The Greatness of Barkaresvara ||39||
1-5Narada said: All the Patala worlds together come to a height of seventy thousand (Yojanas) . They are Atala, Vitala, Nitala, Rasatala, Talatala, Sutala and the seventh one Patala. The soils there, O descendant of Kuru, are (respectively) black, white, red, yellow, (brown like) sugar, (grey like) rock and golden. These are rendered splendid by excellent mansions. There are thousands of Danavas, Daityas and Serpents there. Many things, more beautiful than those in the heavenly world, have been seen by me. The Serpents there have many jewels of various kinds which cause delight (to persons). It is full of young maidens of Daityas and Danavas. They are endowed with great beauty. Who will not find Patala highly pleasant even if he be a liberated soul?
6There is neither heat nor cold there. There is neither rain nor the experience of any misery. There every kind of edible and foodstuff is found. Every time is the time of enjoyment of pleasures there.
7In the seventh nether world, i.e. Patala, there is the Linga Sri Hatakesvara. It had been installed by Brahma, O son of Pritha. It is a thousand Yojanas in height.
8The mansion (or the shrine) of Hataka Linga is ten thousand Yojanas in height. It is divinely studded with all gems and jewels. It is embellished with many wonderful features.
9There the different groups of excellent and leading Serpents worship that Linga. Beneath it there is much water and beneath that there are the hells .
10All sinners are cast into them. Listen to them, O highly intelligent one. They are fifty-five crores in number. There are twenty-one crores of kings (to look after them).
11-14aThey (i.e. the hells) are as follows: Raurava, Sukara, Rodha, Tala, Visasana, Mahajvala, Taptakumbha, Lavapa, Vimohaka, Rudhirandha, Vaitarapi, Kpnisa, Krmibhojana, Asipatravana, Krishna, Lalabhaksya the terrible, Puyavaha, Papa, Vahnijvala, Adhahsiras, Sandamsa, Krishnasutra, Tamas, Avici, Svabhojana, Visuci and another Avici.
14b-17A false witness falls into Raurava; a person who restrains cows and Brahmanas falls into Rodha. A liquor-addict is cast into Sukara; a person who kills human beings on false pretexts falls into Tala; a defiler of preceptor’s bed falls into Taptakumbha; a slayer of a devotee falls into Taptaloha. One who insults preceptors and elders is thrown into Maha-jvala. A slayer (i.e. one who censures, opposes, corrupts etc.) of scriptural texts goes to Lavaca; a person who transgresses the limits of decency falls into Vimohaka. One who hates Devas falls into Krimibhaksya; he who practises vicious worship falls into Krimisa. He who takes food without first offering it to Pitris and Devas goes to Lalabhaksya.
18-20One who harasses animals on false pretexts falls into Visasana; one who illegally makes weapons falls into Adhomukha. One who sides with and supports evil men and things and one who takes food in isolation, falls into Puyavahaka. One who keeps cats, cocks and hens, dogs and birds, one who sets fire to the houses of the deaf and the blind people as well as grasses and grains and other things in the fields and one who sustains himself by means of stagecraft and stellar calculations (astrology)—all these men go to Vaitararu. He who is intoxicated and arrogant on account of wealth and youth, he who destroys wealth, falls into the hell Krshna.
21One who cuts off trees without any purpose falls into Asipatravana. All those who maintain themselves by means of jugglery and cheating fall into Vahnijvala.
22-24Those who go after other men’s wives, those who swallow other men’s food fall into Sandamsa. Those who sleep by day, those who are guilty of omissions and commissions in observance of holy rites, and those who are proud of their (handsome) bodies—all these fall into Svabhojana. Those who do not accept or honour Siva and Hari go to the hell Avicin. On account of these and other sins as well as by resorting to many things not justified in the scriptural texts, thousands of people fall into extremely terrible hells.
25Hence, if any intelligent man wishes liberation from these, both the Lords Hari and Hara should be worshipped by him according to the Vedic path.
26Beneath the hells is stationed the fire named Kalagni. Beneath that is Ananta (Sesha).
27The entire universe is only like a Sarsapa (a mustard seed) on the top of Ananta’s head. Thus, in view of the fact that his power is unfathomable he is glorified as Ananta.
28The elephants of (i-e. supporting) the quarters are: Padma, Kumuda, Anjana and Vamana. Beneath that is Andakataha (‘shell of the Cosmic Egg’). There is Ekavira(?) there too.
29-30It is said that there is water there extending to four hundred and ninety thousand (Yojanas). Beneath it there are crores of Narakas (hells). Then there is the great fire extending to two crores (of Yojanas). Beneath that, it is said there is darkness extending to forty thousand (Yojanas).
31(All these together extend to) forty-four crore eight million nine hundred and eighty thousand (Yojanas).
32Beneath that is the Andakataha (‘shell of the Cosmic Egg’). It is another one extending to a crore (of Yojanas). The goddess Kapalua keeps a staff (of chastisement) in her hand.
33-34She is the protectress there. She is surrounded by crores and crores of goddesses. At the end of the Kalpa, the burning fire produced by the breath of Sankarsaga (i.e. Serpent Sesha) urges the Kalagni and the universe is burned. It is in this manner that the nether worlds have been built, O descendant of Bharata.
35-39Listen to the protectors in the semi spheroidal lid in the middle layer. Vasudhama is stationed in the East and Sankhapala in the South. Takshakesa is stationed in the West and Ketuman in the North. (The goddesses are) Harasiddhi, Suparnaksi, Bhaskara and Yoganandini. The (supreme) goddess accompanied by crores and crores of goddesses protects this. Forever do I bow down to Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesvara by whom this extremely mysterious Cosmic Egg has been established. Vishnu’s world and Rudra’s world are glorified as exterior to this. Only Brahma is competent to describe it and not people like us. It is here that the liberated people performing holy rites of Hari and Hara always go.
40This Cosmic Egg is surrounded on all sides by the Kataha (shell) in the same manner as the fruit of the wood-apple tree is surrounded by rind.
41It is surrounded by (a layer of) water having ten times its volume . That (layer of water) is surrounded by (the layer of) fire. The (layer of) fire is surrounded by Vayu. (The layer of) Vayu is surrounded by Ether and Ether by the Cosmic Ego.
42-44Ahamkara (Cosmic Ego) is enveloped by (the principle called) Mahat and Mahat is surrounded by Prakrti (Primordial Matter). Each of these six layers is ten times (bigger than) the previous one. The seventh layer of Prakrti is said to be infinite-fold (than the previous one), O Son of Pritha. There are thousands and thousands, ten thousands, nay, hundreds of crores and crores of Cosmic Eggs like this. All of them are of this type as recounted herein.
45-46aI bow down to that Sadasiva whose great magnificence is such, O son of Pritha- He who does not resort to and worship Siva, the redeemer from great delusion, is really dull-witted, of sinful soul. Who is more insensible and irrational than he?
46bHenceforth I shall narrate the measurements of Time. Understand it .
47-50Fifteen Nimeshas makes one Kashtha. Thirty Kasthas make one Kala. Thirty Kalas make one Muhurta. Thirty Muhurtas make one night and day. In one day (12 hours) there are five periods each of three Muhurtas. Listen to them. They are: Pratahi (morning), Sahgava (forenoon), Madhyahna (midday), Aparahpa (afternoon), Sayahna (evening) the fifth. Thus, all together there are fifteen Muhurtas. Fifteen Ahoratras (days of 24 hours) make what is called a Paksha (fortnight). Two Pakshas make one month. Two solar months make one Ritu (seasons). Three Ritus make one Ayana (transit of the Sun). Two Ayanas make what is called Varsha (year).
51-53They say that Masas (months) are of four different types and Vatsaras (years) of five different types. The first one is Samvatsara. The second one is Parivatsara, the third one is Idvatsara and the fourth one Anuvatsara. The fifth one is Yuga by name. This is the decision in reckoning. One human month is one day and one night for Pitris. The dark half is said to be the day and the bright half the night (of Pitris).
54The human year is said to be one day of Devas. The Northern transit is the day and the Southern transit is the night (of Devas).
55-59The year of the Devas is considered to be a day of the Seven Sages (Ursa Major). A year of the Seven Sages is said to be one day of Dhruva. One million seven hundred and twenty-eight thousand human years make the Krita Yuga. One million two hundred and ninety-six thousand years make the Treta Yuga. Eight hundred and sixty-four thousand years make the Dvapara Yuga. Kali Yuga is spoken of as consisting of four hundred and thirty-two thousand years. These four Yugas together constitute one Yuga of Devas. Seventy-one such Yugas and a little more constitute the life span of one Manu. The life spans of fourteen Manus constitute one day of Brahma.
60-63The same period is equivalent to a thousand Yugas. Listen, it is called Kalpa. The thirty days in a month of Brahma are named as follows: Bhavodbhava, Tapobhavya, Ritu, Vahni, Varahaka, Savitra, Asika, Gandhara, Kusika, Bhabha, Khadga, Gandhariya, Madhyama, Vairaja, Nishada, Meghavahana, Pancama, Citraka, Jnana, Akuti, Mina, Damsa, Brimhaka, Sveta, Lohita, Rakta, Pitavasas, Siva, Prabhu and Sarvarupa. The span of his life is a hundred years.
64It is divided into two halves, the earlier half and the later half. This is spoken of as Brahmamana (‘Reckoning according to Brahma’). I am not competent to describe the reckoning according to Vishnu and Sankara.
65-66Where am I who am endowed with deficient intellect, O son of Pritha? Where are the two others Hari and Tryambaka? (i.e. there is a lot of difference between I and the two great gods.) Reckoning (of Time) in Patala is done by the units of measurement of Devas. This has been indicated to you. Listen intelligently to the Prakrita (‘that of Prakriti’) again. Thus is the arrangement of Brahma.
67Sri Narada said: There was one named Rishabha whose name, O son of Pritha, will be associated with many heretic concepts and views in Kali Yuga. They will be contributory to the delusion of all the worlds.
68Bharata was his son. Satasringa was his (i.e. Bharata’s) son. Eight sons and a daughter were born to him.
69-70They were Indradvipa, Kaseru, Tamradvipa, Gabhastiman, Naga, Saumya, Gandharva and Varuna. The girl’s name was Kumarika. The face of the daughter, O son of Pritha, was of the shape of a goat . Listen to the cause thereof which is full of great mystery.
71-72Very near the river Mahi and the Ocean, in the vicinity of Stambhatirtha, in a place that shone with rows of trees and was scattered over with abundance (growth) of hedges and creepers, in a place very difficult to traverse, once a she- goat happened to come. It had strayed there from (its) flock.
73Wandering here and there amongst the network of hedges, it got entangled and could not come out. The splendid goat became excessively afflicted with hunger and thirst.
74-75Having got stuck up amongst the hedges and bushes it died therein. After some time that portion of its body beneath the head broke loose and fell into Mahisagara Sarigama on a Saturday which happened to be a New-Moon day as well. It fell into that sacred spot which possessed the powers of all other holy spots and which was conducive to liberation from all sins.
76The entire head remained as before. Since it had got entangled in the network of bushes and hedges, it did not fall into the waters.
77-78As the remaining part of the body (the headless trunk) of the goat had fallen in the Mahi-Sagara Sangama, O noble scion of the family of Kuru, that goat was reborn as the daughter of Satasringa, the king of Simhala, thanks to the power of that holy spot. Her face become exactly like that of a goat.
79-81In the remaining part of her body, the splendid girl shone like a celestial damsel with auspicious features. That king had no issue before this. The daughter was born as one comparable to a hundred sons. She increased the joy and delight of her kinsmen. But on seeing her face of the shape of a goat, all the officers of the king became surprised very much. The king and the members of the inner apartments became excessively sad and dejected.
82On seeing such a form, all the ministers and administrative officers too were sorry and miserable. All the amazed citizens expressed their surprise saying, “Oh I what is this?”
83Then she attained the age of youth and could be compared to the daughters of Devas themselves. On seeing her own face in the mirror, the previous birth was recollected by her.
84-88The recollection was due to the power of the Tirtha. She accordingly informed her parents, “You need not be dejected and sad on my account, O dear father. O mother, certainly you must not be grief-stricken. This is the fruit of the deeds of the previous birth.” Then that princess recounted to them the details of her previous life. She submitted to her parents her desire to go to that place where the body of her previous life had fallen. “I shall, O dear father, go to Mahisagara-Sangama. O king, see to this that I reach that place.” Then it was promised by Satasringa, her father. By means of boats full of jewels, the king made arrangements for her transport.
89She reached Stambha Tirtha along with the boats and riches. She gave as religious gifts much of the wealth. She gifted away everything.
90She searched among the network of hedges and creepers. Her head was seen there with the bare skin and bones alone remaining. She brought it with great efforts.
91-92She burned it near the Sangama (the meeting place of the river and the ocean). The bones were cast into the confluence (Sangama). Thereupon, by the power of the holy spot, her face became as lustrous as the moon. Neither the girls of Devas, nor the maidens of Nagas (Serpents), nor human beings had such a splendid face as she had.
93All the Suras, Asuras and human beings were fascinated by her beauty. They wooed and entreated her in various ways, but she did not desire any bridegroom.
94-95A strenuous penance very difficult to perform was joyously begun by her. When a year was complete, Mahesvara, the Lord of Devas, appeared before her and said, “I am the bestower of boons.” Thereupon the virgin adored him and spoke these words:
96“If you are gratified, O Lord of Devas, if a boon is to be granted to me, O Sankara, may your presence be permanent here.”
97-100“Let it be so.” When this (boon) was uttered by Sarva, the virgin was delighted. Siva named Barkaresa was installed by her then, O most excellent one among the Kurus, at the place where the head of the goat had been burned. On hearing this extremely wonderful story from me a leading serpent named Svastika came from Talatala to see that virgin. Earth was dug up by his head as he was proceeding ahead. At a place there sprang up to the north-east of Barkaresa, the well named Svastika. It was filled up by the (waters of) Ganga, O son of Pritha. It yields the benefit of all the holy spots.
101-105On seeing the Linga installed, Siva was delighted and granted the boons. “Those persons whose dead bodies are cast into the ocean, will have everlasting benefit. After staying in heaven for a long time, when they come back (to the earth), they will become valorous kings fully endowed with everything. If a man devoutly worships Barkaresa, after taking his bath in the waters of the ocean and Mahi, he will attain whatever he desires. If an extremely faithful man takes his bath at the well (called Svastika) on the fourteenth day in the dark half of the month of Karttika, offers water libations to his ancestors and worships Barkaresa, he is liberated from all sins.”
106After obtaining all these boons she went back to Simhala and reported what happened to her, to Satasringa, her father.
107On hearing it, the king and all the people were surprised, O Phalguna. They praised the holy river Mahi and came there with great reverence.
108They took their bath, offered charitable gifts of various kinds and were extremely delighted by the greatness of the holy spot. Then they went back to Simhala.
109As his daughter Kumari did not wish a bridegroom, wealth or anything else, the king gave her something with pleasure. Listen to what he gave.
110He divided this Bharata sub-continent into nine regions. Eight of them he gave to his (eight) sons and the ninth one to Kumari .
111I shall describe the different regions rendered splendid by the mountains. Listen from me to the mountains and the sub-continents named after the sons.
112Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, Suktiman, Rikshaparvata, Vindhya and Pariyatra—these seven are the chief mountains .
113Indradvipa is said to be beyond Mahendra. The sub-continent of Kumarika is said to be located on the lower slopes of Pariyatra.
114Each of these regions extends to a thousand (Yojanas). Listen to the succinct description of the origin of the rivers, O Phalguna.
115The rivers beginning with Vedasmrti are considered to have originated from Pariyatra. The rivers beginning with Narmada and Sarasa have come out of Vindhya.
116Satadru, Candrabhaga and others have originated from Rikshaparavata . Rivers beginning with Rsikulya and Kumari are born of Suktiman.
117The rivers Tapi, Payoshni, Nirvindhya, Kaveri, river Mahi, Krishna, Vegi and Bhimarathi are said to have originated from Sahya mountain.
118Kritamala , Tamraparpi and other rivers originated from Malaya mountain. The rivers beginning with Trisama and Risyakulya are said as originated from Mahendra.
119After dividing the kingdom thus among his sons and the daughter Kumari, the king Satasrnga went to the mountain in the north (i.e. Gandhamadana or Badarikasrama) and performed penance.
120-123After performing a severe penance there on the excellent mountain Satasringa, that excellent king Satasringa went to the world of Brahma. It was here, O son of Kunti, that you were born of Pandu along with your brothers. The magnificent virgin Kumari of exalted fortune stayed at Stambhatirtha. With the wealth coming from her sub-continent, she performed the rites of giving in charity and austere penance. After some time, nine sons of great vigour, strength and zeal were born to each of those eight brothers. They gathered together, approached Kumari and spoke (thus):
124“O splendid lady, you are our family goddess. Be pleased with us. Divide these eight sub-continents into seventy- two regions yourself and give them to us so that there will be no difference (discord) amongst us.”
125On being asked thus, she who was conversant with all righteous acts and pious duties and who was on a par with Brahma in wisdom and knowledge, divided the nine continents into seventy-two regions.
126I shall truthfully tell you, O Phalguna, their names, the villages, towns, shores and banks and their number .
127There were four crores of villages in the realm of Nivrida Malala . Balaka is said to be a country with two and half crores of villages.
128They know that there are twelve million five hundred thousand villages in Purasahanaka . It is said that there are four hundred thousand villages in Andhala.
129It is said that there are one hundred thousand villages in Nepala. Three million six hundred thousand villages have been declared as included in Kanyakubja.
130It is said that there are seven million two hundred thousand villages in Gajaijaka (Gazni). There are one million eight hundred thousand villages in Gauda Desa .
131Nine hundred thousand villages are well-known in Kamarupa . There are nine hundred thousand villages in Dahala named after the Vedas (Cedis?).
132Nine hundred thousand villages are well-known in Kantipura . Similarly nine hundred thousand villages are well- known in Macipura .
133In the Oddiyana country nine hundred thousand (villages) have been declared. Similarly nine hundred thousand (villages) have been declared in Jalandhara land.
134Nine hundred thousand (villages) have been mentioned in Lohapura land. Seven hundred thousand villages have been declared in Pambipura .
135Seven hundred thousand villages are said to exist in Rataraja . There are five hundred thousand villages in Hariala? .
136Three hundred and fifty thousand (villages) have been mentioned in the realm of Drada . Similarly three hundred and fifty thousand have been mentioned in Vambhaigavahaka .
137There are twenty-one thousand villages in Nilapuraka . Similarly, O son of Pritha, in the land of Amala there are a hundred thousand villages.
138In the land named Narendu , there are one hundred and twenty-five thousand (villages). One hundred and twenty- five thousand (villages) have been mentioned in the Atilangala land also.
139In Malava there are one hundred eighteen thousand one hundred and eighty (118,180) (villages). Similarly in the land of Sayambhara , one hundred twenty-five thousand (villages) have been mentioned.
140In Mevada one hundred twenty-five thousand (villages) have been mentioned. Vaguri is said as having eighty thousand (villages).
141Gurjaratra is said to have seventy thousand villages. Pandu’s realm too has seventy thousand (villages).
142In the land called Jahahuti (Jejahuti or Jejabhukti) there are forty-two thousand (villages). Kasmira Mangala is said to have sixty-eight thousand (villages).
143They know that there are thirty-six thousand villages in Konkana. Laghukonkana (Northern Konkana?) has one thousand four hundred forty villages.
144-145Twenty thousand villages have been declared in Sindhu. Kacchamandala has two thousand eight hundred twenty (villages) (2800+20). It is said that in Saurastra, there are fifty-five thousand villages.
146Lada land is said to have twenty-one thousand (villages). Atisindhu, it is said, has ten thousand villages. Similarly, O son of Pritha, Asvamukha has ten thousand (villages).
147-148Ekapada is known as having ten thousand (villages). Similarly, the land Suryamukha is said as having ten thousand (villages). Similarly, the land Ekabahu is said to have ten thousand (villages).
149-150The land Sanjayu has ten thousand (villages). Similarly, the land named Siva is known as having ten thousand (villages). Kalahayanjaya is well-known as having ten thousand (villages). Lingodbhava Desa has ten thousand (villages). Bhadra and Devabhadra are known to have twenty thousand (villages) each.
151Cita and Virataka are known to have thirty-six thousand (villages) (each). Yamakoti is declared as having thirty-six thousand (villages).
152-153Ramaka land is said to have eighteen crores (of villages). The three lands of Tomara , Karnata and Yugala (Pingala) have one hundred twenty-five thousand villages each. The land Strirajya is known as having five hundred thousand villages.
154The realm of Pulastya is said to have one million (villages). The lands of Kamboja and Kosala have each a million (villages).
155Balhika is known as having four hundred thousand villages. Lanka Desa is known as having thirty-six thousand villages.
156Kura Desa is known as having sixty-four thousand (villages). Jaya, the land of Kiratas , is said to have one hundred fifty thousand (villages).
157They say that there are five hundred thousand villages in Vidarbha. It is proclaimed that Vardhamana has fourteen thousand (villages).
158It is said that the island of Simhala has ten thousand (villages). The land Papdudesaka has thirty-six thousand villages.
159Bhayanaka is said to have a hundred thousand villages. The land Magadha is said to have sixty-six thousand (villages).
160The land Pangudesaka has sixty thousand villages. It is said that Varenduka has thirty thousand villages.
161Mulasthana is declared as having twenty-five thousand villages. Yavana is known as having forty thousand villages.
162Pakshabahu is mentioned as having four thousand villages. These are the seventy-two lands (regions or territories). The numbers of villages have already been recounted.
163Thus in Bharatakhanda, ninety-six crore seven million two hundred thousand Pattanas (towns) have been proclaimed.
164O descendant of Bharata, there are thirty-six thousand seashores. Thus, she divided the nine sub-continents and gave them to her nephews.
165-166(Partially defective text) The sister thought thus, ‘Usually brothers become furious against sisters (if they take away anything from the family assets).’ After thinking thus, the splendid lady gave her own share also even when they were not willing to take that. After doing it and having got their consent, she came to Stambaatirtha.
167-170aAt that time, in all those lands, the most excellent of all the means for the accomplishment of the fourfold aim of life was said to be Kumarisvara shrine. There, this Kumarika knew the secret shrine (Guptaksetra). She stayed in the Guptakshetra worshipping Kumaresa and performed great holy rites. She regularly bathed in the six deep pools at the Sangama. After lapse of some time, when the mansion erected by Skanda got ruined and dilapidated, she made a new golden mansion there.
170b-173Then the Great Lord was delighted. He was much gratified by her devotion. He rose up from Kumaralinga, appeared before her and said to her: “O gentle lady, I have been gratified by your devotion and wisdom. This mansion which had fallen in ruins, has been renovated. Hence I have become delighted. O Kumarika, I will become well-known after your name. The maker as well as the re-builder (of a shrine) are said as having equal benefits. Therefore, people will call me Kumaresa and Kumarisa.
174The boons granted at Barkarega to you have been granted permanently. O lady of excellent complexion, your time has come near.
175A woman without a husband can have neither heaven nor liberation as in the case of Vriddhakanya on the splendid banks of Sarasvati.
176Hence, O gentle lady of excellent complexion, choose as your husband a person who has achieved Siddhi in this holy spot and who is known as Mahakala.”
177Then at the instance of Rudra, she chose him as her husband. Accompanied by Mahakala, she went to Rudraloka.
178-179There the delighted Parvati, embraced her and said: “Since, O splendid lady, the entire earth was drawn by you as if in a picture, you will be known by the name Citralekha. Hence be my friend.” Thereupon, she became her splendid friend Citralekha .
180It was by her that Aniruddha was suggested as the excellent husband to Usa. She was the most excellent among Yoginis. She was the beloved wife of Mahakala.
181She had formerly performed a penance when, on completion of every hundred years, she just drank a drop of rain water. Hence in the firmament she is called Apsara.
182That Kumari of this type, O Phalguna, installed this Linga named Barkaresvara . It gives happiness and welfare.
183Hence, O descendant of Bharata, the cremation (of dead bodies) here as well as the casting of the bones (into the ocean) are said to be superior to those at Prayaga, as the words of Mahesa have indicated.