1-2Suta said: When the worlds came into existence thus by the activity of Brahma, the creator, and when the progeny did not multiply by any means, Brahma, enveloped entirely by Tamas, became dejected. He then created intelligence which leads to a definite decision.
3He then saw only the Tamas element moving within himself as the controlling factor. Subduing Rajas and Sattva, it was functioning.
4Tormented by that sorrow, the Lord of the universe felt grieved. He eschewed Tamas and Rajas enveloped it.
5The Tamas that was thus pushed out (dispelled), gave birth to a twin. Violence and sorrow were born of Adharma.
6When the twins were born of the foot, the lord felt pleased. And he resorted to this.
7He abandoned his body which was non-radiant. He split it into two. With one half of his body he became a man.
8With the other half he became a woman. The woman was named Satarupa. Then the lord created the earth (for the support of created beings). The lord created desires also.
9This body of Brahma pervaded the earth and heaven by its greatness. The previous body stood enveloping the firmament.
10-11The woman Satarupa who was born of half the body of the creator performed a severe penance for a million years and obtained a man of brilliant fame as her husband. He was called Manu, the first man born of god Brahma.
12-13Seventy-one sets of four Yugas, constitute what is called his Manvantara (reign of Manu). Having obtained Satarupa, not born of any womb, as his wife, he sported with her. Hence that sport is called Rati (sexual intercourse). The first act of coition happened in the beginning of the Kalpa.
14Brahma created Viraj. That Viraj became the man (purusa). And as the king had been created mentally, he became known as Vairaja Manu.
15-16That creation (of subjects) is called Vairaja. In that creation, Manu is the man (the progenitor of human race). Satarupa bore to that valorous man Vairaja two excellent sons that persons possessing sons can expect.
17The two auspicious daughters Akuti and Prasuti were born to Manu who gave Prasuti in marriage to Daksha.
18Daksha should be known as Prana (thevital breath) and Manu, Sahkalpa (will, determination). Manu gave Akuti to the patriarch Ruci.
19Auspicious twins were born to Akuti from Ruci, the mind-born son of Brahma. They were Yajna and Daksina.
20Yajna begot of Daksina twelve sons. They were called Yamas, gods in the Svayambhuva Manvantara.
21Being born as the sons of Yajna, one of the twins (Yama), they are known as Yamas. The two Ganas (groups) of Brahma are Ajitas and Sukas.
22The Yamas occupied the heaven at the outset. Hence, they are called ‘heaven-dwellers.’ The mothers of the worlds were born of Prasuti, the daughter of Svayambhuva Manu.
23Lord Daksha begot of her twenty-four daughters. All of them were lotus-eyed and very fortunate.
24These were wives of Yogins and Yogic mothers. The first thirteen were—Sraddha, Lakshmi, Dhrti, Tusti, Pusti, Medha, Kriya, Buddhi, Lajja, Vapus, Santi, Siddhi and Kirti the thirteenth.
25Lord Dharma took these daughters of Daksha as his wives. They functioned as the doorways (of creation) as ordained by Brahma.
26-28Besides them, the remaining younger ones were the eleven lovely-eyed daughters—Khyati, Sati, Sambhuti, Smrti, Priti, Ksama, Sannati, Anasuya, Urja, Svaha and Svadha. Other great sages then accepted them. They were Rudra, Bhrigu, Marici, Angiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya, Atri, Vasistha, Pitps and Agni who took them as their wives.
29-31He gave (in marriage) Sati to Siva and Khyati to Bhpgu, Sambhuti to Marici, Smrti to Angiras, Priti to Pulastya, Ksama to Pulaha, Sannati to Kratu, Anasuya to Atri, Urja to Vasistha, Svaha to Agni and Svadha to Pitris. I shall mention the children born to them.
32All these children were highly intelligent and very fortunate. They abide in all the Manvantaras till the final dissolution takes place.
33-36Sraddha (faith) gave birth to Kama (Desire) Lakshmi to Darpa (Arrogance); Dhrti (Firmness, self-command) to Niyama (Restraint); the son of Tusti (Satisfaction)is called Santosa (Contentment); Labha (Gain) was the son of Pusti (nourishment); Sruta (Learning) was the son of Medha (intelligence). (The sons of) Kriya (Activity) were Naya (Justice), Danda (Punishment) and Samaya (Law). Both Bodha (Knowledge) and Apramada (Absence of errors) were the sons of Buddhi (intellect). Vinaya (Discipline) was the son of Lajja (Bashfulness); Vyavasaya (Exertion) was the son of Vapus (body); Ksema (welfare) was the son of Santi (Tranquillity); Sukha (pleasure) was born of Siddhi (Achievement); Yasas (fame) was the son of Kirti (Renown). These are the sons of Dharma.
37Harsa (pleasure) was the son of Kama from the goddess Rati. Thus, the progeny of Dharma resulted in happiness.
38-39Himsa (Violence) bore to Adharma (Evil) the twins Nikrti (Wickedness) and Anrita (Falsehood). Bhaya (Fear) and Naraka (Hell) were born of Nikrti and Anpta. The twins Maya (Deceit) and Vedana (Pain) were born to them. Bhaya begot of Maya, Mrityu that takes away living beings.
40From Raurava, Vedana gave birth to Duhkha (pain). From Mrityu were born Vyadhi, Jvara, Soka, Krodha, and Asuya. These were characterised by Adharma and were conducive to misery.
41They had no wives and no sons. They were known as Nidhanas. Thus, the Tamasa creation that checked the growth of Dharma came into being.
42Nila-Lohita was commanded by Brahma to create progeny; Siva, contemplated on his wife Sati and created sons (born of his self).
43They were neither superior nor inferior to him. They were mentally created and were equal to himself. He created thousands and thousands (such children) who were wearing elephants’ hides. All were equal to him in form, splendour, strength and learning. Some were reddish brown. Some had quivers. Some had matted hair.
44-51They were tawny-coloured, equipped with quivers (for arrows); they had matted hair and were deeply red (vilohita) in complexion. They were green-haired. They killed with eyes (by casting a glance) and held skulls (in their hands). They were multiformed, hideous in appearance, and cosmic formed. They rode chariots and wore coats of mail. They were virtuous and put on armours. They had hundred thousand arms. They could traverse through the heaven, firmament and the earth. They had big heads, eight fangs, two tongues and three eyes. (Some of them were) eaters of rice, (some) eaters of flesh, (some were) drinkers of ghee and (some) of Soma juice; some drank fat. They were huge-bodied and blue-black-necked and of fierce fury. They were equipped with quivers, bows, swords and leather-shields. Some were seated, some were running, some were yawning and some occupying seats. Some were teaching the Vedas; some performing Japa, practising Yoga and some studying the Vedas. Some were blazing, some showering, some shining, while some were smoking. Some were awake (enlightened), some the most enlightened, some established in Brahman and some of auspicious vision. All of them were blue-necked, thousand-eyed and nocturnal wanderers. They were invisible to all beings. They were great yogins of brilliant splendour. Some were shouting and running. Rudra created thousands of excellent gods resembling himself (Rudra) within the period of Yama (three hours).
52On seeing them, Brahma said, “Do not create progeny like these. Beings equal or superior to yourself, should not be created by you. Create other offsprings. Prosperity be unto you. I am staying here (by you). You create the offsprings.”
53-54(Siva replied), “These hideous reddish blue beings created by me in thousands and thousands are definitely comparable to myself. These gods will become Rudras of great strength. They will be known on the earth and in the sky by the name Rudra.
55These called Satarudra in the Veda will be worthy of sacrifices and will partake of sacrificial shares with the groups of gods.
56They will stay till the period of dissolution, being worshipped with those Devas born of the Chandas (Vedas) in all the Manvantara ages.”
57Thus addressed by the intelligent Lord Siva, the Patriarch Brahma, replied joyfully to the terrible Rudra:
58“O Lord, let it be as it is spoken by you. Welfare unto you.” When so assented by Brahma, everything happened accordingly.
59Thenceforth, the lord did not create offsprings. He stood with sublimated sexual virility till the final dissolution of living beings. Since he said, “I am staying”, he is known as ‘‘Sthanu”.
60The following ten qualities are ever present in Sankara. They are knowledge, non-attachment, glorious prosperity, penance, truth, forbearance, firmness, creativity, self-comprehension, dominance.
61By means of his brilliance the lord surpasses all the Devas, sages and Asuras. So, he is known as Mahadeva.
62He excels Devas by his glorious prosperity; Asuras by his strength; the sages by his knowledge; and all the Bhutas by his Yoga.
63The sages said: O noble sage, explain to us the nature of the Yoga, penance, truth, virtue and the means of perfect knowledge of the great lord.
64We wish to hear completely all the different Dharmas comprising the Yoga of Mahesvara whereby the twice-born ones will attain Moksa.
65Vayu narrated: Five Dharmas have been proclaimed by Rudra in the Puranas. They are called Mahesvarya (Yoga of Mahesvara) by the Rudras of unimpaired activities.
66-67These Dharmas are practised by Adityas, Vasus, Sadhyas, and Asvins, so also by all Maruts, Bhrigus, heavendwellers of whom Yama, Indra are prominent and by Pitris, Kala, Mrityu and many others.
68The groups of sages, pure as the sky in the autumn, with all their Karmans exhausted, practise these after uniting the (individual) self with the (cosmic) self.
69Engaged in what is wholesome and pleasing to the preceptors, and desirous of achieving what is pleasing to their preceptor, they sport about like Devas, after giving up (i.e. completing their span of) human life.
70-71Please know in the serial order as they are being narrated, the five eternal Dharmas ordained by the great lord. These are: Pranayama (Restraining of the breath), Dhyana (Meditation), Pratyahara (Withdrawal of the sense-organs), Dharana (Steady abstration of the mind) and Smarana (recollection).
72I shall expound, in their particular order, their characteristics, causes and principles as explained by Rudra.
73The restraining of the speed (span?) of vital breath is also called Pranayama. It is of three kinds: Manda (slow), Madhya (middling) and Uttama (excellent).
74Controlling the vital breath is termed Pranayama. The standard span of Pranayama is twelve matras (matra = time required to pronounce a short vowel).
75The Manda Pranayama has one stroke of twelve moments. The Madhya Pranayama has two strokes and has the span of twenty-four matras.
76The Uttama Pranayama has three strokes and the matras are thirty-six. This excellent Pranayama produces sweat, shivering, languor and exhaustion.
77Thus the three characteristics of Pranayama have been explained. Now listen to their span and other characteristics briefly.
78A lion or an elephant or any other wild animal of the forest on being captured and tamed becomes mild and quiet.
79Similarly though the vital breath is difficult to be controlled in case of non-self-possessed persons, it can be controlled by practice of Yoga if done regularly.
80-81Just as a (captured) lion or an elephant becomes powerless and tamed by disciplining and lapse of time, similarly by placing the mind with the Manda (slow) type of Pranayama, it comes under control. Similarly, the wind (life-breath) lives by being placed under mind-god (?).
82Just as the life-breath comes under control by resorting to Yoga, similarly he can take the life-breath wherever he pleases.
83Just as a lion or elephant which comes under control provides protection to men from other animals;
84Just as (so?) the wind which blows in all directions, if controlled within the body by meditation, destroys all sins in the body.
85All the blemishes of the Brahmana who is self-controlled and engaged in Pranayama perish. He becomes stable in the Sattva Guna.
86Pranayama is equal to all the penances performed and performance of (all) holy rites and observances, and the fruits accorded by all sacrifices.
87Pranayama is equal to the penance and observance of the holy rite of drinking a drop of water from the tip of Kusa grass once in a month and continuing it for a hundred years.
88One should burn off defects of the body through Pranayama sins through Dharana9 the sensual objects through Pratyahara and ungodly qualities through Dhyana.
89Therefore, a practising Yogin should always be engaged in Pranayama. After purifying himself of all sins, he will attain the supreme Brahman.