Bhuvanakosa Evolution of the Universe. Description of Dvipas or Continents ||37||
1-2Narada said: O Arjuna, I shall describe to you the greatness of Barbari Tirtha, how the princess Satasringa well-known as Kumarika became Barbarika (i.e. a she-goat). It is after her name that this Khanka (Section) is called Kaumarika-Khanda. It yields the four-fold aim of life.
3It was by her that the different kinds of villages were constructed on the earth. It was by her that this Bharata Kharda was rendered well-ordered and established.
4-5Dhananjaya (Arjuna) said: O sage, this extremely miraculous story must be heard by me. Narrate to me the story of Kumari in detail. How was this universe evolved through Karman (actions) and Jati (birth and parentage)? How was the sub-continent of Bharata (well- ordered)? This has always been my desire to hear.
6Narada narrated : In this Unmanifest (principle) devoid of light, both Pradhana and Purusa, that are unborn came into contact as one unit. This much only we have heard.
7Then merely on being looked at by Prakriti and urged by its own nature and time that are its forms, the principle of Mahat came into being.
8When the principle called Mahat was being evolved, the principle called Aham (Cosmic Ego) was born. It is said by the sages as being of three-fold nature, viz. Sattvika, Rajasa and Tamasa.
9Learned men know that five subtle elements known as Tanmatras were evolved out of the Cosmic Ego of the Tamasa type- Five different gross elements (Bhutas) were born of Tanmatras.
10Know that the (five) organs of actions and (five) sense-organs are born of Sattvika Ahamkara. They know that the eleventh Manas (mind) is Rajasa.
11Thus they know that the twenty-four principles were born formerly. O descendant of Bharata, they were seen by Sadasiva, the Purusa (Primeval Person).
12They had the form of a bubble wherefrom was born the splendid Anda (Egg). This Brahmanda (Cosmic Egg), it is said, extended to a hundred crores (of Yojanas in dimension).
13-14Brahma is said to be its soul. He divided this into three (parts). Devas were stationed (in the portion) above, human beings in the middle and Nagas and Daityas in the nether worlds. It was (divided and) arranged into three divisions. Thereafter, each of them was further divided into seven by him.
15Each of these, viz. the nether worlds, the continents (of the earth) and the heavenly worlds, consists of seven (parts). I shall describe the seven continents . Listen to their arrangement.
16It is proclaimed that the Jambu Dvipa extends to a hundred thousand Yojanas. It has the shape of the solar disc. It is surrounded by the briny ocean extending to as much (i.e. a hundred thousand Yojanas).
17The Saka Dvipa is twice as much as Jambu Dvipa (in extent). Ibis surrounded by the Milky Ocean extending as much (as the dimension of Saka Dvipa).
18Then there is the Puskara Dvipa twice (as much as Saka Dvipa). It is surrounded by the ocean of liquor extending to that much (i.e. Puskara Dvipa). It causes confusion and delusion to Daityas.
19Thereafter, it is said that there is the Kusa Dvipa which is twice (as much as Puskara Dvipa). It is surrounded on all sides by the Ocean of Curds extending to that much (space).
20-22aThereafter is the Dvipa called Kraunca which is twice (as much as the Kusa Dvipa). It is surrounded by the Ocean of Ghee. Then there is the Salmali Dvipa which is twice (as much as Kraunca Dvipa). It is surrounded by the Ocean of Sugarcane Juice extending to as much (as the Salmali Dvipa). Then there is the Gomeda (Plaksa elsewhere) Dvipa which is twice (as much as Salmali Dvipa). It is surrounded on all sides by the beautiful Ocean of Pure Tasty Water.
22b-24Thus, the seven continents and the oceans together extend to twenty-five million three hundred and fifty thousand (Yojanas), O son of Pritha. In the two fortnights, viz. the dark and the bright, the ebb and the flow of the tide is observed to be five hundred and ten Angulas. Beyond these is the golden ground, O great scion of the family of Kurus. It extends to ten crores (of Yojanas).
25-27It is the place where Devas sport about. Beyond that is the mountain Lokaloka which is circular in shape and which extends to ten thousand Yojanas. Beyond this is the terrible darkness difficult to be seen and devoid of living beings. From the seven oceans up to this, the distance is proclaimed as thirty-five crore one million nine hundred and forty thousand (Yojanas), O Phalguna.
28-31The Kataha (i.e. the semi-spheroidal shell) of the Cosmic Egg extends to a crore of Yojanas. The Cosmic Egg is united to this Kataha at the middle of Meru. The distance from this spot in all the ten directions should be known as fifty crores (of Yojanas). There is a mountain named Meru in the middle of Jambu Dvipa. Its total extent from top to bottom should be known as one hundred thousand Yojanas. Its extent underneath (the earth) is sixteen thousand Yojanas and the height (above the ground) is eighty-four thousand Yojanas. Its extent on the top is thirty-two thousand Yojanas. Its top is like a shallow tray. It has three peaks.
32-33Brahma’s residence is on the middle peak: that of the Three-eyed Lord is on the north-east (peak) and that of Vasudeva (i.e. Vishnu) on the south-west (peak). The peak of Brahma is golden; that of Sankara is of gems and jewels and that of Kesava is of silver. On the four sides of Meru there are supporting pillar-like mountains.
34Mandara mountain is in the east; Gandhamadana is in the south; Vipula is in the west and Suparsva in the north.
35Kadamba (Nauclea Cadamba) should be known (as the chief tree) on Mandara; Jambu (wood apple tree) on Gandhamadana, Asvattha (ficus religiosa) on Vipula and Vata (banyan tree) on Suparsva.
36These chief mountains have the width of one thousand and one hundred (Yojanas) each. On the tops of these, there are four parks.
37The park on the east is Caitraratha by name; that in the south Gandhamadana; that in the west should be known as Vaibhraja and the park in the north is Citraratha.
38-40Know from me the four lakes in the four quarters. In the east is the lake named Arunoda; Manasa is the lake in the south; in the west is the lake named Sitodaka and in the north Mahahrada. These pillar-like supporting mountains are twenty-five thousand Yojanas in height. The mass of each of them (i.e. width) is said to be a thousand Yojanas. There are many Kesara mountains also (i.e. mane-like mountain ranges).
41To the south of Meru there are three Maryada mountains (forming the boundary line). They are the three mountains , namely Nisadha, Hemakuta and Himavan.
42-43They are a hundred thousand Yojanas in length and two thousand Yojanas in width. There are three mountains to the north of Meru , viz- Nila, Sveta and Sringavan. Malyavan is to the east of Meru and the mountain named Gandha to the west . Thus the mountains all round (Meru) in the Jambu Dvipa have been recounted.
44The fruits of the Jambu tree growing on Gandhamadana mountain have the size of great elephants. The continent is known as Jambu Dvipa after the name of the tree.
45There was a Manu named Svayambhuva (son of the Self-born Lord). He was the first Prajapati (‘Patriarch’). There was a woman named Satarupa. Prajapati married her. He had two sons named Priyavrata and Uttanapada.
46Dhruva, the son of Uttanapada, was extremely righteous. He propitiated Vishnu with great devotion and obtained an everlasting abode.
47-48Ten sons were born to Priyavrata, the saintly king. Three of them took to renunciation and resorted to the Supreme Being. The remaining seven sons were installed (as rulers) by him in the seven continents. The eldest who was well-known as Agnidhra became the overlord of Jambu Dvipa.
49He had nine sons, O son of Pritha. They are known as the lords of the nine Varsas (sub-continents). Those Varsas continue to be known after their names even today.
50-51Each of them is known as extending to nine thousand Yojanas. There are sub-continents in all the four directions of Meru. Between the two mountains Gandha and Malyavan the sub-continent is called Ilavrita of golden ground. The sub-continent between Malyavan and the ocean is called Bhadrasva.
52-55The sub-continent between Gandhavan and the ocean is known as Ketumala. The sub-continent between Spigavan and the ocean is known as Kurukhanda. The sub-continent between Sringavan and Sveta mountains is called Hiranmaya. They say that the sub-continent between Sunila and Sveta mountains is Ramyaka. The sub-continent Harikhapda is between Nisadha and Hemakuta (mountains). The sub-continent between Himavan and Hemakuta is known as Kimpurusa Khanda. The sub-continent between Himalaya and the ocean is known as Nabhikhapda.
56The sub-continents Nabhi and Kuru have the shapes of bows and Himavan and Sringavan are glorified (i-e. described as being) in the place of the bow-string.
57Risabha was Nabhi’s son. Bharata was born of Risabha. This sub-continent is glorified as Bharata also after his name .
58It is here that one acquires (the four objectives of) Virtue, Wealth, Love and Liberation . All the other sub-continents are places of experiencing pain, enjoyment of pleasures, O scion of the family of Kuru.
59In the continent Sakadvipa , there is the tree Saka (teak) extending to a thousand Yojanas. It is after its name that the continent is known as Sakadvipa.
60The overlord of that too is Priyavrata himself under the name Medhatithi.
61It has seven sub-continents named after his seven sons, viz. Purojava, Manojava, Vepamana, Dhumranika, Citrarepha, Bahurupa and Visvadira.
62In the continent of Sakadvipa the persons named Ritavrata, Satyavrata and Anuvrata mutter the names of the Lord of the nature of Vayu (i.e. Wind-god).
63The Japa is as follows: “May that immanent Lord protect us, the Lord who enters the living beings and divides them with his own bright rays, who controls (all the inner organs) and in whose control lies the entire universe.”
64In the continent Kugadvipa there is that stump of Kusa grass a thousand Yojanas (in height). Since the continent is distinguished with Kusa as its symbol, it is called Kusadvipa.
65The Lord of that continent is Hirapyaroma, son of Priyavrata. There are seven sub-continents named after his sons, viz. Vasu, Vasudana, Dridha, Kavi, Nabhigupta, Satyavrata and Vamadeva. The four castes are called Kulisha, Kovida, Abhiyukta and Kulaka. They eulogize the Fire-god.
66“O Fire-god (the knower of all created things), you are the carrier of oblations directly to the Supreme Brahman (or you form a part of the body of the transcendental Barhman). Worship the Supreme Person by sacrifice (sacrificial oblations) offered to gods who are the limbs of the body of the Cosmic Person.”
67In the continent of Kraunca there is a mountain named Kraunca . It extends to ten thousand Yojanas. It was this mountain that was pierced by Guha. The symbol of the continent Kraunca is that mountain.
68The overlord there is the son of Priyavrata named Ghritapusti. There are seven sub-continents named after his sons, viz. Ama, Madhuruha, Meghapystha, Svadhama, Ritasva, Lohitarnava and Vanaspati.
69The castes are called Guru, Risabha, Dravina and Devaka.
70They eulogize the Lord in the form of water.
71The Japa its: “Waters are endowed with the powers and vigour of the Supreme God. They purify the three worlds, viz. the earth, the firmament (Bhuvarloka) and the heaven (Svarloka); They are (naturally) the destroyers of all sins and afflictions. They touch the world of their own accord (for its purification).”
72The fragrance of the tree named Salmali (‘silk-cotton’) spreads to a thousand Yojanas. The continent marked by it is called Salmalidvipa .
73The overlord is Yajnabahu, the son of Priyavrata. There are seven sub-continents named after his sons, viz. Surocana, Saumanasya, Ramapaka, Devabarhi, Paribhadra, Apyayana and Abhijnana.
74-75The castes are called Srutadhara, Virya, Vasundhara and Isandhara, They worship Lord Soma (the Moon-god). The Japa is as follows: “May Soma be our shining Lord—Soma who during the bright fortnights and dark fortnights divides his own digits between Pitris and Devas and also to all the subjects below.”
76There is a Plaksa tree named Gomeda. It is very beautiful. Under its shade the (people of the) continent have attained increase in fat on account of their greed (for the fruits thereof). This continent is called Gomedadvipa .
77Idhmajhva, the son of Priyavrata is the ruler. There are seven sub-continents named after his sons, viz. Siva, Suramya, Subhadra, Santi, Asapta, Amrta and Abhaya.
78The four castes named Hamsa, Patahga, Ordhvahcana and Satyanga worship the Lord Sun-god.
79“We meditate on the Sun whose form is that of Vishnu, who is the soul of the problem that arose there(?) as well as of the immortal Brahman and of Mrityu.”
80The continent (called Puskara) appears to be dazzling on account of one million gold leaves extending to a thousand Yojanas. That is the symbol of the continent called Puskara .
81-83The overlord of that continent is the son of Priyavrata named Vitahotra. His sons are Ramapaka and Dhataka. There are two sub-continents called by their own names. In between them, there is a circular mountain named Manasacala in which Lord Sun revolves.
84There are no (different) castes. All of them are equal and they meditate on Brahman.
85The Japa is: “Whatever Linga constituted of rites (? karmamayam) people worship with a sense of difference (between God and the devotee) is the Brahma-Linga which is one and non-dual. Obeisance to that Lord.”
86-87They entertain neither anger nor malice by acquisition of merit or sin. Ten thousand and twice that is proclaimed as the life span respectively (in the two continents). Accompanied by their beloved ones, they perform Japa and they sport about like the immortal ones. Henceforth I shall describe to you the position of the higher world.