Pasupata Yoga ||11||
1-2Vayu said: Sages of noble souls observe with divine vision and worship the vital breath (Prana) by establishing themselves in penance, whether it be for a great day or a day and night or a fortnight, or a month or six months or a year or a Yuga or thousands of great Yugas.
3Henceforth, I shall explain the purpose and particularly the benefit of Pranayama as expounded by the Lord.
4Know that the objectives of Pranayama are four: Santi, Pratanti, Prasada and Dipti (each term is explained in the following verses).
5Actions whether terrible in form or auspicious in nature, if performed by oneself, do bear fruits here and hereafter in due course.
6But the quelling of evils and sins committed by parents, cousins or other relatives or a mixture of both is called Santi.
7The restraint of sins arising from covetousness is called Prasanti. It is a form of penance that benefits both here and hereafter.
8Sages richly endowed with knowledge and perfect wisdom can reach the world of the sun, moon, planets and stars.
9To the enlightened, the vision of the past, present and future is possible. It is called Dipti. It is also a penance.
10Prasada is that which sublimates the five sense organs, their objects, the mind and the five vital breaths.
11Thus the fourfold Pranayama is the first Dharma. It should be known that it gives immediate fruit and results forthwith in composure (of mind).
12Henceforth I shall explain the characteristics of Pranayama, the posture and the practice of Yoga precisely.
13-18One should utter the syllable Om at the outset and bow to the moon or the sun. Then he should sit in the postures of Svastika or Ardhapadma. The two knees shall be level with each other, or one knee should be slightly raised. He should sit comfortably with firmness. The feet shall be brought closer. The mouth should be kept closed, the eyes half-closed, the chest raised forward. With the heels he should cover the scrotum and the penis; the head should be slightly raised; the neck be straightened. He should fix his gaze on the tip of his nose and should not look elsewhere in any direction. He should cover Tamas by Rajas which he should envelop by Sattva. Then he should remain established in Sattva and practise Yoga with pure mind. He should then hold (control) the aggregate of his sense-organs and their objects, his mind and the five vital breaths. He shall then begin Pratyahara (withdrawing in himself these together).
19-22He who withdraws his passion and desires as the tortoise does its limbs, becomes delighted in the self. Fixed (established) in it, he sees the Self in his self. Filling the body with air and remaining pure within and without, he shall begin the withdrawal by the process of Yoga from the navel to the throat. One winking (closing and opening of eyelids) is the period called Kala. The Pranayama shall be held for twelve matras: Dharana cansists of 12 Pranayamas, Yoga is 2 Dharanas, A person thus practising Yoga attains prosperity. He sees the great Self shining in his own splendour.
23All the defects (sins) of the Brahmana who is engaged in (i.e. practices) Pranayama and is self-controled are destroyed and he becomes established in Sattva.
24Thus, with due restriction in the diet a sage (observing silence) engaged in Pranayama, shall conquer Yogic stages and ascend higher and higher.
25The great ground (i.e. stage) if not subdued (overcome) may generate many defects. It may increase delusion. Hence one cannot go to a higher stage unless the initial stage is overcome.
26Just as water is taken up by applying force through a pipe or mechanical device, so also the Yogin should drink in the wind with effort but conquering (without incurring) exhaustion.
27-28The wind shall be retained gradually in the umbilicus, in the heart, in the chest, in the throat, in the mouth, at the tip of the nose, in the eye, between the eyebrows and in the head. The retention of the breath a little above in the great lord is called Dharana, Since both the Prana and Apana are obstructed, it is called Pranayama.
29It is the steadying of the mind that is called Dharana, the withdrawal from the sense-objects is Pratyahara.
30When all these are combined together, accomplishment of Yoga or Siddhi takes place. The achievement is the characteristic sign of Yogic meditation. Endowed with meditation, the Yogi sees his own self as the sun and the moon.
31If Sattva is not accomplished, the vision is not possible. If the Yoga is practised in a defective place or at the wrong time, the vision is not possible.
32-34A Yogi should not practice concentration near fire, in the forest, over a heap of dry leaves, in a place infested with low creatures (or a crowded place), in a cremation ground, in a dilapidated cowshed, at the cross-roads (where four ways meet), in a noisy or terrifying place, near a tomb (or a Buddhist or Jain shrine) or a place full of ant-hills, near a well or a river, for these are places of disturbance. Nor should he do so when overwhelmed with hunger, displeasure or excitement. He should however practice Yoga diligently and with concentration.
35In spite of knowing decisively these faults, if a person inadvertently engages in the practice of Yoga, the three humours in his body become deranged and put up obstacles in his path.
36He develops sluggishness, deafness, muteness, blindness, loss of memory, old age and sickness.
37The bodily humours of a person practising Yoga ignorantly, become virulent. Hence a Yogin should practise Yoga with pure knowledge of the mind and body.
38If he is alert and careful in the practice of Yoga, he will not suffer from any defects. I shall explain the remedy for the defects originating from the wrong performance of Pranayama.
39The enlargement of the spleen (due to the derangement of the wind humour) calms down, if the patient drinks thick, sticky gruel (while it is) very hot.
40-42The following is the treatment for constipation. After taking in curds or gruel, the vital breath will go up. Then the ‘wind knot’ (a lump caused by the disturbance of the wind in the body) shall be broken up and the vital breath made to circulate in its own place. Still, if there is no improvement, the Dharana should be practised in the head. The practitioner of Yoga shall retain the body in the Sattva alone. For dispelling (curing) constipation this remedy should be followed.
43At the beginning of Yogic practice if there is shaking of limbs, this treatment shall be followed. This will give him relief.
44He shall fix firmly something in the mind and hold on to it as though observing some holy rite. If there is palpitation of the heart, the vital breath shall be retained in the cardiac region and near the throat.
45If there is obstruction to speech, the vital breath should be retained in the organ of speech; in deafness it shall be retained in the ears. In affliction by thirst, he shall (apply) oil or ghee to the tip of the tongue by means of threads. Concentrating thus on the effect of the treatment, a Yogin achieves happiness.
46-49In the state of consumption and leprosy, the Sattvika breath shall be centred on the parts affected. If a part is affected by Rajas, the Yoga shall be practised with respect to that particular part. If a Brahmana practising Yoga, suffers from illness the following treatment should be pursued. His head shall be beaten with a wedge of bamboo or the wedge shall be placed on his head and beaten with a wooden stick. Thus, overwhelmed by fear, he will regain consciousness. Or if he has lost consciousness he can be held with hands. After regaining consciousness, he should retain Dharana in the head. He shall eat oily substance yet in small quantity. Thus, the Yogin becomes happy.
50When he is possessed by a non-human being, he should perform the Dharana of heaven, earth, wind and fire.
51Being burnt by Pranayama everything comes under control. Still if it enters the body, he should ward it off.
52Then after stupefying it with one’s Yogic power, the fire of Pranayama be burnt over its head and it is completely perished.
53The faults of the black serpent (i.e. ignorance) should be retained in the cavity of the heart. After keeping the worlds Mahar, Jana, Tapas and Satya in the heart, he should perform Dharana.
54Drinking the fruit of the poison, he shall retain it but make it ineffective. He should perform Dharana conceiving in his mind the whole earth along with the mountains all round.
55After placing the oceans in the heart and remembering the deities therein, he should bathe with a thousand vessels.
56With waters up to the neck, Dharana shall be fixed on the head. When afflicted by the back-current of poison, he shall perform Dharana over all the parts of his body.
57He shall drink in the clay from the anthill with the cups of the withered fallen leaves of the Arka plant. This Yogic mode of treatment is well known in the world.
58It has been explained briefly in the manner found among the topics of Yoga. You should know the suitable traits of the Brahmana before you shall reveal it.
59If it is revealed out of delusion to an undeserving person, the instruction proves fruitless. Hence the practice of Yoga shall not be mentioned to anybody (who is undeserving).
60Strength, health, indifference to sensual objects, lustrous complexion, good and gentle voice, auspicious smell and less quantity of urine and faeces. These are primary signs of progress in Yoga in the body.
61If he sees himself and the earth blazing and one entering the other, he should know that the time of accomplishment of Yoga has approached.