the god-fashioned one, is indeed called hither as their Brahman. ’Hither are called the divine Adhvaryus, called hither the human!’ he thereby calls both the divine Adhvaryus and those that are human: the divine Adhvaryus indeed are the calves (vatsâh), and what others there are, are the human ones.
28‘They who are to prosper this sacrifice, they who are to prosper the lord of sacrifice.’ Those Brâhmanas, who have studied and teach the Veda, assuredly prosper the sacrifice, since they spread (perform) and produce it: these he thereby propitiates. And the calves also assuredly make the lord of sacrifice prosper; for the lord of sacrifice who possesses abundance of them, does indeed prosper; for this reason he says: ‘They who are to prosper the lord of sacrifice.’
29‘Hither are called the primeval, law-abiding, divine (fem.) heaven and earth, whose sons are gods.’ He thereby calls to him those two, heaven and earth, within which all this (universe) is embraced. ’Hither is called this sacrificer:’ thereby he calls the sacrificer to him. Why he does not mention his name on this occasion, is that this is a mysterious benediction on the idâ. Were he, on the contrary, to mention the name, he would do what is human, and the human certainly is inauspicious at the sacrifice: hence he does not mention the name, lest he should do what is inauspicious at the sacrifice.
30‘Hither (he is) called for future worship of the gods;’ he thereby in a mysterious manner invokes the blessing of life on this (sacrificer); for as he sacrificed heretofore, so, while living, he will sacrifice hereafter.
31Moreover, he thereby in a mysterious manner invokes the blessing of offspring for him; for whosoever has offspring, while he, on his part, goes to yonder world, his offspring sacrifice in this world: hence future worship of the gods means offspring.
32Moreover, he thereby in a mysterious manner invokes the blessing of cattle for him; for whosoever has cattle, will sacrifice hereafter, as he has sacrificed heretofore.
33‘Hither (he is) called for more abundant havis-offering;’ he thereby in a mysterious manner invokes the blessing of life on him; for as he has sacrificed heretofore, so while living will he hereafter again and again make offerings.
34Moreover, he thereby in a mysterious manner invokes the blessing of offspring for this (sacrificer); for whosoever possesses offspring, though he, of his own self, be one only, yet that offering is made tenfold by his offspring: hence offspring means more abundant offering.
35Moreover, he thereby in a mysterious manner invokes the blessing of cattle for him; for whosoever possesses cattle, will make offering again and again, as he has sacrificed heretofore.
36This then is the benediction (implied in these formulas), ‘May I live, may I have offspring, may I obtain prosperity!’ Now in praying for the blessing of cattle, he prays for prosperity; for cattle means prosperity: hence through these two benedictions everything is obtained; and therefore these two benedictions are here pronounced.
37[He continues to call], ‘Hither (he is) called to this (sacrifice, for the prayer): “May the gods graciously accept this my offering (havis)!” he thereby invokes complete success on the sacrifice; for what offering the gods graciously accept, by that one gains great things: for this reason he says, ‘may they graciously accept.’
38They (the priests and sacrificer) eat it (the idâ), and do not offer it up in the fire; for assuredly the idâ means cattle: hence they do not offer it in the fire, lest they should throw the cattle into the fire.
39In the vital airs rather it is offered, partly in the Hotri, partly in the Sacrificer, partly in the Adhvaryu. Now, when he has broken off the forepart of the (Agni) cake, he places it before the dhruvâ-spoon. But the dhruvâ represents the sacrificer: hence this will be eaten by the sacrificer. And if he does not now visibly eat it, lest he should eat before the sacrifice is completed, it nevertheless is now (symbolically) eaten by him. All of them eat (of the idâ): ‘May it be offered for me in all!’ thus (he thinks). Five eat of it, the idâ indeed means cattle, and cattle are fivefold: hence five eat of it.
40Now when he (the Hotri) intones (in a loud voice), he (the Adhvaryu) divides the (Agni) cake into four parts, and lays it on the barhis (the sacrificial grass covering the altar). Here it lies in place of the fathers; for there are four intermediate quarters, and the intermediate quarters represent the fathers: for this reason he divides the cake into four parts, and lays it on the barhis .
41And when he recites, ‘Hither are called heaven and earth,’ he hands it (the shadavatta ) to the Âgnîdhra. The Âgnîdhra eats (the two pieces), with the respective texts, ‘Hither is called mother Earth; may mother Earth call me to her! Agni (am I) by virtue of my Âgnîdhraship. Hail!’ ‘Hither is called father Heaven; may father Heaven call me to him! Agni (am I) by virtue of my Âgnîdhraship. Hail!’ He, the Âgnîdhra, truly is the representative of heaven and earth, and therefore he eats (the shadavatta) in this manner.
42And when (the Hotri) pronounces the benediction , then (the sacrificer) mutters, ‘May Indra bestow on me that power of his! may abundant riches accrue to us! may there be blessings for us! may there be true blessings for us!’ For indeed this is a receiving of blessings: hence what blessings the priests on this occasion invoke on him, those he thereby receives and makes his own.
43[On the conclusion of the invocation and the eating] they cleanse themselves (with water poured) through the two strainers (pavitra, ‘purifier’). For they have now performed the idâ, which represents the domestic offerings; and thinking, ‘Purified by the purifiers we will now perform what part of the sacrifice remains still unaccomplished,’ they cleanse themselves with the strainers.
44He (the Adhvaryu) then throws the two strainers on the prastara . The prastara, doubtless, represents the sacrificer, and the two strainers the out-breathing and in-breathing: hence he thereby invokes out-breathing and in-breathing on the sacrificer; and for this reason he throws the strainers on the prastara.