## Second Brahmana

1Now the sacrifice is the man. The sacrifice is the man for the reason that the man spreads (performs) it; and that in being spread it is made of exactly the same extent as the man : this is the reason why the sacrifice is the man.
2The guhû (spoon) further belongs to that (man-shaped sacrifice), and so does the upabhrit; and the dhruvâ represents its trunk. Now it is from the trunk that all these limbs proceed, and for this reason the entire sacrifice proceeds from the dhruvâ.
3The dipping-spoon (sruva, masc.) is no other than the breath. This breath passes through (or, goes to) all the limbs, and for that reason the dipping-spoon goes to all the offering-spoons (sruk, fem.).
4That guhû further is to him no other than yonder sky, and the upabhrit this atmosphere, and the dhruvâ this same (earth). Now it is from this (earth) that all the worlds originate: and from the dhruvâ, therefore, the whole sacrifice proceeds.
5The dipping-spoon then is no other than that blowing one (the wind); it is this that sweeps across all these worlds: and for that reason the sruva goes to all the offering-spoons.
6Now when this sacrifice is being performed, it is performed for the gods, the seasons, and the metres (or sacred texts). To the gods belongs what sacrificial food there is, to wit, king Soma and the sacrificial cake: all this he takes, while announcing it with the formula, ‘I take thee, agreeable to so and so!’ for thus it becomes theirs.
7And whatever oblations of butter are taken, they are taken for the seasons and the metres. Every one of them he takes in the form of butter without announcing it (to any particular deity). In the guhû he takes of it four times (with the sruva from the pot), in the upabhrit eight times.
8Now when he takes of it four times (with the sruva) in the guhû, he takes it for the seasons, since he takes it for the fore-offerings , and the fore-offerings are the seasons: all this he takes in the form of butter without making any announcement, in order to avoid sameness; for if he were to take it with the formulas ‘For Spring (I take) thee!’ ‘For Summer thee!’ he would commit (the fault of) a repetition: he therefore takes it in the form of butter without making any announcement.
9When, on the other hand, he takes eight times (with the sruva) in the upabhrit, he takes it for the metres , since it is for the after-offerings that he takes it; and the after-offerings are the metres: all this he takes in the form of butter without making any announcement, in order to avoid sameness; for were he to take it with the formulas ‘For the Gâyatrî thee!’ ‘For the Trishtubh thee!’ he would commit a repetition: he therefore takes it in the form of butter without making any announcement.
10Again, when he takes four times (with the sruva) in the dhruvâ, he takes it for the whole sacrifice, and all this he takes in the form of butter without making any announcement. To whom indeed should he announce it, since he cuts it off for all the deities? He therefore takes it in the form of butter without making any announcement.
11Now the sacrificer stands behind the guhû, and he who means evil to him stands behind the upabhrit. The eater stands behind the guhû, and what (or, he who) is to be eaten stands behind the upabhrit. And the guhû, indeed, is the eater, and the upabhrit is that which is to be eaten. In the guhû he takes four times (with the sruva), and in the upabhrit eight times.
12Now when he takes four times (butter) in the guhû, he thereby makes the eater more limited, smaller; and when he takes eight times in the upabhrit, he makes that which is to be eaten more unlimited, more abundant: for a flourishing condition indeed exists where the eater is smaller and that which is to be eaten more abundant.
13In taking four times in the guhû, he takes (altogether) more butter, and in taking eight times in the upabhrit he takes less butter.
14For when, in taking four times (butter with the sruva) in the guhû, he takes more butter, he thereby, in making the eater more limited, smaller, imparts vigour and strength to him. And when, in taking eight times in the upabhrit, he takes less butter, he thereby, in making that which (or, him who) is to be eaten more unlimited, more abundant, makes it (or, him) vigourless and weaker. And thus a king who has established himself among a numberless people, subdues them even from a single dwelling, and takes possession of whatever he likes : with that very same energy (the Adhvaryu acts) when he takes a greater quantity of butter in the guhû. Now what he takes in the guhû, that he offers with the guhû; and what he takes in the upabhrit, that also he offers with the guhû.
15And in reference to this point they say: ‘Wherefore then is he to take it in the upabhrit, if he does not offer it with the upabhrit?’ Now, if he were to offer it with the upabhrit, those subjects (of the king) would assuredly become separated from him, nor would there be either an eater or what is to be eaten. When, on the other hand, he pours (the butter) together and thus offers it with the guhû, thereby the people pay tribute to the Kshatriya. Hence by what he takes in the upabhrit, the Vaisya (man of the people), under the rule of the Kshatriya, becomes possessed of cattle; and when he pours (the butter) together and offers it with the guhû, thereby the Kshatriya, whenever he likes, says, ‘Hallo Vaisya, just bring to me what thou hast stored away!’ Thus he both subdues him and obtains possession of anything he wishes by dint of this very energy.
16These butter-portions, then, are taken for the metres. Now what he takes in the guhû (by ladling) four times (with the sruva), that he takes for the gâyatrî; and what he takes in the upabhrit (by ladling) eight times, that he takes for the trishtubh and gagatî; and what he takes in the dhruvâ (by ladling) four times, that he takes for the anushtubh. For the anushtubh is speech, and from speech all this (universe) springs: hence it is from the dhruvâ that the whole sacrifice originates. The anushtubh also is this (earth), and from it all this (universe) originates: hence it is from the dhruvâ that the whole sacrifice originates.
17He takes (butter with the sruva), with the text, ‘Verily, thou art the favourite resort (or, dainty) of the gods!’ He thereby makes that butter the most favourite resort of the gods: for this reason he says, ‘verily, thou art the favourite resort of the gods!’ ‘An unassailable means of worship!’ the butter is indeed a thunderbolt: therefore he says, ‘an unassailable means of worship!’
18Once he puts (butter with the sruva) into the guhû with this formula, three times silently. With the same formula he puts (butter) once into the upabhrit, seven times silently. With the same formula he puts once (butter) into the dhruvâ, three times silently. Now, as to this, they say, ‘Thrice he should take with the formula in each case, for threefold is the sacrifice.’ Nevertheless (it is done) only once with each (spoon), for it is just in this way that the taking thrice (with a formula) is accomplished.