The Birth of Mahakala: The Arrangement of Four Yugas ||40||
1-2Arjuna asked: Who is this Mahakala ? How did he attain Siddhi, O excellent sage, in this holy spot? I have been surprised very much. Narrate all this to me. I ask you in all sincerity and faith.
3Narada said: After bowing down to Mahakala, the immutable Sthanu, the bestower of boons, O scion of the family of Pandu, I shall narrate his story in accordance with my capacity.
4Formerly in the city of Varanasi, there was an excellent devotee of great fame named Madid. He was the most excellent one among those who muttered the holy names; he regularly performed the Japa of Rudra and was highly fortunate.
5Being sonless, he used to perform the Japa of Rudra Mantras. When a hundred years elapsed, Sankara became pleased with him and said:
6“O Madid, your son will be intelligent. He will have my power and valour. He will be the redeemer of your entire family.”
7-9On hearing these words of Rudra, Mamti became highly delighted. After a lapse of sometime Catika, the wife of the noble-souled Mamti, became pregnant. She appeared as though penance itself had taken a physical form. Four years passed and yet the foetus did not come out after leaving the belly of the mother. Thereupon Mamti, addressed it in conciliatory words:
10-13“O dear one, even an ordinary son gives perpetual pleasure to his parents. You are born of me and of a pure mother. Why do you inflict excessive pain on me? Why is it that you have no desire for residence among human beings? The living beings of various other species bewail thus, ‘When will we be born as human beings? It is the state where there is uninterrupted continuity of (all the Purusarthas, viz.) virtue, wealth, love and liberation. In that state the different holy rites pertaining to Pitris and Devas are performed and worship yields great fruits.’ The state of being born as human beings is matchless and worthy of being desired even by Heaven-dwellers. Why have you disregarded it? How is it that disregarding it you stay in the belly itself?”
The Foetus replied:
14O dear father, I know that all these things are very rare; but I am all the while extremely afraid of the Kalamarga (‘the path of time’, i.e. death).
15Two paths have been mentioned in the Vedas, viz. Kala and Arc is (flame, light). They go to salvation through (the Path of) Arcis and to (the world) of action through the path of Kala.
16One who goes by the path of Kala, whether he reaches Svarga or remains in Naraka, does not get happiness, like a deer hit and injured by a hunter.
17For the same reason, a learned man should, with concentration, exert himself so as to ward off the misery on account of Kala who is of a very majestic and terrible form.
18Therefore, O dear father, if my mind had not been deluded and confounded through various kinds of defects, I would have had the rare human birth immediately.
19-20Thereupon, his extremely frightened father, O son of Pritha, sought refuge in Mahesvara, the Lord, saying “Save me, save me, O Mahesvara. O Lord, excepting you, who is the other person who can bestow on me what I desire? A son has been given by you. You do make (him) take birth.”
21-22Mahesvara who was delighted by his great devotion, said to his Vibhutis (‘super-human powers’), viz. Dharma (Virtue), Jnana (Knowledge), Vairagya (Detachment), Aisvarya (Exalted might) and their opposites, Adharma (Evil), Ajnana (Ignorance), Avairagya (Absence of detachment) and Anaisvarya (Absence of exalted might): “Let the son of Mamti be enlightened quickly.” Then those lustrous Vibhutis spoke to the foetus:
23-24“O highly intelligent son of Mamti, no fear need be entertained by you in your heart. Four of us beginning with Dharma will not forsake your heart.” Then the other four beginning with Adharma said, “We will not be like that. Your mind (will not be influenced by us). From us you have no fear.”
25On this assurance by the Vibhutis, the infant came out immediately. He trembled and cried excessively.
26-27Then the Vibhutis said, “O Mamti, even now this son of yours is afraid of the path of Kala. He trembles and cries. Hence he will be well-known as Kalabhiti.” After granting this boon, they went near Mahadeva.
28-31That boy grew up like the moon in the bright half of a month. He was duly consecrated by means of consecratory rites. The intelligent boy became observer of the holy vow (Path) of Pasupati. He began to hutter the five Mantras, viz. tat-purusaya vidmahe etc . He remained pure. He was devoted to pilgrimage. O descendant of Bharata, he took his holy dip in Rudrakshetras (i.e. holy spots presided over by Rudra) muttering (all) these Mantras. On hearing the excellence of the secret (Gupta v. 1Subha— auspicious) shrine Kalabhiti went there. He took bath in the waters of Mahi, repeated the Mantras crores of times and returned. Not far away (from it), he saw a Bilva tree. On seeing it, he repeated the Mantras a hundred thousand times underneath it.
32As the Brahmana performed the Japa of the Mantras, all the sense organs disappeared. Within a moment he attained the form of the great Bliss (i.e. was absorbed therein).
33There cannot be anything in heaven etc. comparable with his bliss. Just as the sacred water of Ganga can be compared only with itself, so also (his bliss can be compared only with itself as nothing else is comparable with it) .
34He was merged therein for a short while. Again, he regained his previous state (of consciousness). Thereupon, O son of Pritha, Kalabhiti was surprised. He said:
35“I did not have such a great bliss in Varanasi, or Naimisha, or Prabhasa or Kedara or even in Amarakantaka.
36Neither in Sri-Parvata nor at any other place was there anything (blissful) like what is going on today. My sense-organs are devoid of aberrations. They are as clear and pure as the waters of Ganga.
37I have great love for all living beings. All the three worlds shine clearly (i.e. appear distinctly). My mind understands the one great Dharma.
38-40Oh, (what a great) influence of this place! It is clearly stated (as follows): ‘If the place (of stay) is devoid of defects, if it is pure and free from all types of troubles the Dharma and Artha of the person staying there shall increase in a thousand ways.’ Hence, on account of this influence, I know this in my mind that this region is superior to the other holy spots, among which Kashi is the chief one. Hence, I shall stay here itself and perform excellent penance.
41‘This is definitely the holy spot.’ He who always says this and runs about in great thirst (covetousness) will never attain Siddhi. He shall die with great pain and strain.”
42After thinking thus, he stationed himself underneath the Bilva tree. Standing on the tip of the big toe (for his support), he performed the Japa of the Mantras of Rudra.
43-44He began to observe this rule and drank only a drop of water like fire (?) in the course of a hundred years. When a hundred years passed thus in his performing the Japa, O descendant of Bharata, a certain man came there holding a pot filled with water. He bowed down to Kalabhiti and spoke thus to him with great delight:
45“O highly intelligent one, your holy observance and vows are complete today. Accept this water. It behoves you to make my exertion fruitful.”
46Kalabhiti enquired: Who arc you by caste please? Tell me what is exactly your occupation and conduct? After knowing your caste and occupation and conduct, I shall accept it and not otherwise . The man said.
47-48I do not know my parents . I do not know whether they are absolutely lost for me or not. I see this that I have always been thus, the same man. I have nothing to do with conducts and religious activities. Hence, I will (can) not say this nor do I do according to this.
49-51Kalabhiti said. If this is so, I will not take water at all from you. Listen in this context to the words recorded in the Vedas and expressed by my preceptor: “If the family background of anyone is not known, if it is without the purity of the seed (heredity), a good man taking food or drink from him, goes to ruin at that very instant. If a person does not know Rudra, if he is not a devotee of Rudra, one who takes food or drink from him shall be a sinner. There is no doubt about it.
52He who takes food without knowing Siva, is called Brahmana (‘slayer of a Brahmana’). A murderer of a Brahmana wipes off (all the merits) of the person who takes his food. Hence one shall not take his food.
53Just as the water of Ganga kept in a pot (becomes) impure and defiled by even a drop of wine falling into it, so a person (though knowing Siva becomes defiled) if he takes food from a person who does not know Siva.
54He who is of a low caste is not a devotee of Siva. Hence good qualities must be accepted. The two persons must be observed (well) i.e. cautiously avoided in regard to the acceptance of anything from them.”
55The man said: My laughter is provoked by this statement of yours. Oh, you are silly and foolish! You are a lier. You are stupid and devoid of the power of recollection.
56Siva resides in all beings always. A statement may be true or false. But it does not mean that Siva is censured thereby.
57If a person makes any difference between the Supreme Atman and Hara, he is a person with a vision of difference. Mrtyu (Death) causes great fear unto him.
58Or what is the impurity in water? Tell me. This pot is made of clay. It has been baked in (purifying) fire too.
59It is filled with water. In which of these is there impurity? Why?
60-61If due to my touch impurity is inferred, then I am stationed on this earth. Tell me, where do you stand? Why do you walk over the earth? Why don’t you walk in the firmament? If (everything) is pondered over in this manner, your utterance will be like that of a silly person.
62Kalabhiti said : If it is said that Siva exists in all living beings (equally), why do atheists not eat clay along with their food?
63For the sake of the purity of the universe, an arrangement has been established by him. It is sustained through the fruit (of the acts done). It is not otherwise. Listen to it(?)
64The creator created this universe consisting of forms and it is tied with a variety of names, like a cow with a rope (to the peg).
65The variety of names consists of four kinds. Dhvani (sound), Varyas (letters), Pada (word) and Vakya (sentence)— these are the four.
66Dhvani is of the nature of Nada (sound). Varyas (letters of the alphabet) are those beginning with the letter A Pada is what is called Sabda (word); a Vakya (sentence) is an aggregate of words, for example Sivam bhajet (‘One should worship Siva’).
67It is the opinion of the Vedas that a Vakya will be of three kinds. One is Prabhusammata (‘an authoritarian utterance like that of a lord and master’) and the other (is) Suhritsammata (‘friendly utterance’).
68-75(The last one) is Kantasammata (‘loving utterance like that of a wife’). Thus, they know that sentence is of three types. Just as the lord and master commands (the servant saying “Do this” so also) do Sruti and Smrti. They call these two Prabhusammatam. (Statements in) Itihasa, Parana etc. are called Suhrtsammata. Like a friend these (texts) enlighten and advise him (i.e. the layman) truthfully. Kavyalapa (poetry and drama) is called Kantasammatam. Prabhuvakya (words and utterances of the Srutis) and Smrita (what is laid down in the Smrti texts) are pure externally and internally. The utterance of a friend also which is pure, should be followed with a desire for obtaining heavenly pleasures. All these should be followed by persons born on the earth, so says the Veda. If this is spoken by you in accordance with the utterances of the (school of) atheism, do bruits, scriptures and Puranas become useless on account of this? Formerly Brahmanas beginning with the Seven Sages, Kshatriyas and all those who had been silly before, became clever and perfect when they followed the Vedas—so is the statement in the Vedanta: those who adhere to Sattva go up; those who are of Rajasa nature stay in the middle and those of Tamasa nature go down . By taking in Sattvika food and by means of Sattvika activities and conduct one shall go to heaven.
76Not that we enviously grumble that Siva is not present in the living beings. Definitely he abides in all the livings beings. Listen to the analogy in this connection.
77-79There are many kinds of ornaments made of gold. Some of them are pure in form and some are base and low. There is gold in everyone of (those ornaments). Similarly, Sadasiva (is present in everyone). The base one on being purified becomes pure but not identical. Similarly, this body on being purified becomes clean and clearly goes to heaven. Hence in every respect, nothing should be taken by an intelligent person from a base one.
80-82aEven if one purifies this body, it cannot be taken up (accepted) in every respect. One that is acceptable in every (other) respect is not so in the matter of evacuation (of the bowels) as well as that of taking in food. This stone shall be pure in few days. It becomes clear(?) Hence by all means it is clear that I shall not take the water. Whether right or not the great Sruti is our authority.
82b-86When this was said, that man laughingly scratched the ground with his right thumb. Thereby he made a great and excellent pit. There he poured that water whereby the pit was filled. There was some surplus water. He drew a line with his foot (toe). He filled up a lake with the surplus water. Even after seeing this great miracle, the Brahmana did not wonder at it, since miracles of many kinds are possible in the case of those who perform special worship etc. of the Bhutas (spirits) etc. Hence merely on account of a miracle, one shall not abandon the eternal path of Sruti.
87-88The man said: O Brahmana, you are a great fool. But you speak learned words. Was not this verse uttered by those who know the ancient tradition, heard by you? “The well belongs to one. The pot belongs to another. The rope is also of another man, O descendant of Bharata. Some people offer the drink and some others do drink. All of them have equal shares’. Therefore, why do you not drink the water (offered) by me, though you are one conversant with Dharma?
89-90Narada said: Thereupon, the verse about equal shares was pondered over by him in various ways. Unable to come to a decision, he thought again (and decided). If (in a sea) many boats and ships are launched and much money defrayed, there may be equal sharing. Thus, again and again if someone does the same thing, he may have share in the benefits.
91-95Remaining pure and meditating on Siva, Kalabhiti came to this decision: “In regard to the builder of the palace and digger of the well, there is no question of accepting water. Hence the benefit is similar in the case of one who drinks.” After deciding thus he said to that man: “It is true; but in the case of filling the pit with the water from the pot, after having seen it directly, tell me, how can a person like me drink it? Whether it is right or not, I will not at all drink.” On seeing his firm decision like this, O scion of the family of Kurus, that person laughed and vanished within an instant. Kalabhiti was exceedingly surprised. ‘What is (the meaning of) this incident?’ He thought over this again and again.
96While he was pondering thus, a great and excellent Linga sprang up from the ground beneath the Bilva tree. It illuminated all the quarters.
97-99At the time of the manifestation of that great Linga, O descendant of Bharata, groups of celestial damsels danced in the firmament. Gandharvas sang in sweet tones, agreeably and charmingly. Indra released a shower of Parijata flowers. Devas and sages eulogized with different kinds of hymns and shouted, “Be victorious”. When that great festive celebration was going on, O descendant of Kuru, Kalabhiti who was highly joyous, bowed down and uttered this prayer:
100“I resort to Mahakala, the Dark-throated Lord, the destroyer of sins, the dispeller of the dirt of worldly existence, full of Kala (the Sakti of consciousness evolving all thirty-six principles), the destroyer of the Kalamarga (‘Path of Kala’), the Lord in the form of the annihilator of worldly existence .
101I bow down to your (first) face, O Isana. The Sruti eulogizes you. You are the Lord of Bhutas. You are the great-grandfather. Obeisance to you, the great Lord.
102I resort to that Lord whom the Veda eulogizes. I take refuge in that second one (face) named, Tatpurusa. We know you, O Srirudra. Grant that unto us, O Lord of Devas, obeisance and salute to you.
103I resort to the third face Aghora, served and worshipped by the Atharva Veda. Your forms are non-terrible as well as terrible. I always bow down to you as well as to the extremely terrible Bhutas (goblins).
104I resort to the fourth face always. Obeisance to you, Sadyobhijata. In every birth of mine in different places, O Bhava, O Siva, you be my source of origin, you without beginning, you without birth.
105Obeisance to you, to Vamadeva, the eldest Rudra, to Kala, to one who changes and modifies Kala, to you who cause Bala (strength) as well as who suppress Bala (i.e. the demon of that name), to the slayer of living beings, to the developer of mind.
106We worship you, the three-eyed one, who increases prosperity and welfare, through meritorious (sacrificial) scents. Just like the ripe Urvaruka (cucumber fruit) which is easily separated (from the stalk), save me from the terrible bondage, O Tryambaka, save us from the path of Death .
107You are pleased with those sages devoid of passionate attachment, who repeat your six-syllabled excellent Mantra (viz. Om namah Sivaya), O Isa. We shall also repeat that Mantra, viz. Namah tivaya with the Omkara prefixed to it (‘Om obeisance to Siva’).”
108On being eulogized thus, O descendant of Bharata, Mahadeva emanated from the Linga, Illuminating the three worlds by his brilliance, he appeared before the Brahmana and said to him:
109“O Brahmana, O dear son, since I have been very well worshipped by you, here in this great Tirtha, I am extremely delighted with you. Kala is not at all the lord.
110It was I who came to you in the form of a man. On seeing your adherence to Dharma, I am gratified that the path of virtue is being maintained by people like you.
111With the holy waters of all the Tirthas, the pit as well as the lake was filled by me. This highly meritorious water has been brought for your sake by me.
112The hymn that you sang in my eulogy has the esoteric teaching of seven(?) Mantras. If this is recited or repeated, one shall get the benefit of the seven Mantras.
113Choose from me the boon wished and thought of by you in your mind. I have been extremely delighted with you. There is nothing which cannot be given to you.”
114Kalabhiti said: I am blessed. I am contented since, O Sankara, you are pleased. All the Dharmas become fruitful if you are satisfied. Otherwise, they are considered as involving exertion.
115If you are satisfied, may you be pleased to be for ever present here in this Linga. Whatever is done at the shrine of this Linga—may it be of everlasting benefit.
116May the merit of men on visiting this Linga be the same, O Lord, as is obtained through ten thousand repetitions of the Pahca mantras (five mantras mentioned above).
117Since I have been liberated from the path of Kala, O Mahesvara, let this Linga be well-known as Mahakala .
118If a man takes his holy bath in this well and offers water libations to Pitris, let him get the benefit of all the Tirthas. Let the Manes attain everlasting state.
119On hearing his words thus, Sankara was delighted and said: “I always reside where there is a Self-born Linga.
120There are different types of Lingas, viz Self-born Linga (that one found in Narmada and called) Bana, Linga made of gems and jewels, made of minerals. The former ones are ten times more efficacious than the latter ones.
121In the sky there is the Taraka Linga (Linga made of constellations); in Patala there is Ha fake Svara and on the earth there is that Self-born Linga—all these three are on a par with one another.
122-124If anything is specially requested for, it will be wholly realised. In this holy spot (offering of) flowers, fruits, Naivedya (food offerings), eulogy, charitable gifts and everything else shall be of everlasting benefit. On the fourteenth day in the dark half of the month of Magha, while there is Siva Yoga, i.e. Vyatipata, O dear son, if a devotee takes his holy bath in the well to the east of the Linga and offers water libations to Pitris, he will attain the benefit of all the Tirthas. The Pitris will have everlasting state.
125-126He shall worship Mahakala in every Yama (i.e. watch of 3 hours) on that night. He who throws (holy flowers) on all the Lingas, shall attain the merit of keeping a holy vigil. If a devotee conquers the sense-organs and always worships me in the Linga here, worldly enjoyment and liberation are not far from him, O excellent Brahmana.
127He who takes his holy bath in the lake and worships this Linga on the eighth and fourteenth days in Magha, on Mondays and on Parvan days, shall go to (i.e. attain) Siva.
128-131Charitable gifts, repetition of Rudra Mantras and penance—everything will be everlasting (in benefit). You will be second to Nandin as my doorkeeper with the name Mahakala, O dear one, because you have conquered the path of Kala. The saintly king Karandhama will come here were long. You will preach Dharma unto him and then come to my world.’ After saying thus, Lord Rudra became merged in the middle of the Linga. Mahakala rejoiced and performed a great penance there. Thus ends (the section) of the appearance of Mahakala .
132-133Narada said: Then, after a lapse of some time, O son of Pritha, king Karandhama who was desirous of understanding excellences in pious activities, heard about the great qualities of the Tirtha and Mahakala’s story. Therefore, he came there, took his holy bath in the waters of Mahi and the ocean and worshipped the Lingas.
134After reaching Mahakala, he experienced great pleasure. The Lord of the people did not reach the point of satiety while looking at the excellent great Linga.
135On seeing Mahakala, he considered his life fruitful as in the case of a poor and wretched person after obtaining a pot full of valuable treasure.
136-139aBy visiting the shrine of Mahakala one shall attain the merit of ten thousand Japas of the five Mantras. With great reverence and adoration, he worshipped, bowed down to and eulogized the excellent Linga and then approached Mahakala. Recollecting the words of Rudra, Mahakala smilingly welcomed the king and offered due reverence and Argha (materials of worship). After the (due preliminary) enquiries about the welfare etc. and at the end of the dialogue, the king addressed Mahakala and spoke these words as he remained there with a calm expression on his face.
139b-143Karandhama said: O Holy Lord, this doubt perpetually haunts my mind- The water libation called Tarpana is performed by men. The water (offered) goes into the water, but how do the ancestors become delighted and contented thereby? In this manner, the offering of rice balls etc. and the worship—everything’s observed only here. How can we presume (think) that it is enjoyed by Pitris and others? Is it not that nothing reaches them(?) In dreams beggars are seen attacking a man. Direct visual experiences of Devas are always had. But how do they accept them? My mind is confused in this regard.
144Mahakala replied : The form of existence of those Pitris and the heaven-dwellers is of this nature. They can be talked to from afar; they can be worshipped also from afar and they can as well be eulogized from a distance.
145-147They know the past, the present and the future. They assume the form of subtle elements. Their physical body consists of nine principles, viz. the five Tanmatras (subtle elements of sound etc.), the mind, the intellect, the ego and the Jada (i.e. Prakriti); Purusa is considered to be the tenth one. Therefore, they are satisfied with, the subtle essence of smell, taste and sound. They take the essence of touch. They are contented on seeing a pure and clean thing. O king, there is nothing false in this.
148-149Just as grass unto animals and food-grains unto human beings, so also the subtle essence of foodstuff forms the diet of the species of deities. The powers of all living beings in regard to knowledge cannot be even thought of. Hence, they take up the essences of the principles. The rest is seen here itself.
150Karandhama asked: Sraddha is offered to Pitris. They are under the control of their own Karmans, whether they are stationed in heaven or in hell. How is it enjoyed by them?
151-152(If you say) that they are stationed in heaven or in hell and are controlled by the Karmans, how are they competent to grant these boons? How is it that they are capable thereof? May the grandfathers (ancestors) delighted with men grant longevity, progeny, wealth, learning, heaven, salvation, pleasures and kingdom.
153Mahakala answered: It is true, O excellent king, that Pitris have to abide by their Karmans, but Devas, Asuras, Yaksas and others are un-embodied.
154The embodied Pitris of the four castes are remembered as (i.e. said by scriptures to be) of seven kinds . They are competent to grant everything desired and they do grant it.
155Thirty-one groups of those Pitris are very powerful, O king. Sraddha performed shall propitiate those great Pitris.
156Those propitiated ones propitiate his ancestors at the place where they are stationed. In this manner Sraddha shall be taken unto one’s own people. They grant the boons.
157The king said: How is it that (oblation) is not given unto Suras and others, O Brahmanas, just as in the case of the Bhutas (spirits) etc. it is given by indicating their names?
158Why should there be elaborate offerings such as “This is to the Pitris, this is to the Brahmanas and this is to the fire”? This involves strain of the mind, body etc.
159-161Mahakala replied: Specific respectful statement should be offered always in the case of everyone. Without this relevant mark of distinction, they never accept it. A dog standing at our very door may accept whatever is offered to it. But, O king, does a very important person accept things like a dog? In this manner, Devas never accept (the offerings) like the Bhutas. They are very well fond of the pure ones but they do not accept the Havis offerings from one who does not have faith.
162Those beings bereft of impurities do not accept anything offered without Mantras. Even Sruti says this, O king, in the matter of the Mantras.
163Mantras are the deities. Whatever a learned man does with (uttering) the Mantras, does it with (i.e. through) the deities. (Whatever) he gives with Mantras gives it with deities. Whatever he accepts with Mantras, he accepts along with the deities. Hence one should not take up or accept what is (given) without Mantras.
164Hence everything should always be given along with Mantras from the Purapas or the Vedas. Otherwise they will not accept it. It may go to the Bhutas (ghosts).
165The king asked: How is it that charitable gift is offered along with these things, viz. Darbhas, gingelly seeds, raw rice grains and water? I wish to know the reason thereof.
166-168Mahakala replied: Formerly plenty of land gifts were made (to Pitris). But Daityas forcibly entered and seized them. Thereupon, Devas and Pitris spoke to the Lotus-born (Lord): “O Lord, even as we stand watching, everything is taken away by Daityas. Accord protection against them, lest we should perish,”
169-170Then, after pondering over this, Brahma made the means of protection. In the case of Pitris, it (the gift) is accompanied by gingelly seeds; in the case of Devas it is accompanied by raw rice grains. Water and Darbhas are used in all the cases. (If it is done) like this, Asuras do not seize it. If they are given without these, the fruit thereof is appropriated by Daityas.
171Pitris and Devas will have a deep sigh (of grief) and go. The donor does not get any benefit (of the gift). Hence in all the Yugas the rite of charitable gift is performed in this manner.
172Karandhama said: I wish to hear the arrangement of the four Yugas correctly . I have been always entertaining this desire.
173Mahakala narrated: Know that the first Yuga is Krta, thereafter Treta Yuga is remembered. Then Dvapara and Kali. Thus in brief they are four.
174The Yuga-vritta (i.e. the main characteristics of the Yugas) are as follows: Krita Yuga is Sattvika (i.e. people will be of Sattvika nature). Treta is Rajasika. Dvapara is a mix of Rajasa and Tamasa (i.e. people therein will have both types of nature), while Kali Yuga should be known as Tamasika.
175In Kritayuga, Dhyana (Meditation) is the supreme thing; in the Treta it is said to be Yajna. Good, truthful conduct in Dvapara is supreme, while Dana (‘charitable gift’) alone is so in Kaliyuga.
176In Krita Age, creation is mental and the conduct has pleasure as the aim. The subjects are brilliant and lustrous. They are contented and always delighted and keen in the enjoyment of pleasures.
177In Krita Age there was no such difference as low or high (status) among the subjects. They were all auspicious without any distinction. They have equal span of life, happiness and beauty.
178They have no loss of happiness or affection. Nor have they any dispute or hatred or physical exhaustion. Devoted to compassion as they were, they lived on the mountains or in the sea (islands).
179-180At that time there was no caste distinction or the discipline of the different stages in life. There was no question of mixed castes. They always meditate solely upon Siva, the great god, and not on others. In the fourth quarter of that Age joyous conduct disappeared. Thereafter there appeared trees, horses and abodes(?)
181-182(Those trees) yielded garments, ornaments and fruits. On the same trees was produced the excellent honey made by bees in every leafy cup. It had sweet smell, fine colour and exquisite taste. At the end of Krita Yuga, those subjects maintained themselves with that (honey).
183-185The subjects grew up well-nourished and delighted. They were devoid of ailments. After a lapse of some time their sense of taste increased in intensity. In view of the nature of the Yuga, meditation on Siva became further reduced (in frequency and depth). They seized (to extort more products from) those trees forcibly. On account of this misdemeanour on their part, actuated by the defect of greediness, those Kalpa trees were destroyed in some places along with the product of honey.
186Even when that Sandhi (junction between the Krita and Treta Yugas) was almost over with only a short period yet remaining, rivalry and disputes arose. On account of chillness and hot sunshine as well as due to mental miseries, they became extremely dejected.
187For the sake of protective covering (shades) they made houses and abodes here and there. Thereafter, in Tretayuga, Siddhis once again manifested to them.
188On account of rain, fourteen types of rural and sylvan medicinal herbs and (other vegetables) grew up. Since there was (plenty of) water on the earth (the products of agriculture) ripened in unploughed land without the seeds being sown.
189Trees, creepers and hedges grew up along with the seasonal fruits and flowers. By means of them as well as with the grains, fruits and flowers, they (people) maintained themselves.
190-191Thereafter, lust and greediness were once again engendered in them in every respect. Taking possession of the rivers, fields and mountains and making their use with great vigour and power, they forcibly (appropriated the products of) the trees, creepers and medicinal herbs. Thereby the fourteen types of medicinal herbs and other vegetation were ruined contrary (to their expectation).
192After bowing (?bending) down, those medicinal herbs entered the earth. The subjects were afflicted, For the sake of the welfare of all living beings, Prithu, the son of Vena, milked the cow (in the form of the earth).
193-198Ever since then, medicinal herbs and other vegetables are cultivated by means of ploughshares. The subjects sustained themselves by means of agricultural occupations and were protected by Ksatriyas. The organization of castes and stages of life and the institution of Yajna characterize Treta Yuga. The senseless subjects abandoned salvation in the form of meditation on Sadasiva and resorted to flowery speech. Through attachment they attained heaven. Thereafter, in Dvapara Yuga, different men begin to have different views and opinions mentally, verbally and physically. Agricultural and other pursuits are carried on with great difficulty. They have greediness and lack of fortitude. They abandon Siva. There is a mixture of Dharmas (religious rites). In Dvapara Yuga the discipline of castes and stages in life begins to be destroyed. The Vedas are divided into four by Vyasas. One Veda is divided into four sections for the sake of Brahmanas. Itihasas and Puranas differ (or become many?) due to the importance of the people (lokagauravat).
199-202The eighteen Puranas are Brahma, Padma, Vaisnava (i.e. Vishnu), Saiva, Bhagavata, Naradiya, Markandeya the seventh, Agneya which is mentioned as the eighth, Bhavisya which is declared as the ninth, Brahmavaivarta which is remembered as the tenth, the Lainga which is the eleventh, Varaha which is the twelfth, Skanda which is the thirteenth; Vamana the fourteenth, Kaurma which is remembered as the fifteenth, Matsya which is mentioned as the sixteenth, Garuda the next one and Brahmanda after this .
203-208Listen to the Vyasas in this Varahakalpa . They are: Ritu, Satyabhargava, Angiras, Savitr, Mrtyu, and the intelligent Satakratu. The further ones are Vasishtha, Sarasvata, Tridhaman, Vedavit, sage Trivrta, Satatejas who is, remembered as Vishnu Narayana himself, Karaka the intelligent, Aruni, Lord Ritanjaya, Kritanjaya, Bharadvaja, Gautama, Kavisattama, sage Vajasravas, sage Yusmayana, Trinabindu, Riksa, Sakti, Parasara, Jatukarjya, sage Dvaipayana who is Vishnu himself. All these, the chief of whom is Asvatthaman, have been indicated as the future ones. The Dharma Sastras (composed) for the sake of the world are different in Dvapara.
209-210The following are the Law-givers of Dharma-Sastras Manu, Atri, Vishnu, Harita, Yajnavalkya, Usanas, Angiras, Yama, Apastamba, Samvarta, Katyayana, Brihaspati, Parasara, Vyasa, Sankha, Likhita, Daksa, Gautama, Satatapa and Vasistha.
211After the twilight of Dvapara, when Kaliyuga begins to function Saiva yoga becomes extinct and Yoganandanas were born.
212-216In the first, Svetakali, the propagator of the Saiva cult was Rudra himself. Thereafter, the following: Sutara, Tarana, Suhotra, Kankarta, the great sage named Loka, Jaigisavya, Lord Dadhivahana, Sage Rishabha, Dharma, Ugra, Atri, Sabalaka, Gautama, Vedasirga, Gokarna, Sikhandibhrit, Guhavasi, Jatamali, Attahasa the terrible, Langali, Samyami, Suli, Dindi, Jundisvara himself, Sahishnu, Somasarma, Lakulisa of Kayavarohana. O king, these and others are the future masters of Yoga (Yogesvaras) in order. In Kali Yuga these will summarize the Siva cult and expound it, O king.
217Thus is mentioned the summary of the Sastra (system of philosophy) in Kali age. Listen to the functioning of the Kali age which causes delight as well as anxiety.
218In Kali age men with their sense-organs overwhelmed by Tamas, begin to acquire deceit and jealousy and they will be envious of the ascetics and kill them.
219In Kali age attachment (to worldly objects) is tormenting overpowering. There is perpetual fear of hunger and drought. The adversity in all the countries is very terrible.
220Sruti is not (considered) an authority, because people resort to unrighteous activities. They are impious, of improper behaviour, excessively hot-tempered and deficient in refulgence and splendour.
221-222Greedy persons utter lies, are evil and have pre-dominantly female progeny. On account of evil worships, wrong studies, misconducts, blasphemous scriptures and defective Karmans of the Brahmanas, subjects begin to dwindle. Kshatriyas and Vaisyas become extinct. Sudras and Brahmanas, increase (in number).
223Sudras sit along with Brahmanas and take their food. They lie on the same bed as they (i.e. Sudras). Sudras conduct themselves like Brahmanas and Brahmanas behave like Rudras.
224Thieves pursue the activities of kings and kings behave like thieves. Chaste wives become rare and Abhisarikas (i.e. women going to their paramours in rendezvous) increase in number.
225Then the earth (land) yields less fruit and other products. In some places it yields excessive fruits. Kings do not.
226Persons not born as Kshatriyas become rulers. Brahmanas subsist on Sudras. All the Sudras become persons who argue, dispute and expound. They are congratulated (v.1bowed to) by Brahmanas.
227-230On seeing Brahmanas seated, persons of very deficient intellect do not begin to move (to give respect). With great humility Brahmanas keep their hand over their mouths and whisper (various) words into the ears of even a base Sudra. Even when Brahmanas are present Sudras occupy high seats, even while they are looking on. Although a king knows this, he does not punish them. See the power of the (changed) Times.
Brahmanas of meagre learning but endowed with power and fortune, embellish Sudras with splendid white flowers and other decorations. Brahmanas accept base monetary gifts from heretics.
231-232Thereby the vilest Brahmanas fall into the Raurava hell which cannot be crossed. Brahmanas begin to sell the fruits of their penances and Yajnas. There will be crores of such yatis (ascetics) in Kali age. People (at that time) will have less of male progeny and abundance of female children.
233They censure Vedic statements and the subjects dealt with in the Vedas. The sacred texts composed by Sudras them-selves (will) become authorities.
234There will be predominance of the beasts of prey and dwindling in the number of cows. There will be no purity in the holy rites of anyone, such as charitable gifts etc.
235There will be destruction of good persons. Kings will not be adequate defenders. People will sell foodstuffs in the country. Vedic texts will be sold on the highways where four roads meet.
236-237Young women will sell their hair in Kali age. Women will be the chief and important persons in households. They will be hard and rough as well as ill-clad in dirty garments. They will be arrogant and greedy, swallowing much food like the evil spirits called Kriyas. The general public will be merchants and interested in business deals. Vasava (Indra) will shower rain indiscriminately.
238-240People will be beggars of many things. They will be surrounded by persons of evil activity, conduct and habit as well as heretics in false and deceptive guises. They will be interdependent. People will be undaunted in committing sinful acts. They will rob others of their gems and jewels and outrage the modesty of other men’s wives. Towards the end of the Yuga, men aged less than sixteen will beget children and girls aged twelve will bear children.
241-244There will be thieves robbing other thieves. There will be other robbers taking away everything from these robbers. When pursuit of knowledge and holy rites cease to be in vogue, when the world becomes devoid of devout activities, worms, mice and serpents will harass and torment human beings. O King, at that time there will be an increase in the number of those other heretics whose attitude is antagonistic to the system of castes and the discipline of the four stages in life. In Kali age, since people will be over-fond of sinful deeds, miseries on account of children, wives etc., ruin and decay of the body and sickness will occur as a result of the Tamas quality. Though Kali age is thus a storehouse of defects, yet listen to its great good qualities.
245-248Persons belonging to the three Yugas, the blessed ones who perform holy rites say thus : “At that time (in Kali age) human beings attain Siddhi in the course of a very short time. Those human beings who perform holy rites mentioned in Srutis, Smritis and Puranas with faith and devotion in Kali age attain Siddhi in a short while. Holy rites (fructify) in a period of a year in Treta, those performed in Dvapara require the course of a month. These benefits are attained in a day in Kali age, if an intelligent devotee performs the holy rites strenuously. O King, in the age of Kali, persons performing the holy rites of Hari and Hara and attaining Siddhis are as many as those attaining Siddhis in the course of all the other three Yugas. You do understand from me what is going to happen in the twenty-eighth Kali Yuga.
249-250When three thousand two hundred ninety years elapse (pass) in Kali Yuga there will be born an overlord of heroes named Sudraka on this earth. He will be the remover of the burden of the earth. He will propitiate (the Linga) in the place discussed (by us) and will attain Siddhi.
251Thereafter in the year three thousand three hundred ten of the Kali era, the kingdom of the Nandas will come into being and Cariakya will kill them.
252-254He will attain liberation from all the sins in the Sukiatirtha. In the year three thousand twenty only(?) the kingdom of Vikramaditya will come into being . Thanks to the grace of Durgas, he will attain Siddhis. He will redeem poor people. Thereafter in the year three thousand one hundred there will be (a ruler) named Saka who will remove the excessive poverty (of the people).
255-256In the year three thousand six hundred, Lord Budha (Buddha?) himself a part of Vishnu and protector of virtue will be born in Magadha as the son of Hemasadana and Anjani. The activities of that noble-souled person will be many.
257-260He will slay crores of fierce persons, the chief of whom will be Jyotirbindu. He will enjoy the seven continents for sixty-four years. He will leave behind him his reputation among his devotees and will go to heaven. Since he will be superior to all other incarnations on account of his good qualities, they will speak of him as Budha the dispeller of all sins. In the year four thousand four hundred (of Kali Era) there will be a great king named Pramiti in the line of the Moon . He will be a strong leader of many armies.
261He will slay crores of Mlecchas and all heretics. He will then revive the pure and excellent Vedic Dharma without any admixture.
262-266That king will pass away in the middle of Ganga and Yamuna. After some time the subjects will be extremely afflicted. They will resort to terrible holy rites with knavish tendency. They will be unbridled. They will be extremely greedy. They will join in groups and attack one another. They will be excited and afflicted with great strain. When the holy rites laid down in Srutis and Smritis become extinct, they will be killed by one another. They will be unruly and transgressors of the norms of propriety. They will be devoid of mercy, affection and bashfulness. They will be short in stature. Even at the age of twenty-five, they will forsake their houses and wives. Grief-stricken and agitated in their sense organs, they will be moving crying aloud “Alas! Alas”! Struck and harassed by (repeated) absence of rain, they will become miserable and will abandon their cultivation and other activities.
267Leaving off their own country-parts they will resort to the borderlands, river-banks, seashores and mountains.
268They will be in wretched and dejected states. They will sustain themselves by means of raw flesh, roots and fruits. They will be clad in bark garments or hides of deer. They will be devoid of possessions and devoid of holy rites.
269Salva, the Mleccha will destroy all abodes of pious activities. He will be the perpetrator of terrible deeds without caring for the superior, middling and inferior statuses.
270-272In order to kill him, Vishnu, the Lord of the universe, himself, O excellent king, will be born as the son of Vishnuyasas in (the village of) Sambhala. Surrounded by excellent Brahmanas, he will slay Salva after slaying crores, billions and one hundred millions of sinners. He will protect that Dharma which keeping the Veda in front closely follows it.
273After carrying out many noble tasks Paramesvara (the Supreme Lord) will make a boat in the form of Dharma on behalf of good people. He will then go to the other world.
274-276Then, O King, Krita Yuga will begin to function once again. The first Krita Yuga is superior to the others. The twenty-eighth Kali will begin to function from the other(?) Then in the Krita Yuga the solar race and the lunar race will function from the Maru king and Devapi. Brahmanas will originate from Srutadeva. Thus, O king, is the arrangement of the four Yugas. In all the four Yugas those are blessed who worship Hara and Acyuta.