Human Body—A Miniature Cosmos: Departure of the Soul to the Next World ||50||
1The guest said: O boy Kamatha of no immature intellect, the exact thing is mentioned by you. I wish to hear about the characteristics of the body. Describe the same.
2Kamatha said: Understand that the physical body is like the Cosmic Egg. Listen how it is so. The sole of the feet is Patala. The forepart of the foot is Rasatala.
3The pair of ankles is (i.e. corresponds to) Talatala; the calves, Mahatala; the knees, Sutala; the thighs, Vitala. The hip is Atala.
4They call the navel (the surface of) the earth; the belly Bhuvarloka; the region of the chest the heavenly world; the neck the Maharloka; and the face Janaloka.
5-6They call the eyes Tapas Loka and the region of the head, Satyaloka. Just as there are seven continents situated on the earth, so also there are seven Dhatus (i.e. essential ingredients of the body). Understand them from me by their names. Skin, blood, flesh, suet, bones, marrow and semen virile—these are the Dhatus.
7-8There are three hundred and sixty bones ; three million fifty-six thousand nine tubular vessels. They take liquid secretions of the body (to the different parts) like the rivers on the earth carrying water.
9The body is covered by three and a half crores of hair, gross and fine. They are said to be visible and invisible.
10Six limbs are important. Listen as they are being mentioned by me, viz. two arms, two thighs, the head and the stomach.
11The intestines are three and their length is three and a half Vyamas (i.e. the distance between the middle fingers when both the hands are extended). Brahmanas conversant with the Vedas say that they are three Vyamas in length in the case of women.
12The lotus in the heart is glorified as having the stalk above and face downwards. To the left of the lotus of the heart is the spleen and to the right is the liver.
13-14O Brahmana, the cavities of marrow, suet, fat, urine, bile, phlegm, faeces and the last one the blood are said to be two Anjalis (cavity formed when the open hands are joined together). Functioning therefrom they sustain the body.
15There are seven needle-like vessels of which five are in the head, O Brahmana. One is in the penis and one is in the tongue.
16All the tubular vessels issue from the navel-lotus. The most important among them are Susumna, Ida and Pingala.
17Coming to the door of the nostrils, they contribute to the growth of the body (?) Vayu, Agni and Candramas (the Moon-god) are stationed in the body, each of them being of five types.
18Prana, Apana, Samana, Udana and Vyana are said to be the five types of Vayu . They say that their functions (are as follows).
19The function of Prana is proclaimed as follows: Inhalation, exhalation and the ingression of food and drink. It is situated from the neck (throat) to the head.
20The discharge of faeces, urine and semen virile as well as the delivery of the child in the womb is said to be the function of Apana. Its situation is above the anus.
21Samana handles food and disseminates it. It moves about unchecked through the hips and buttocks . It enables tasting.
22Udana makes the organs of speech function. Eructation, vomiting and the main endeavour in all physical activities— these too are the functions of Udana. Its situation is the portion up to the throat.
23Vyana is stationed in the heart. It moves continuously throughout the body. It causes the increase of the essential ingredients of the body. It causes the production of sweat and saliva and the opening and closing of the eyes.
24The Pavaka (fire) is stationed in the body in the following five forms : Pacaka, Ranjaka, Sadhaka, Alocaka and Bhrajaka.
25Pacaka is always present in the chamber of digestion- It digests food. Ranjaka, stationed in the Amasaya (i.e. the receptacle of undigested food), prepares the juice and converts it into blood.
26Sadhaka, stationed in the heart, instils enthusiasm in the intellect etc. Alocaka is stationed in the eye. It gives the person the ability to see forms and colours.
27-28Bhrajaka is stationed in the skin. On being purified, it makes the body glisten. It is said that Soma is stationed in the body in five forms , viz. Kledaka, Bodhaka, Tarpana, S les mana and Alambaka. Kledaka abides in the abdomen permanently. It moistens (?liquefies) the food.
29Bodhaka resides in the tongue. It enables (persons) to cognize (the different tastes). Tarpana is stationed in the head. It is called so because it propitiates the eyes etc.
30Slesmana is present in all the joints. It produces phlegmatic secretion. Alamba abides in the chest and moves throughout the body.
31Thus the body is sustained by Vayu, Agni and Soma. The vessels (carrying blood) and the empty cavity of the belly are born of Akasa (ether).
32-33Know the following as Parthiva (‘evolved from the earth’): nose, hair, nails, bones, courage(?), weightiness, skin, flesh, heart, anus, navel, suet, liver, marrow, intestines, receptacle of undigested food, tubular vessels of the body, sinews and abdomen. Brahmanas conversant with Vedas say thus.
34The white area of the eyes (cornea) is so on account of phlegm. It is inherited from the father. The black circular area is so on account of gaseousness. It is inherited from the mother.
35-36(The eye has five areas ) The first one is that of the eyelashes. The second one is that of the skin, the white area (cornea) is mentioned as the third and the fourth one is the black area (iris). The fifth one is Drnnmandala (circular pupil). There are two other portions of the eyes, viz. Upanga and Apanga.
37Upanga is the border area of the eyes and Apanga (the outer corner of the eye) is at the root of the nose.
The scrotum and testicles are said to consist of suet, blood, phlegm and flesh.
38The tongue consists of blood and flesh in the case of all embodied souls. There are six bundles of nerves in the two hands, two lips, penis and neck.
39In this way, in this body of seven times seven (forty-nine) parts abides Jiva, the twenty-fifth principle, pervading it. Its residence is in the head.
40The three ingredients, viz. skin, blood and flesh arc inherited from the mother and suet, marrow and bones are said to originate from the father. These six are called Kausika.
41Thus the body is evolved out of the (five) elements. I shall describe to you how this body develops by means of the foodstuffs originating from the five elements.
42-45That food is eaten by embodied beings in morsels (consisting) of lumps of food . At first Vayu that is Prana divides into two the undigested food in the stomach. It excites by blowing the fire slowly. The fire, being blown thus, makes the water very hot. With the hot water all round it the food is cooked once again. On being cooked, it becomes separated into two, viz- the sedimentary excretion as well as the juicy part.
46-48The sedimentary excretion is discharged from the body in the form of twelve different impurities. The twelve seats of impurity are two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, tongue, teeth, penis, anus, nails and hair-pores.
All the tubular vessels are connected to the lotus of the heart on all sides. Vyana places the subtle juicy essence at the mouths (i.e. openings of those vessels). Then Samana fills those vessels with that juicy essence.
49-51Being full, they extend throughout the body. The juicy essence within the vessels is cooked by the fire Ranjaka. Being cooked, it is converted into blood. Thereafter the following things are produced successively: skin, hair, tresses, flesh, sinews, nerves, bones, nails, marrow, purity of the sense organs and increase in semen virile. Thus, the resultant products of the food taken in are proclaimed of twelve types.
52This body which is produced thus is intended to be the instrument or means of merit, just as a splendid chariot is the means of transportation of burden (and passengers).
53If it is not kept in good condition by means of various efforts such as smearing the body with oil etc. what can it do? If it does not carry burden, what function is carried out by it?
54In the same manner, if meritorious deeds are not per-formed, what is the use of this body developed and nurtured by means of excellent meals? In that case it is like that of brutes.
55-57The following verses are worth noting in this context: ‘Good and bad results are experienced by a person in accordance with what he has done, the time and the place of doing, the age and the manner in which he has done it. Hence good deeds must always be performed by those who seek uninterrupted happiness. Otherwise enjoyment of pleasures is disrupted like the small streams (drying up) during the summer. Since many acute pains and miseries originate from sins, they are not to be committed. Indeed it causes distress and affliction to the soul.
58Thus, O good Sir, your question has been clarified by me in accordance with my ability as to how a living being is born. Listen to the manner in which it dies .
59When the Karma that is conducive to the length of life becomes exhausted and the time of death arrives, the embodied soul, subject to the control of his own Karma, is dragged by the servants of Yama.
60The individual soul, bound by the nooses of merits and sins and accompanied by the five Tanmatras, the mind, the intellect and Ahamkara (Ego) abandons the body.
61The soul of the doers of meritorious deeds goes out through the seven apertures of the head- The soul of sinners goes through the lower ones and that of Yogins goes through the Brahmarandhra (i.e. an aperture in the crown of the head).
62At that very same moment, he takes up another body called Ativahika or Linga-Sarira (‘the subtle body’). It is of the size of the thumb up to its joint- It is created by his own vital airs.
63The soldiers of Yama then tie the soul stationed in that body and then take him along the path belonging to Yama, using excessive force.
64-65It is like a heated frying pan or a burning iron ball or scorched sands or like a copper vessel. The sinner is dragged by the soldiers over a distance of eighty-six thousand Yojanas from the earth and taken to the city of Yama.
66-69In some places it is very chill. It is exceedingly impassable- In some places there is great darkness- The dead one is eaten and bitten by crows, ravens and jackals with beaks and snouts of fiery touch, as well as by bees, flies and mosquitoes, serpents and scorpions. While being bitten the creature screams and cries but does not die- In some places it is eaten by terrible Rakshasas. It is dragged and thrown off. It is burned and taken along the path of very terrible sand. It passes that impassable path within ten Muhurtas. But the Purusa (i.e. the dead man) thinks it to be very long as though it is a year.
70He is taken across the terrible river named Vaitarani in which putrid matter and blood flows and hair and tresses float about, like moss and grass.
71-72Thereafter, he is placed in front of Yama by his servants. A sinner sees him to be exceedingly frightful and surrounded by Kala, Antaka and others- A man of meritorious deeds sees him as Dharmaraja of very gentle form then. Only human beings go to the world of Yama and not others.
73-74It is after death that the creatures are allotted their different species of birth(?) Only men are heard (spoken of) as ghosts and not other creatures. A virtuous man is honoured there and a sinner is tied with a noose round his neck. Listen to the path by which a virtuous man goes. I shall describe it to you.
75Men who endow (for charitable purposes) trees and parks, go through a path abounding in fruits and flowers. Men who gift away umbrellas go through shade in great happiness.
76-77Those who give footwear go by means of vehicles. Those who had endowed wells, tanks etc. do not feel thirst. Those who give as charitable gifts vehicles, beds and seats go ahead by means of aerial chariots. Those who had offered foodstuffs, go after taking food to their satisfaction. Those who give lights, go through the bright (path) and those who give cows as religious gift, easily cross that river (Vaitarani).
78The devotees of the Sun-god, Mahadeva and Purushottama ever since their birth go along (that path) duly honoured by the followers of Yama.
79The man who has gifted plots of land, a cow, gold, metals, gingelly seeds, cotton, salt and the seven kinds of cereals goes in a happy manner.
80Citragupta reviews the case of sinners and persons of meritorious deeds who go there and submits the report to the Lord of the Dead, i.e. Yama.
81-82Thereafter, that man stays in the world of the departed souls for a year in the course of which a body of his gets developed. Day after day, he consumes the food etc. that is given by his kinsmen along with the pitcher of water and attains growth and improvement thereby.
83-84He himself gets the food etc. offered by him (to Brahmanas and the needy) earlier (i.e. while alive on the earth). There is no giver (of food etc. to him) if nothing was given by himself. If he has offered water, he is not afflicted much with hunger and thirst. The water offered by the kinsmen becomes a river and comes over to him.
85If the monthly Sraddha with the sixteen Sraddhas preceding it is not performed on his behalf, he is not liberated from the state of ghost hood.
86It is said that the day is reckoned in the world of departed souls in accordance with the human reckoning. Hence food should be given to the ghost every day for a year.
87-90The terrible followers of Yama, the groups named Smasanikas protect the sinner (suffering from) cold, wind and heat in the same manner as a (prisoner) is guarded in a jail by rough and rugged men. If the Preta-pindas (i.e. rice balls meant for the departed) are not given along with the sixteen Sraddhas, the dead man is not liberated from the state of ghost hood even in the course of Yugas. When the rite of Sapindikarana is performed duly by kinsmen and the year is completed, he gets a perfect and full body. A sinner gets a body of very hideous form and a righteous one a divine and excellent body.
91-93Thereafter, he goes to heaven or hell according to his Karma. The hells beginning with Raurava are situated beneath Pattala. The worlds beginning with Svar and ending with Satya are situated above the world of heaven. Svarga is attained by merit as laid down in the Itihasas, Puranas, Vedas and Smritis. Naraka (hell) is obtained by what is contrary to it. This too is in conformity with time, place and Karma.
94The Sapindikarana, if it is performed before or in the course of a year of ghost hood is said to continue for a year certainly.
95If anyone has performed three Medhas (‘sacrifices’) or worshipped the three Suras (i.e. Brahma, Vishnu and Siva) or is killed in battle, he does not go to the world of ghosts.
96One goes to the excellent heaven by (as a result of) pure merit; to the blinding darkness by unmixed (i.e. utter) sin; and to both by mixed sin and merit. He has a body also in conformity with it.
97Thus your three questions regarding birth, death and departure to the other world and stay therein have been clarified in the manner in which my preceptor has explained to me. What do you wish to hear further? I shall explain to you.